2010 United States Census
|Regions with significant populations|
|Puerto Rico (2013)||3,466,804|
|United States (2015)||5,372,759|
|U.S. Virgin Islands (2010)||10,981|
|Dominican Republic (2010)||5,763|
|United Kingdom (2001)||306|
|Costa Rica (2000)||268|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Africans · Amerindians · Chinese · Corsican · Criollos · French · German · Irish · Italian · Jewish · Maltese · Mestizos · Mulattos · Spanish · Portuguese|
Puerto Ricans (Spanish: Puertorriqueños; or boricuas) are the inhabitants or citizens of Puerto Rico. It is home to people of many different national origins and equate their nationality with citizenship, allegiance and culture.
The culture held in common by most Puerto Ricans is referred to as mainstream Puerto Rican culture, a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of Spain, and more specifically Andalusia and the Canary Islands. Over 90% of Puerto Ricans descend from migrants from these two southern regions of Spain. Puerto Rico has also been influenced by African culture, Afro-Puerto Ricans being a significant minority. Puerto Rico has also received immigration from other parts of Spain such as Catalonia as well as from other European countries such as France, Ireland, Italy and Germany. Recent studies in population genetics have concluded that Puerto Rican gene pool is on average predominantly European, with a significant Sub-Saharan African, Guanche and Indigenous American substrate, the latter two originating in the aboriginal people of the Canary Islands and Puerto Rico's pre-Hispanic Taíno inhabitants, respectively.  H
The population of Puerto Ricans and descendants is estimated to be between 8 and 10 million worldwide, with most living within the islands of Puerto Rico and in the United States mainland. Within the United States, Puerto Ricans are present in all states of the Union, and the states with the largest populations of Puerto Ricans relative to the national population of Puerto Ricans in the United States at large are the states of New York, Florida, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, with large populations also in Massachusetts, Connecticut, California, Illinois, and Texas.
For 2009, the American Community Survey estimates give a total of 3,859,026 Puerto Ricans classified as "Native" Puerto Ricans. It also gives a total of 3,644,515 (91.9%) of the population being born in Puerto Rico and 201,310 (5.1%) born in the United States. The total population born outside Puerto Rico is 322,773 (8.1%). Of the 108,262 who were foreign born outside the United States (2.7% of Puerto Ricans), 92.9% were born in Latin America, 3.8% in Europe, 2.7% in Asia, 0.2% in Northern America, and 0.1% in Africa and Oceania each.
Number of Puerto Ricans
|Racial and Ethnic Composition in Puerto Rico - 2010|
|Black or African American (461,498)||12.4%|
|Two or more races (122,246)||3.3%|
|American Indian (19,839)||0.5%|
|Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (370)||0.1%|
|Other races (289,905)||7.8%|
Population 1765 - 1897
The populations during Spanish rule of Puerto Rico were:
|Ethnic composition of Puerto Rico 1765 - 1897|
| Other (incl: African, |
|Puerto Rico||44,833||100.0%||Puerto Rico||163,192||100.0%||Puerto Rico||890,911||100.0%|
|1765 Census. (First census) 1802 Census. 1897 Census ^1 Indigenous: Taino people, Also Arawak people.^2 : Slave population.|
The original inhabitants of Puerto Rico are the Taíno, who called the island Borikén; however, as in other parts of the Americas, the native people soon diminished in number after the arrival of European settlers. Besides miscegenation, the negative impact on the numbers of Amerindian people, especially in Puerto Rico, was almost entirely the result of Old World diseases that the Amerindians had no natural/bodily defenses against, including measles, chicken pox, mumps, influenza, and even the common cold. In fact, it was estimated that the majority of all the Amerindian inhabitants of the New World perished due to contact and contamination with those Old World diseases, while those that survived were further reduced through deaths by warfare with each other and with Europeans.
Both run-away and freed African slaves (the Spanish, upon establishing a foothold, quickly began to import African slaves to work in expanding their colonies in the Caribbean) were in Puerto Rico. This interbreeding was far more common in Latin America because of those Spanish and Portuguese mercantile colonial policies exemplified by the oft-romanticized male conquistadors (e.g. Hernán Cortés). Aside from the presence of slaves, some indication for why the Amerindian population was so diluted was the tendency for conquistadors to bring with them scores of single men hoping to serve God, country, or their own interests. All of these factors would indeed prove detrimental for the Taínos in Puerto Rico and surrounding Caribbean islands.
In the 16th century, a significant depth of Puerto Rican culture began to develop with the import of African slaves by the Spanish, as well as by the French, the Portuguese, the British, and the Dutch. Thousands of Spanish settlers also immigrated to Puerto Rico from the Canary Islands during the 18th and 19th centuries, so many so that whole Puerto Rican villages and towns were founded by Canarian immigrants, and their descendants would later form a majority of the population on the island.
In 1791, the slaves in Saint-Domingue (Haiti), revolted against their French masters. Many of the French escaped to Puerto Rico via what is now the Dominican Republic and settled in the west coast of the island, especially in Mayagüez. Some Puerto Ricans are of British heritage, most notably Scottish people and English people who came to reside there in the 17th and 18th centuries.
When Spain revived the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815 with the intention of attracting non-Hispanics to settle in the island hundreds of French (especially Corsicans), Germans and Irish immigrants who were affected by Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s immigrated to Puerto Rico. They were followed by smaller waves from other European countries and China.
During the early 20th century Jews began to settle in Puerto Rico. The first large group of Jews to settle in Puerto Rico were European refugees fleeing German–occupied Europe in the 1930s and 1940s. The second influx of Jews to the island came in the 1950s, when thousands of Cuban Jews fled after Fidel Castro came to power.
The native Taino population began to dwindle, with the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, through disease and miscegenation. Many Spaniard men took Taino and West African wives and in the first centuries of the Spanish colonial period the island was overwhelmingly racially mixed. However, under Spanish rule, mass immigration shifted the ethnic make-up of the island, as a result of the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815. Puerto Rico went from being two-thirds black and mulatto in the beginning of the 19th century, to being nearly 80% white by the middle of the 20th century. This was compounded by more flexible attitudes to race under Spanish rule, as epitomized by the Regla del Sacar laws. Under Spanish rule, Puerto Rico had laws such as Regla del Sacar or Gracias al Sacar, which made persons of mixed African-European ancestry to be classified as white, which was the opposite of "one-drop rule" in US society after the American Civil War.
Studies have shown that the ancestry of the average Puerto Rican (including all races) is about 64% Eurasian, 21% West and North African (including Canary Islander Guanche), and 15% Taino/Amerindian, with Eurasian ancestry strongest on the west side of the island and West African ancestry strongest on the east side, and consistent levels of Taino ancestry throughout the island.
A study of a sample of 96 healthy self-identified White Puerto Ricans and self-identified Black Puerto Ricans in the U.S. showed that, although all carried a contribution from all 3 ancestral populations (European, African, and Amerindian), the proportions showed significant variation. Depending on individuals, although often correlating with their self-identified race, African ancestry ranged from less than 10% to over 50%, while European ancestry ranged from under 20% to over 80%. Amerindian ancestry showed less fluctuation, generally hovering between 5% and 20% irrespective of self-identified race.
In 1899, one year after the U.S invaded and took control of the island, 61.8% of the people self-identified as White. In the 2010 United States Census the total of Puerto Ricans that self-identified as White was 75.8%. Whites constitute the majority of the 3,725,789 people living in Puerto Rico, with 2,825,100 or 75.8% of the population in the 2010 United States Census, down from 80.5% in the 2000 Census.
The European ancestry of Puerto Ricans comes primarily from one source: Spaniards (including Canarians, Catalans, Castilians, Galicians, Asturians, Andalusians, and Basques). The Canarian cultural influence in Puerto Rico is one of the most important components in which many villages were founded from these immigrants, which started from 1493 to 1890 and beyond. Many Spaniards, especially Canarians, chose Puerto Rico because of its Hispanic ties and relative proximity in comparison with other former Spanish colonies. They searched for security and stability in an environment similar to that of the Canary Islands and Puerto Rico was the most suitable. This began as a temporary exile which became a permanent relocation and the last significant wave of Spanish or European migration to Puerto Rico.
Other sources of European populations are Corsicans, French, Italians, Portuguese (especially Azoreans), Greeks, Germans, Irish, Scots, Maltese, Dutch, English, Danes, and Jews.
In the 2010 United States Census, 12.4% of people self-identified as Black. African immigrants were brought by Spanish Conquistadors. The vast majority of the Africans who were brought to Puerto Rico did so as a result of the slave trade taking place from many groups in the African continent, but particularly the West Africans, the Yoruba, the Igbo, and the Kongo people.
Amerindians and Mestizos are those who have a pure Amerindian descent or mixed ancestry between Europeans and Amerindians within the Puerto Rican context discarding the other definitions that this term may be used for under other settings. Amerindians make up the third largest racial identity among Puerto Ricans comprising 0.5% of the population. although this self-identification may be political in nature since native Tainos no longer exist as an ethnic group.
For its 2010 census, the U.S. Census Bureau listed the following groups to constitute "Asian": Asian Indian, Bangladeshi, Bhutanese, Cambodian, Chinese, Filipino, Hmong, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, Laotian, Malaysian, Nepalese, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Taiwanese, Thai, Vietnamese, and Other Asian. Though, the largest groups come from China and India. These groups represented 0.2% of the population.
People of "Some other race alone" or "Two or more races" constituted 11.1% of the population in the 2010 Census.
Although most Puerto Ricans are mixed-race, few actually identify as multiracial, instead self-identifying with their predominant heritage or phenotype. Most have significant ancestry from two or more of the founding source populations of Spaniards, Africans, and Tainos, although Spanish ancestry is predominant in a majority of the population.
Very few self-identified white Puerto Ricans are of unmixed European ancestry. In genetic terms, even many of those of pure Spanish origin may have North and West African ancestry brought from founder populations originating in the Canary Islands. Very few self-identified Black Puerto Ricans are of unmixed African ancestry, while a genetically unmixed Amerindian population in Puerto Rico is technically extinct despite a minuscule segment of self-identified Amerindian Puerto Ricans due to a predominant Amerindian component in their ancestral mixture.
The Puerto Rico of today has come to form some of its own social customs, cultural matrix, historically rooted traditions, and its own unique pronunciation, vocabulary, and idiomatic expressions within the Spanish language. Even after the attempted assimilation of Puerto Rico into the United States in the early 20th century, the majority of the people of Puerto Rico feel pride in their nationality as "Puerto Ricans", regardless of the individual's particular racial, ethnic, political, or economic background. Many Puerto Ricans are consciously aware of the rich contribution of all cultures represented on the island. This diversity can be seen in the everyday lifestyle of many Puerto Ricans such as the profound Latin, African, and Taíno influences regarding food, music, dance, and architecture.
The official languages of the executive branch of government of Puerto Rico are Spanish and English, with Spanish being the primary language. Spanish is, and has been, the only official language of the entire Commonwealth judiciary system, despite a 1902 English-only language law. All official business of the U.S. District Court for the District of Puerto Rico is conducted in English. English is spoken by a small minority – less than 10% of the population. Spanish is the dominant language of business, education and daily life on the island, spoken by over 95% of the population.
Public school instruction in Puerto Rico is conducted almost entirely in Spanish. There are pilot programs in about a dozen of the over 1,400 public schools aimed at conducting instruction in English only. English is taught as a second language and is a compulsory subject from elementary levels to high school. The languages of the deaf community are American Sign Language and its local variant, Puerto Rican Sign Language.
The Spanish of Puerto Rico has evolved into having many idiosyncrasies in vocabulary and syntax that differentiate it from the Spanish spoken elsewhere. While the Spanish spoken in all Iberian, Mediterranean and Atlantic Spanish Maritime Provinces was brought to the island over the centuries, the most profound regional influence on the Spanish spoken in Puerto Rico has been from that spoken in the present-day Canary Islands. The Spanish of Puerto Rico also includes occasional Taíno words, typically in the context of vegetation, natural phenomena or primitive musical instruments. Similarly, words attributed to primarily West African languages were adopted in the contexts of foods, music or dances, particularly in coastal towns with concentrations of descendants of Sub-Saharan Africans.
As of 2007, the American Community Survey states that 95.1% of island residents speak Spanish and 81.5% of Puerto Ricans speak English less than "very well". 4.7% of people on the island speak English only.
There are many religious beliefs represented in the island. Religious breakdown in Puerto Rico (2006):
|Religion||Adherents||% of Population|
The majority of Puerto Ricans are Christians, though there are present certain Jewish and Islamic sectors in the island. Roman Catholicism has been the main religion among Puerto Ricans since the arrival of the Spanish in the 15th century, but the presence of Protestant, Mormon, Pentecostal, and Jehovah's Witnesses denominations has increased under U.S. sovereignty, making modern Puerto Rico an inter-denominational, multireligious community. The Afro-Caribbean religion Santería is also practiced.
Puerto Ricans often proudly identify themselves as Boricua (formerly also spelled Boriquén, Borinquén, or Borinqueño), derived from the Taíno word Boriken, to illustrate their recognition of the island's Taíno heritage. The word Boriken translates to "the great land of the valiant and noble Lord". Borikén was used by the original Taíno population to refer to the island of Puerto Rico before the arrival of the Spanish. The use of the word Boricua has been popularized in the island and abroad by descendants of Puerto Rico heritage, commonly using the phrase yo soy Boricua ("I am Boricua") to identify themselves as Puerto Ricans. Other variations which are also widely used are Borinqueño and Borincano, meaning "from Borinquen". The first recorded use of the word Boricua comes from Christopher Columbus in his Letter to the Sovereigns of 4 March 1493.
Political and international status
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The federal Naturalization Act, signed into law on March 26, 1790 by George Washington, explicitly barred anyone not of the White "race" from applying for U.S. citizenship. This law remained in effect until the 1950s, although its enforcement was tightened in the late nineteenth century regarding Asian immigrants, and by the Johnson-Reed act of 1924 imposing immigration quotas. In short, until late in the twentieth century, only immigrants of the White "race" could hope to become naturalized citizens. The people of Puerto Rico were declared U.S. citizens in 1917.
Puerto Ricans became citizens of the United States as a result of the passage of the Jones-Shafroth Act of 1917. Since this law was the result of Congressional legislation, and not the result of an amendment to the United States Constitution, the current U.S. citizenship of Puerto Ricans can be revoked by Congress, as they are statutory citizens, not 14th Amendment citizens. The Jones Act established that Puerto Ricans born prior to 1899 were considered naturalized citizens of Puerto Rico, and anyone born after 1898 were U.S. citizens, unless the Puerto Rican expressed his/her intentions to remain a Spanish subject. Since 1948, it was decided by Congress that all Puerto Ricans, whether born within the United States or in Puerto Rico, were naturally born United States citizens.
Puerto Ricans and other U.S. citizens residing in Puerto Rico cannot vote in presidential elections as that is a right reserved by the U.S. Constitution to admitted states and the District of Columbia through the Electoral College system. Nevertheless, both the Democratic Party and Republican Party, while not fielding candidates for public office in Puerto Rico, provide the islands with state-sized voting delegations at their presidential nominating conventions. Delegate selection processes frequently have resulted in presidential primaries being held in Puerto Rico. U.S. Citizens residing in Puerto Rico do not elect U.S. Representatives or Senators, however, Puerto Rico is represented in the House of Representatives by an elected representative commonly known as the Resident Commissioner, who has the same duties and obligations as a representative, with the exception of being able to cast votes on the final disposition of legislation on the House floor. The Resident Commissioner is elected by Puerto Ricans to a four-year term and does serve on congressional committee. Puerto Ricans residing in the U.S. states have all rights and privileges of other U.S. citizens living in the states.
As statutory U.S. citizens, Puerto Ricans born in Puerto Rico may enlist in the U.S. military and have been included in the compulsory draft when it has been in effect. Puerto Ricans have fully participated in all U.S. wars and military conflicts since 1898, such as World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Gulf War, and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Since 2007, the Puerto Rico State Department has developed a protocol to issue certificates of Puerto Rican citizenship to Puerto Ricans. In order to be eligible, applicants must have been born in Puerto Rico; born outside of Puerto Rico to a Puerto Rican-born parent; or be an American citizen with at least one year residence in Puerto Rico. The citizenship is internationally recognized by Spain, which considers Puerto Rico to be an Ibero-American nation. Therefore, Puerto Rican citizens have the ability to apply for Spanish citizenship after only two years residency in Spain (instead of the standard 10 years).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Puerto Rican people.|
- List of Puerto Ricans
- Puerto Rican citizenship
- Puerto Rican migration to New York
- Puerto Ricans in the United States
- Military history of Puerto Rico
- History of Puerto Rico
- Demographics of Puerto Rico
- List of Stateside Puerto Ricans
- List of Puerto Rican Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients
- List of Puerto Rican Presidential Citizens Medal recipients
- History of women in Puerto Rico
- ↑ "U.S. Census Bureau Announces 2010 Census Population Counts – Apportionment Counts Delivered to President" (Press release). United States Census Bureau. December 21, 2010. Archived from the original on December 24, 2010. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
- ↑ Welcome to QuickFacts: Puerto Rico www.census.gov
- ↑ "Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010". Factfinder2.census.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- ↑ "ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates 2013". Factfinder2.census.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- ↑ US Census Bureau 2015 American Community Survey B03001 1-Year Estimates HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN retrieved September 22, 2016.
- ↑ Kossler, Bill (February 5, 2013). "U.S. Census Shows V.I. Aging, Growing More Hispanic". St. Thomas Source. Retrieved November 12, 2013.
- ↑ "IX Censo Nacional de Poblacion y Vivenda 2010" (PDF). Web.archive.org. p. 101. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2013. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- ↑ "2011 Census of Canada: Topic-based tabulations". 2.statcan.ca. 2011-04-02. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
- ↑ "Los Extranjeros en Mexico" (PDF). Inegi.gob.mx. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- 1 2 Archived June 27, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
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- ↑ Archived March 14, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- ↑ "Census data homepage". Censusdata.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- ↑ Estudio del genoma Taíno y Guanche
- ↑ "Your Regional Ancestry: Reference Populations". The Genographic Project.
- ↑ Tang, Hua; Choudhry, Shweta; Mei, Rui; Morgan, Martin; Rodríguez-Clintron, William; González Burchard, Esteban; Risch, Neil (August 1, 2007). "Recent Genetic Selection in the Ancestral Admixture of Puerto Ricans". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 81 (3): 626–633. doi:10.1086/520769.
- ↑ Via, Mark; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Roth, Lindsey; Fejerman, Laura; Galander, Joshua; Choudhry, Shweta; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Viera-Vera, Jorge; Oleksyk, Taras K.; Beckman, Kenneth; Ziv, Elad; Risch, Neil; González Burchard, Esteban; Nartínez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos (2011). "History Shaped the Geographic Distribution of Genomic Admixture on the Island of Puerto Rico". PLoS ONE. 6 (1): e16513. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016513. PMC 3031579. PMID 21304981.
- ↑ "2010 Census". Medgar Evers College. Retrieved 2010-04-13.
- ↑ US Census Bureau: Table QT-P10 Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010 Retrieved 25 March 2012 - select state from drop-down menu
- ↑ Archived May 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- ↑ Archived June 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- ↑ "2010 Census: Puerto Rico Profile" (PDF). Retrieved June 26, 2014.
- ↑ A Population History of North America By Michael R. Haines, Richard H. Steckel
- 1 2 HISTORIA DE PUERTO RICO Page 17.
- ↑ An Account of the Present State of the Island of Puerto Rico By George D. Flinter (Page: 206)
- ↑ Report on the census of Porto Rico, 1899 Census of "Porto Rico" (Old Spelling) Page 57.
- ↑ "Puerto Rico Virtual Jewish History Tour". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- ↑ Documenting the Myth of Taino Extinction. Dr. Lynne Guitar. KACIKE: Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology. Archived June 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
- 1 2 Puerto Rico's History on race
- ↑ Representation of racial identity among Puerto Ricans and in the u.s. mainland
- ↑ CIA World Factbook Retrieved June 8, 2009.
- ↑ 2010.census.gov Archived July 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- ↑ Puerto Rico's Historical Demographics Retrieved November 10, 2011.
- ↑ Falcón in Falcón, Haslip-Viera and Matos-Rodríguez 2004: Ch. 6
- ↑ Jay Kinsbruner, Puerto Rico's Mulattoes, University Press Preview
- ↑ http://m.livescience.com/37624-mapping-puerto-rican-heritage.html
- ↑ http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/cde/demsem/loveman-muniz.pdf
- ↑ https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/reference-populations/
- ↑ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1449501/
- 1 2 3 4 "2010.census.gov". Archived from the original on 2011-07-06.
- ↑ Archived June 28, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- ↑ "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- ↑ "MANUEL MORA MORALES: Canarios en Puerto Rico. CANARIAS EMIGRACIÓN". YouTube. 2008-01-20. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- ↑ "The Spanish Of The Canary Islands". Personal.psu.edu. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- 1 2 Lipski, John M. (2005). A History of Afro-Hispanic Language: Five Centuries, Five Continents. middle of second paragraph under 'Africans in Puerto Rico': by Cambridge University Press. p. 115. ISBN 0-521-82265-3.
- ↑ Archived September 12, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- ↑ 2010 Census Data - 2010 Census: 2010 Census Results, Puerto Rico. U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- ↑ Fregel R, Pestano J, Arnay M, Cabrera VM, Larruga JM, González AM (October 2009). "The maternal aborigine colonization of La Palma (Canary Islands)". European Journal of Human Genetics. 17 (10): 1314–24. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.46. PMC 2986650. PMID 19337312.
- ↑ "Official Language," Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language, Ed. Tom McArthur, Oxford University Press, 1998.
- ↑ Pueblo v. Tribunal Superior, 92 D.P.R. 596 (1965). Translation taken from the English text, 92 P.R.R. 580 (1965), p. 588-589. See also LOPEZ-BARALT NEGRON, "Pueblo v. Tribunal Superior: Espanol: Idioma del proceso judicial," 36 Revista Juridica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico. 396 (1967), and VIENTOS-GASTON, "Informe del Procurador General sobre el idioma," 36 Rev. Col. Ab. (P.R.) 843 (1975).
- ↑ The Status of Languages in Puerto Rico. Muniz-Arguelles, Luis. University of Puerto Rico. 1986. Page 466. Retrieved December 4, 2012.
- ↑ "U.S. Census Annual Population Estimates 2007". Factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on May 16, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- ↑ Puerto Rico Governor Luis Fortuño Proposes Plan For Island's Public Schools To Teach In English Instead Of Spanish. Danica Coto. Huffington Latino Voices. 05/08/12 (May 8, 2012). Retrieved December 4, 2012.
- ↑ Archived May 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- ↑ Religions Retrieved June 9, 2009. Archived November 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- ↑ Advance in the Antilles: the new era in Cuba and Porto Rico - Howard Benjamin Grose. Books.google.com. 1910. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- ↑ "Between the islands of Cardo and Española there is another island they call Borinque, all of it is short distance form the other region of the island of Juana that they call Cuba" (Letter to the Sovereigns, trans. Margarita Zamora, New World Encounters, University of California Press, 1993). Another early reference can be found in Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés' 1535 Historia general y natural de las Indias. The full text of Gonzalo's book, including references to Boriquen, may be read in Spanish online at a page maintained by University College London. Ems.kcl.ac.uk
- ↑ "The Vision of a White, English-Speaking America". Law.fsu.edu. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- ↑ Archived April 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- ↑ Report By the President's Task Force On Puerto Rico's Status. The White House. Washington, D.C. Appendix E. December 2005. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- ↑ Latino/a Thought: Culture, Politics, and Society. Francisco H. Vazquez. Page 372. Lanham, Md: Rowman Littlefield Publishers. 2009. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- "Adiós, Borinquen querida": The Puerto Rican Diaspora, Its History, and Contributions, by Edna Acosta-Belen, et al. (Albany, New York: Center for Latino, Latin American, and Caribbean Studies, SUNY-Albany, 2000)
- "Orgullo Boricua," WAPA TV Program -- http://www.wapa.tv/noticias/especiales/orgullo-boricua--giannina-braschi_20111205213641.html
- Boricua Hawaiiana: Puerto Ricans of Hawaii --- Reflections of the Past and Mirrors of the Future, by Blase Camacho Souza (Honolulu: Puerto Rican Heritage Society of Hawaii, 1982)
- Boricua Literature: A Literary History of the Puerto Rican Diaspora, by Lisa Sénchez González (New York: New York University Press, 2001)
- Boricua Pop: Puerto Ricans and the Latinization of American Culture, by Frances Negrón-Muntaner (New York: New York University Press, 2004)
- Yo soy Boricua in "United States of Banana, by Giannina Braschi (AmazonCrossing, 2011)
- Boricuas: Influential Puerto Rican Writings, by Roberto Santiago (New York: One World, 1995)
- Boricuas in Gotham: Puerto Ricans in the Making of Modern New York City, edited by Gabriel Haslip-Viera, Angelo Falcón and Félix Matos Rodríguez (Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2004)
- Taino-tribe.org, PR Taíno DNA study