Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea

Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
대한민국 임시정부
Government in exile
Flag Seal of the Republic
"대한독립만세!" (Korean)
"Long Live Korean Independence!"
Capital Hanseong 19451948 (de jure)
Capital-in-exile Shanghai 1919-1941
Chongqing 1941-1945
Languages Korean
Government Presidential (19191925)
Parliamentary (19251940)
Presidential (19401948)
(All 3 Formed a Provisional Government)
   19191925 Syngman Rhee
Yi Dongnyeong
Kim Gu
Prime Minister
  19191921 Yi Donghwi
  19241925 Park Eunsik
  19441945 Kim Kyu-sik
Historical era Early 20th century
  Nationwide civil resistance 1 March 1919
   Constitution 11 April 1919
  Government proclaimed 13 April 1919
  Hongkou Park Incident 29 April 1932
  War declared 10 December 1941
  Surrender of the Empire of Japan 15 August 1945
   Republic of Korea established 15 August 1948
Currency Won
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Korean Empire
First Republic of South Korea
Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
Hangul 대한민국임시정부
Hanja 大韓民國臨時政府
Revised Romanization Daehanmin(-)guk Imsijeongbu
McCune–Reischauer Taehanmin'guk Imsijŏngbu

The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was a partially recognized Korean government-in-exile, based in Shanghai, China, and later in Chongqing (then spelt Chungking), during the Japanese Korean period.


The government was formed on April 13, 1919, shortly after the March 1st movement of the same year during the Imperial Japanese colonial rule of the Korean peninsula.[2]

The government did not gain formal recognition from world powers, though a modest form of recognition was given from the Nationalist Government of China and a number of other governments, most of whom were in exile themselves.

The government resisted the colonial rule of Korea that lasted from 1910 to 1945. They coordinated the armed resistance against the Japanese imperial army during the 1920s and 1930s, including the Battle of Chingshanli in October 1920 and the assault on Japanese military leadership in Shanghai in April 1932.

This struggle culminated in the formation of Korean Liberation Army in 1940, bringing together many if not all Korean resistance groups in exile. The government duly declared war against the Axis powers Japan and Germany on December 9, 1941, and the Liberation Army took part in allied action in China and parts of Southeast Asia.

During World War II, the Korean Liberation Army was preparing an assault against the Imperial Japanese forces in Korea in conjunction with American Office of Strategic Services, but the Japanese surrender prevented the execution of the plan. The government's goal was achieved with Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945, but they were not approved by other governments as a member of allied nations, who signed peace treaty with Japan in San Francisco.

The sites of the Provisional Government in Shanghai and Chongqing (Chungking) have been preserved as museums.

List of presidents

See also


  2. Sources of Korean Tradition, vol. 2, From the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Centuries, edited by Yŏngho Ch'oe, Peter H. Lee, and Wm. Theodore de Bary, Introduction to Asian Civilizations (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 336.
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