Proto-Iranian language

Proto-Iranian, or Proto-Iranic,[1] is the reconstructed proto-language of the Iranian languages branch of Indo-European language family and thus the ancestor of the Iranian languages such as Persian, Sogdian, Zazaki, Ossetian, Mazandarani, Kurdish and others. Its speakers, the hypothetical Proto-Iranians, are assumed to have lived in the early 2nd millennium BC, and they are usually connected with the Proto-Indo-Iranians and early Andronovo archaeological horizon.

Proto-Iranian was a satem language descended from the Proto-Indo-Iranian language, which, in turn, came from the Proto-Indo-European language. It was likely removed less than a millennium from the Avestan language, and less than two millennia from Proto-Indo-European.

Phonological correspondences

*p p *ph?ater "father" pitar- "father"
*bʱ b *réhater "brother" bratar- "brother
*t t *tuhxóm "thou" tvm "thou"
*d d *doru "wood" dar- "wood"
*dʱ d *ohxneha- "grain" dana- "grain"
*kʲ s *m? "ten" dasa "ten"
*gʲ z *ónu "knee" zanu- "knee"
*gʱʲ z *gʱʲimós "cold" z?maka- "winterstorm"
*k x ~ c *kruharós "bloody" xrura- "bloody"
*g g ~ z *haéuges- "strength" aojah "strength"
*gʱ g ~ z *dl?hxós "long" dar?ga- "long"
*kʷ k ~ c *ós "who" ko "who"
*gʷ g ~ j *ou- "cow" gau- "cow"
Proto-Indo-Iranian Avestan[2] Old Persian Persian Vedic Sanskrit
*aćva ("horse") aspa asa (native word)[3] اسب asb (horse) aśvaḥ
*bʱag- baγa baj- (baji; "tribute") باج bâj (tax) bhag- (bhaga)
*bʱratr- ("brother") brātar bratar برادر barâdar (brother) bhratŗ
*bʱumi ("earth", "land") bumi بوم bum bhumi
*martya ("mortal", "man") mašiia martya مرد mard (man) martya
*masa ("moon") māh- maha ماه mâh (moon, month) masa
*vasara ("early") vahara ("spring") بهار bahâr (spring) vasara ("morning")
*arta ("truth") aša arta (?) راست râst (correct) ŗta
*draugʱ- ("falsehood") druj draug- دروغ dorugh (lie) druh-
*sauma "pressed (juice)" haoma soma


Look up Appendix:Indo-Iranian Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  1. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy, by Mario Liverani
  2. Skjærvø, Prods Oktor (2003). "Glossary". An Introduction to Young Avestan.
  3. Fortson, Benjamin (2004). Indo-European language and Culture: An Introduction. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-4051-0316-9.
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