Property of Baire

A subset of a topological space has the property of Baire (Baire property, named after René-Louis Baire), or is called an almost open set, if it differs from an open set by a meager set; that is, if there is an open set such that is meager (where Δ denotes the symmetric difference).[1]

The family of sets with the property of Baire forms a σ-algebra. That is, the complement of an almost open set is almost open, and any countable union or intersection of almost open sets is again almost open.[1] Since every open set is almost open (the empty set is meager), it follows that every Borel set is almost open.

If a subset of a Polish space has the property of Baire, then its corresponding Banach-Mazur game is determined. The converse does not hold; however, if every game in a given adequate pointclass Γ is determined, then every set in Γ has the property of Baire. Therefore, it follows from projective determinacy, which in turn follows from sufficient large cardinals, that every projective set (in a Polish space) has the property of Baire.[2]

It follows from the axiom of choice that there are sets of reals without the property of Baire. In particular, the Vitali set does not have the property of Baire.[3] Already weaker versions of choice are sufficient: the Boolean prime ideal theorem implies that there is a nonprincipal ultrafilter on the set of natural numbers; each such ultrafilter induces, via binary representations of reals, a set of reals without the Baire property.[4]

See also


  1. 1 2 Oxtoby, John C. (1980), "4. The Property of Baire", Measure and Category, Graduate Texts in Mathematics, 2 (2nd ed.), Springer-Verlag, pp. 19–21, ISBN 978-0-387-90508-2.
  2. Becker, Howard; Kechris, Alexander S. (1996), The descriptive set theory of Polish group actions, London Mathematical Society Lecture Note Series, 232, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p. 69, doi:10.1017/CBO9780511735264, ISBN 0-521-57605-9, MR 1425877.
  3. Oxtoby (1980), p. 22.
  4. Blass, Andreas (2010), "Ultrafilters and set theory", Ultrafilters across mathematics, Contemporary Mathematics, 530, Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society, pp. 49–71, doi:10.1090/conm/530/10440, MR 2757533. See in particular p. 64.

External links

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 10/23/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.