Temporal range: Early Miocene to Holocene
P. oeningensis fossil
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Lagomorpha
Family: Prolagidae
Gureev, 1960
Genus: Prolagus
Pomel, 1853
Type species
Prolagus oeningensis
König, 1825

See text

Prolagus sp. fossils distribution map. P. oeningensis is red, P. michauxi blue, P. crusafonti green, P. sorbinii pink, P. vasconiensis yellow, other Prolagus species including indet. are black.[1][n 1]

Prolagidae is an extinct family within the order of lagomorphs, which also includes the Leporidae (rabbits and hares). One genus, Prolagus, is recognised within the family, which was previously considered a subfamily of Ochotonidae, as Prolaginae.[3]

Prolagus first appeared in the Early Miocene in Europe, where it survived until historical times. In Africa and Asia, the genus is known from the Miocene and Pliocene.[4] The scientific name may mean "before hares" or "primitive hares" (pro- meaning "before" and lagos meaning "hare").


The genus Prolagus consists of several prehistoric species.[5] Only one, the Sardinian pika (P. sardus), survived in historical time.[6]

Reconstruction of Prolagus sardus


  1. The coordinates of few additional fossils not listed in the xls file attached to Ge and all paper[1] were taken from the Paleobiology Database.[2][pdb 1][pdb 2][pdb 3][pdb 4][pdb 5][pdb 6][pdb 7][pdb 8][pdb 9][pdb 10]


  1. 1 2 Ge, Deyan; Wen, Zhixin; Xia, Lin; Zhang, Zhaoqun; Erbajeva, Margarita; Huang, Chengming; Yang, Qisen (April 3, 2013). "Evolutionary History of Lagomorphs in Response to Global Environmental Change". PLoS ONE. 8 (4:e59668): e59668. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059668. Retrieved May 22, 2014. Table_S1.xls
  2. "The Paleobiology Database. †Prolagus Pomel 1853 (pika)". Retrieved 2015-03-05.
  3. Hoffman, R.S.; Smith, A.T. (2005). "Order Lagomorpha". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 193–194. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  4. McKenna, M.C.; Bell, S.K. Classification of Mammals: Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press. p. 109. ISBN 0-231-11013-8.
  5. Angelone, C. (2004). "Messinian Prolagus (Lagomorpha, Mammalia) of Italy". Messinian Online. Retrieved 2008-01-14.
  6. Nowak, Ronald M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th edition, volume II. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 1936 pp.
  7. Čermák, S.; Angelone, C. (2013). "Revision of the type material of the Pliocene species Prolagus bilobus Heller, 1936 (Mammalia, Lagomorpha), with comments on the taxonomic validity of P. osmolskae Fostowicz-Frelik, 2010". Bulletin of Geosciences. 88 (1): 45–50.
  8. Fostowicz-Frelik, Ł (2010). "A new species of Pliocene Prolagus (Lagomorpha, Ochotonidae) from Poland is the northernmost record of the genus". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 30 (2): 609–612. doi:10.1080/02724631003621789.

Additional references of the Paleobiology Database

  1. Ginsburg, L. (1969). "Le plus ancien morse du Monde". Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. 41 (4): 995–998. [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/M. Uhen]
    Paleobiology Database: Pontigne 2 (Miocene of France) (les Buissonneaux)
  2. Antunes, M. T.; Mein, P. (1981). "Vertébrés du miocène moyen de amor (Leiria) - importance stratigraphique". Ciências da Terra. 6: 169–188. [J. Mueller/T. Liebrecht/T. Liebrecht]
    Paleobiology Database: Amor, point 1 ("premiere gisement" of Zbyszewski)", Amor, points 2 to 5 (Miocene of Portugal)
  3. Buffetaut, E.; Crouzel, F.; Juillard, F.; Stigliani, F. (1984). "Le crocodilien longirostre Gavialosuchus dans le Miocene moyen de Polastron (Gers, France)". Geobios. 17 (1): 113–117. doi:10.1016/s0016-6995(84)80009-1. [P. Mannion/P. Mannion]
    Paleobiology Database: Polastron (Miocene of France)
  4. Hoyos, M.; Garcia del Cura, M. A.; Ordonyez Martinez, S. (1981). "Caracteristicas geologicas de yacimiento de los Valles de Fuentiduenya (Segovia)". Estudios Geologicos. 37: 345–351. [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]
    Paleobiology Database: Nivel X-Fisura, Nivel X, Nivel Y, Los Valles de Fuentiduenya (Segovia) (Miocene of Spain)
  5. Sese Benito, C.; Lopez Martinez, N. (1981). "Los micromammiferos (insectivora, rodentia y lagomorpha) de Vallesiense inferior de Los Valles de Fuentidueña (Segovia, España)". Estudios Geologicos. 37: 369–381. [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]
    Paleobiology Database: Nivel X-Fisura, Nivel X, Nivel Y, Los Valles de Fuentiduenya (Segovia) (Miocene of Spain)
  6. Heissig, K. (1989). "Neue Ergebnisse zur Stratigraphie der mittleren Serie der Oberen Süßwassermolasse Bayerns (New results on the stratigraphy of the middle series of upper Freshwater Molasse, Bavaria)". Geologica Bavarica. 94: 239–257. [J. Alroy/S. Kuemmell/S. Kuemmell]
    Paleobiology Database: Ziemetshausen 1b, 1a (Miocene of Germany)
  7. L. Abbazzi, C. Angelone, M. Arca, G. Barisone, C. Bedetti, M. Delfino, T. Kotsakis, F. Marcolini, M. R. Palombo, M. Pavia, P. Piras, L. Rook, D. Torre, C. Tuveri, A. M. F. Valli and B. Wilkens (2004). "Plio-Pleistocene fossil vertebrates of Monte Tuttavista (Orosei, Eastern Sardinia, Italy), an overview". Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia. 110 (3): 681–706. [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]
    Paleobiology Database: Fissure 7, Blocco Strada Quarry (VII bl. St.),Fissure 7, Mustelide Quarry (VII Mustelide),Fissure 6, Quarry 3 (VI 3),Fissure 10, Ghiro Quarry (X Ghiro) (Pliocene of Italy),Fissure 11, Antilope Quarry, (XI antilope),Fissure 6, Banco 6 Quarry, (VI Banco 6),Fissure 7, Quarry 2, (VII 2),Fissure 10, 3 Uccelli Quarry, (X 3 uccelli),Fissure 11, canide Quarry, (XI canide),Fissure 9, Prolagus Quarry, (IX Prolagus),Fissure 11, dic.2001, (XI dic.2001),Fissure 11, Quarry 3, (XI 3),Fissure 11, Rondone Quarry, (XI rondone),Fissure 4, Quarry 5 Prolagus, (IV 5 prol.),Fissure 4, Quarry 20, (IV 20) (Pleistocene of Italy)
  8. Ginsburg, L.; Bonneau, M. (1995). "La succession des faunes de mammiferes miocenes de Pontigne (Maine-et-Loire, France)". Bulletin de Musee national Histoire naturell. 4 (2-4): 313–328. [M. Uhen/M. Uhen]Paleobiology Database: [ Pontigne 4 (marine) (Miocene of France) (les Buissoneaux)
  9. Böttcher, R.; Heizmann, E. P. J.; Rasser, M. W; Ziegler, R. (2009). "Biostratigraphy and palaeoecology of a Middle Miocene (Karpathian, MN 5) fauna from the northern margin of the North Alpine Foreland Basin (Oggenhausen 2, SW' Germany)". Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen. 254 (1/2): 237–260. doi:10.1127/0077-7749/2009/0011. [J. Mueller/T. Liebrecht]
    Paleobiology Database: Oggenhausen 2 (Miocene of Germany)
  10. Additional contributors to utilized records of Paleobiology Database (authorizers supplying these records) include Johannes Mueller, Philip Mannion, Mark Uhen, John Alroy, Alan Turner.
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