Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario

Progressive Conservative Party
of Ontario

Parti progressiste-conservateur de l'Ontario
Active provincial party
President Rick Dykstra
Leader of the Opposition Patrick Brown
Opposition House Leader Jim Wilson
Founded 1854 (1854)
Headquarters 400-59 Adelaide St. E
Toronto, Ontario
M5H 3H1
Student wing Ontario PC Campus Association
Youth wing Ontario PC Youth Association
Membership 2015: 76,581[1]
Ideology Conservatism[2]
Economic liberalism[2]
Social conservatism[3]
Political position Centre-right to Right wing[4]
Colours Blue
Seats in Legislature
29 / 107

The Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario (French: Parti progressiste-conservateur de l'Ontario),[5] often shortened to Ontario PC Party or PC, is a right-of-centre political party in Ontario, Canada. It governed the province for 80 of the 149 years since Confederation, including an uninterrupted run from 1943 to 1985. It is the Official Opposition in the current Legislative Assembly of Ontario.



The first Conservative Party in Upper Canada was made up of United Empire Loyalists and supporters of the wealthy Family Compact that ruled the colony. Once responsible government was granted in response to the 1837 Rebellions, the Tories emerged as moderate reformers who opposed the radical policies of the Reformers and then the Clear Grits.

The modern Conservative Party originated in the Liberal-Conservative coalition founded by Sir John A. Macdonald and George-Étienne Cartier in 1854. It is a variant of this coalition that formed the first government in Ontario with John Sandfield Macdonald as Premier. Sandfield Macdonald was actually a Liberal and sat concurrently as a Liberal Party of Canada MP in the Canadian House of Commons but he was an ally of John A. Macdonald. His government was initially a true coalition of Liberals and Conservatives under his leadership but soon the more radical Reformers bolted to the opposition and Sandfield Macdonald was left leading what was essentially a Conservative coalition that included some Liberals under the Liberal-Conservative banner. After losing power in 1871, this Conservative coalition began to dissolve. What was originally a party that included Catholics and Protestants became an almost exclusively English and Protestant party, more and more dependent on the Protestant Orange Order for support, and even for its leadership. The party became opposed to funding for separate (Catholic) schools, opposed to language rights for French-Canadians, and distrustful of immigrants. Paradoxically, an element of the party gained a reputation for being pro-labour as a result of links between the Orange Order and the labour movement.

Until becoming the Progressive Conservatives in 1942, the party was officially known as the Liberal-Conservative Association of Ontario, reflecting its Liberal-Conservative origins, but became widely known as the Conservative Party.

Pre-war dynasty

After 33 years in Opposition, the Tories returned to power under James P. Whitney, who led a progressive administration in its development of the province. The Whitney government initiated massive public works projects such as the creation of Ontario Hydro. It also enacted reactionary legislation (such as Regulation 17) against the French-Canadian population in Ontario. The Tories were in power for all but five years from 1905 to 1934. After the death of Whitney in 1914, however, they lacked vision and became complacent. The Tories lost power to the United Farmers of Ontario in the 1919 election but were able to regain office in 1923 election due to the UFO's disintegration and divisions in the Ontario Liberal Party. They were defeated by Mitch Hepburn's Liberals in 1934 due to their inability to cope with the Great Depression.

Post-war dynasty

Late in the 1930s and early in the 1940s, the Conservatives re-organized and developed new policies. Rather than continue to oppose government spending and intervention, a policy which hurt the party politically in the time of the Great Depression, the Conservatives changed their policies to support government action where it would lead to economic growth.

The party changed its name to the "Progressive Conservative" party after its federal counterpart changed its name to the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 1942 on the insistence of its new leader, John Bracken, whose roots were in the populist Progressive Party.

The Conservatives took advantage of Liberal infighting to win a minority government in the 1943 provincial election, reducing the Liberals to third-party status. Drew called another election in 1945, only two years into his mandate, to get a majority government. The Tories played up Cold War tensions to win a landslide majority, though it emerged several years later that the Tory government had set up a secret department of the Ontario Provincial Police to spy on the opposition and the media. The party would dominate Ontario politics for the next four decades.

Under Drew and his successor, Leslie Frost, the Party was a strong champion of rural issues but also invested heavily in the development of civil works throughout the province, including the construction of the 400 series of highways, beginning with the 401 across Toronto. In 1961, John Robarts became the 17th premier of Ontario. He was one of the most popular premiers in years. Under Robarts' lead, the party epitomized power. He was an advocate of individual freedoms and promoted the rights of the provinces against what he saw as the centralizing initiatives of the federal government, while also promoting national unity against Quebec separatism. He hosted the 1967 "Confederation of Tomorrow" conference in Toronto in an unsuccessful attempt to achieve an agreement for a new Constitution of Canada.

Robarts opposed Canadian medicare when it was proposed, but later endorsed it fully, and the party implemented the public health care system that continues to this day. He led the party towards a civil libertarian movement. As a strong believer in the promotion of both official languages, he opened the door to French education in Ontario schools.

Big Blue Machine era

In 1971, Bill Davis became party leader and the 18th premier. Anti-Catholicism became an issue again in the 1971 election, when the Tories campaigned strenuously against a Liberal proposal to extend funding for Catholic separate schools until Grade 13. Davis reversed himself in 1985, and enacted the funding extension as one of his last acts before leaving office.

Davis governed until 1985 with a team of advisers known as the "Big Blue Machine" because of their reputed political and strategic skills. Their stamp on the party was so strong that many refer to the Tories' long rule over Ontario as the "Big Blue Machine era."

During Davis's time as leader of the PC Party, the party moved to the centre, and on some issues, moved to the left of the Liberals. However, its base of support remained with socially conservative voters in rural central Ontario. This made him one of the most popular politicians in Ontario's history. Other conservatives in the federal PC Party accused him of damaging the conservative image in Canada by moving to the left on some issues. Davis continued the rapid expansion of community colleges, universities and highways, across Ontario.

1980s to 1995: in Opposition

Party logo in 1985
Party logo in 1987
Party logo in 1990

Davis retired in 1985. At a leadership convention, he was succeeded by Industry and Trade Minister Frank Miller. Miller was considerably more conservative than Davis, and began shifting the party back to the right. Soon after taking office, he called an election in which the Conservatives were reduced to a minority government, and actually finished behind the Liberals in the popular vote for the first time in 42 years.

Soon afterward, the Ontario New Democratic Party of Bob Rae reached an agreement with David Peterson's Liberals in which the NDP would support a Liberal minority government. Miller was defeated in a no-confidence motion on June 18. Peterson was asked to form a government later in the day, ending the longest period of one-party rule in Canadian provincial history. Miller was replaced as leader by Larry Grossman at a second leadership convention.

When the Liberal-NDP Accord expired, an election was held in 1987 in which the Tories were reduced to third place in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. They only won 16 seats, their worst showing in over half a century. Grossman was personally defeated in his downtown Toronto riding and resigned immediately. Andy Brandt was the party's interim leader until a leadership election was held in 1990 in which Mike Harris defeated Dianne Cunningham.

Three months after the election of Harris, and only three years into the, typically, four-year term of the Liberal government, David Peterson called a provincial election, in which the Tories failed to improve their standing, but which resulted in the defeat of the Liberals by Rae's NDP.

Mike Harris and the "Common Sense Revolution"

Logo of the Ontario PC Party from the mid-1990s to 2003

In the 1995 election, Harris catapulted his party from third place to an election victory, running on a libertarian platform known as the "Common Sense Revolution" that highlighted a number of "wedge issues" and promised significant tax cuts, cuts to welfare, the introduction of workfare, and a 30% reduction in provincial income taxes. Harris went on to win a second majority in 1999 despite the strikes and protests that plagued his first term in office.

The Harris government was criticized on issues such as health care, the environment, education, and its social policies, but it won a second majority in the 1999 general election and it remained generally popular until Harris's departure as party leader in 2002.

The slide in Conservative support began in early 2000, according to the Ipsos-Reid polling company, when the Tories fell behind the Liberals in the public opinion polls for the first time since the 1999 election, with 36% support of those polled, compared to 42% for the Liberals and 17% for the NDP. Later in 2000, Liberal support rose to about half of those polled, while Conservative support remained in the low 30s. This pattern held through to the 2002 leadership campaign, when Conservative support rose to 37%, while the Liberals retained the support of about half of those polled.

Ernie Eves: distancing the party from Harris

With the resignation of Mike Harris in 2002, the PCs held a leadership election. Ernie Eves, who had been Harris' Minister of Finance, and who had the backing of almost all PC MPPs, won the campaign, defeating his successor as Minister of Finance, Jim Flaherty.

Eves was a Red Tory, unlike Harris. He'd tried to blunt some of the edges of the more radical elements of Harris' platform while in Cabinet. His rejection of the "Common Sense Revolution" continued after he became premier. He killed plans to sell off Hydro One and re-imposed retail price controls on electricity, capping the price at 4.3 cents per kilowatt-hour, and vowing to keep it capped until at least 2006.

Ontario PC logo, 2003 to 2006

During the summer after Eves’ election as leader, the Conservatives closed the gap in popular support considerably, placing only two percentage points behind the Liberals in two summer public opinion polls. By the autumn of 2002, however, Eves’ ‘honeymoon’ with the voters was over, and the party fell back in the polls, hovering in the mid-to-high 30s, while the Liberals scored in the mid-to-high 40s.

2003 election defeat

Despite his attempt to recast the Tory government as a moderate one, Eves was unable to reverse the slide in the polls the Tories had suffered in the last years of Harris' tenure.

Eves asked Flaherty's campaign chairman, Jaime Watt, to co-manage the Conservative election campaign, along with the rest of the "Whiz Kids" team that had previously worked for Harris. Only Tom Long, the central organizer in Harris' campaigns, refused to work for Eves.

The "Whiz Kids" reputation for competence was marred by publicity stunts such as handing down his government's second budget at the headquarters of Magna International instead of in the provincial legislature. Voter backlash against this break with parliamentary tradition forced the delay of a planned spring election in 2003.

In May 2003, Eves released the party's platform, "The Road Ahead". The document promoted an aggressive hard-right agenda, and was closer in spirit to Harris and Flaherty's agenda than to Eves' own. In releasing this document, Eves reversed his earlier positions on banning teacher's strikes, jailing the homeless, private school tax credits and same-sex marriage. The platform also called for mortgage interest deductibility.

The Conservative election campaign was riddled with mistakes and miscues, and Eves appeared very uncomfortable trying to sell a platform he had opposed only a year earlier. In contrast, the Liberals had spent the last four years positioning themselves as the government in waiting, and ran on the simple platform of "Choose Change". Conservative television ads which attacked Liberal leader Dalton McGuinty as "still not up to the job" were received poorly by the voting public, and allowed the Liberal campaign to portray the Tories as needlessly confrontational.

A critical point in the campaign was when a member of the Eves team jokingly referred to McGuinty as an "evil reptilian kitten-eater from another planet", a comment that made the Conservatives appear desperate to vilify their opponents. In the final days leading up to the vote, Eves was further criticized for saying that McGuinty just says "whatever comes into his pointy little head". On election day, the Conservatives were routed, falling to 24 seats.

John Tory's Tories (2004 to 2009)

John Tory, leader (2004-2009)
Ontario PC logo, 2006-2010

In early 2004, Eves announced his intention to step down as leader. A leadership convention to replace him was called for the fall.

Jim Flaherty was the first to enter the race, campaigning on the same right wing platform as in 2002. He was soon opposed by John Tory, a former executive with Rogers Cable and a Toronto mayoral candidate in 2003 (a position he would ultimately win in 2014), sometimes viewed as a Red Tory due to his association to former Ontario Premier Bill Davis. Member of Provincial Parliament Frank Klees, the third candidate in the race, was a supporter of the Common Sense Revolution and campaigned for a parallel private health care system.

The 2004 leadership election was held on September 18, 2004, electing John Tory as the party's new leader. Tory, who had first worked as an aide to Premier Davis, was elected to the Ontario legislature in a by-election in March, 2005, in the seat that Eves held.[6]

In polling prior to the 2007 general election, the PCs' support rose after the first Liberal budget in 2004. The party was virtually tied with the Liberals, as Tory has experimented with several different orientations. During his first year as leader, Tory attempted to rise above partisan politics, openly contemptuous of partisan moves and pledging to improve decorum in the legislature. In his second year as leader, Tory adopted a more traditional approach to the issues, sharply opposing the Liberal plans on taxes, spending, deficits and cuts. Heading into the election year, Tory put most of his emphasis on criticizing the government's handling of a standoff with Mohawk aboriginals in Caledonia in order to portray the government as weak. He also emphasized traditional right-wing issues like taxes, crime and government spending.

During the 2006 PC Policy Convention, Tory introduced his plan for shaping up the PCs' platform for the 2007 election campaign. His ideas were stated in what have been called "The White Papers".[7]

The party experienced a drop in popularity, however, after Tory pledged to provide government funding for faith-based schools. The proposal, which proved to be unpopular with voters,[8] contributed largely to the party's loss. The Liberals won a second majority government, and the PCs made and negligible gains in the legislature (one more seat, but a 3 per cent drop in the popular vote). Tory, who had left his Dufferin—Peel—Wellington—Grey seat to run in Don Valley West, would lose to Liberal incumbent Kathleen Wynne.

2008 party convention and the leadership review question

As a result of the election loss, the party decided to hold a leadership review vote at its 2008 General Party Meeting in London.[9] The Ontario PC Party's constitution requires that the Party hold a leadership review vote at the first party convention after an election defeat.[9]

From the election day until the 2008 General Meeting, party members were divided into two "camps": those who supported John Tory's position as Party Leader and those who opposed his leadership. Several campaigns to oust John Tory as leader of the party, most notably by a party activist group led by former party president Rueben Devlin called Grassroots PC.[10][11] John Tory had the public support of the PC legislative caucus, and most notably, support from former premiers and predecessors Ernie Eves and Bill Davis.[12]

The lead-up to the review vote was marked by high emotions on both sides of the debate and allegations of rule breaking. Such allegations were risen when caucus members sent letters on party letterhead seeking support for Tory. The letters signed by Tory MPPs Bob Runciman and Toby Barrett were a clear violation of the rules of the party, as the party in general is supposed to be neutral on the leadership review question.[13] Tory responded by stating that he and his supporters will reimburse the party for the letters that the caucus members had sent in support of Tory's position as leaders. As a result, the party's president, Blair McCreadie, had stated that the matter is closed.[13] A supporter of Tory's, PC Youth President Andrew Brander, launched a series of last-minute challenges of delegates on the grounds that they are representing ridings where they neither live nor work.[14]

Tory received 66.9% support, lower than internal tracking which showed him more comfortably in the 70 per cent range - appeared to come as a shock to Tory.[12][15] The percentage of support received by Tory was nearly identical to Joe Clark's 1983 support when he was federal PC leader, which resulted in Clark resigning as leader, and is often seen as the benchmark for Canadian party leaders to get to stay on as leader.[16]

Three hours after the leadership review vote, John Tory announced to the delegates at the Ontario PC's general meeting that he would stay on as leader of the Party.[17] Tory came under heavy criticism from several party members following this delay, with his opponents signalling that they would continue to call for an end to what they called his 'weak' leadership.[18] Other party members, such as former Mike Harris chief of staff Guy Giorno and interim Leader of the Opposition Bob Runciman, supported John Tory, saying that his opponents should accept the results and move on.[17][18]

Hudak leadership (2009 to 2014)

Ontario PC logo 2010-2016
Tim Hudak, Leader 2009-2014

John Tory announced his pending resignation as leader on March 6, 2009; the day following his defeat in a by-election for Haliburton—Kawartha Lakes—Brock. On June 27, 2009 party members elected Tim Hudak as the party's new leader. Christine Elliott, Frank Klees, and Randy Hillier were the unsuccessful candidates.

Hudak led the Tories through two elections. In the 2011 provincial election, the McGuinty Liberal government was reduced to a minority. Hudak's Tories were widely expected to win the 2014 provincial election but the Liberals, now led by Kathleen Wynne, were returned with a majority government largely due to Hudak's campaign pledge to cut 100,000 public service jobs. Hudak resigned in the aftermath. On July 2, 2014 Jim Wilson was chosen by the Progressive Conservative caucus to be its interim leader until the 2015 leadership election.[19]

Brown leadership (2015 to present)

Patrick Brown, Leader 2015-present

On May 9, 2015 the membership elected Patrick Brown, a federal Conservative MP from Barrie, as the leader of the party. Christine Elliott was the unsuccessful candidate with Vic Fedeli, Lisa MacLeod, and Monte McNaughton withdrawing prior to the vote.

Since he did not hold a seat in the Legislature, the party requested that MPP Garfield Dunlop resign his seat in Simcoe North so that Brown could run. Brown was elected as MPP for Simcoe North in a by-election held September 3, 2015.[20]

At the party's 2016 General Meeting (the first since the leadership election) Brown announced that the Progressive Conservatives would take on a more inclusive and compassionate tone, reach out to groups that do not typically support the party including trade unions, and pursue "sensible" carbon pricing.[21] He also unveiled a new logo to represent the commitment to "inclusion, renewal, openness and change".[22] Brown stated his intention to change the party by moving away from past campaigns where one particular issue often cost them support, such as Tim Hudak's proposed public sector job cuts in the 2014 election or John Tory's proposal to extend public funding to all faith-based schools in 2007.[21]

Current leadership and Members of Provincial Parliament

Party leadership
Name Position
Patrick Brown Party Leader
Rick Dykstra Party President

See also Official Opposition Shadow Cabinet of the 41st Legislative Assembly of Ontario

Party leaders

Leader Years in office
1 Sir John A. Macdonald 1854–1867
2 John Sandfield Macdonald[23] 1862–1864
Leader Years in office
con't John Sandfield Macdonald 1867–1871
3 Matthew Crooks Cameron 1871–1878
4 William Ralph Meredith 1878–1894
5 George Frederick Marter 1894–1896
6 Sir James P. Whitney 1896–1914
7 Sir William Hearst 1914–1919
8 George Howard Ferguson 1919–1930
9 George Stewart Henry 1930–1936
10 William Earl Rowe 1936–1938
11 George Drew 1938–1942

Leader Years in office
con't George Drew 1942–1948
12 Thomas Kennedy 1948-1949 (interim)
13 Leslie Frost 1949–1961
14 John Robarts 1961–1971
15 Bill Davis 1971–1985
16 Frank Miller 1985
17 Larry Grossman 1985–1987
18 Andy Brandt 1987-1990 (interim)
19 Mike Harris 1990–2002
20 Ernie Eves 2002–2004
21 John Tory 2004–2009
22 Bob Runciman 2009 (interim)
23 Tim Hudak 2009–2014
24 Jim Wilson 20142015 (interim)
25 Patrick Brown 2015present

Party Presidents

President Years in office Notes
1 Alexander David (A.D.) McKenzie 1943-1960 Lawyer by profession, McKenzie was the long-time president of the Ontario Progressive Conservative Association and chairman of the party's organizational committee, and full-time party organizer (1942-1960), until his death, and was considered the architect of the party's rise to power and its 6 general election and 20 by-election victories during his tenure.[24][25]
2 Elmer D. Bell 1960-1968 Lawyer based in Exeter, Ontario. Later appointed chairman of the Ontario Police Commission[26] Bell succeeded McKenzie as party president while Hugh Latimer was appointed to the position of chairman, which had responsibilities of being a full-time party organizer, and was replaced in that role by former MPP Ernie Jackson when John Robarts became party leader.[25]
3 Alan Eagleson 1968-1976 MPP 1963–1967, lawyer, executive director of the NHLPA 1967-1991[25][27]
4 Gerald (Geri) Nori 1976-1980[25] Sault Ste. Marie-based lawyer
5 David McFadden 1980-1986 MPP 1985–1987
6 Tom Long 1986-1989 executive assistant in the PMO 1984-1986, election co-chairs and party advisor
7 Kay Weatherall 1989-1990 retiree
8 Tony Clement 1990-1992 Ontario MPP and provincial cabinet minister 1995-2003; current federal MP and cabinet minister
9 Steve Gilchrist 1992-1994 Ontario MPP and provincial cabinet minister 1995-2003
10 Peter Van Loan 1994-1998 current federal MP since 2004 and cabinet minister
11 Reuben Devlin 1998-2002 President of Humber River Regional Hospital
12 Blair McCreadie 2002-2006 Partner, Dentons LLP
13 Ken Zeise 2008-2012 Principal Consultant, Dominion Group Benefits Limited,
14 Richard Ciano 2012-2016 market researcher, strategist and pollster
15 Rick Dykstra 2016– federal MP 2006-2015

Election results

Election Seats won Change +/- Popular vote Popular vote (%) Legislative role Government Party leader
41 / 82
Increase41 Coalition Conservative-led coalition with support from moderate Liberals John Sandfield Macdonald
38 / 82
Decrease3 Official Opposition Liberal majority
35 / 88
Decrease3 Matthew Crooks Cameron
29 / 88
Decrease6 William Ralph Meredith
37 / 88
32 / 90
36 / 91
30 / 94
42 / 94
Increase 19 James P. Whitney
48 / 98
Increase 6
69 / 98
Increase 21 Majority Government Conservative
86 / 106
Increase 17
83 / 106
Decrease 3
84 / 111
Increase 1 55.3%
25 / 111
Decrease 59 34.9% Third Party United Farmers of Ontario-Labour Coalition William Howard Hearst
75 / 111
Increase 50 49.8% Majority Government Conservative George Howard Ferguson
72 / 112
Decrease 3 57.6%
90 / 112
Increase 18 58.8%
17 / 90
Decrease 73 39.8% Official Opposition Liberal majority George S. Henry
23 / 90
Increase 6 40% William Earl Rowe
38 / 90
Increase 15 35.7% Minority
Progressive Conservative George Drew
66 / 90
Increase 18 44.3% Majority
53 / 90
Decrease 13 41.5%
79 / 90
Increase 26 48.5% Leslie Frost
83 / 90
Increase 4 48.5%
77 / 108
Decrease 6 48.9% John Robarts
69 / 117
Decrease 8 42.3%
78 / 117
Increase 9 44.5% Bill Davis
51 / 125
Decrease 27 36.1% Minority
58 / 125
Increase 7 39.7%
70 / 125
Increase 12 44.4% Majority
52 / 125
Decrease 18 1,343,044 37.0% Initially minority government
then Official Opposition
Progressive Conservative minority until no-confidence vote, followed by Liberal minority Frank Miller
16 / 130
Decrease 36 931,473 24.7% Third party Liberal Larry Grossman
20 / 130
Increase 8 944,564 23.5% New Democratic Party Mike Harris
82 / 130
Increase 62 1,870,110 44.8% Majority
Progressive Conservative
59 / 103
Decrease 3 1,978,059 45.1%
24 / 103
Decrease 36 1,559,181 34.7% Official Opposition Liberal majority Ernie Eves
26 / 107
Increase 2 1,398,857 31.6% John Tory
37 / 107
Increase 11 1,527,959 35.4% Liberal minority Tim Hudak
28 / 107
Decrease 9 1,506,267 31.25% Liberal majority

References and footnotes

  1. "Patrick Brown wins Ontario PC leadership race". 9 May 2015.
  2. 1 2 "What We Stand For".
  3. "Social conservatives turn up heat on Tory MPP Monte McNaughton over party's sex-ed stance - Toronto Star".
  4. "Will the real Mr. Brown please stand up?: Editorial - Toronto Star".
  5. "Partis politiques inscrits en Ontario" (in French). Elections Ontario. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
  6. "Ontario PC".
  7. "Ontario PC".
  8. "McGuinty wins massive majority, Tory loses seat". 11 October 2007.
  9. 1 2 "Will provincial leaders stay, or go?" Toronto Star/ (October 15, 2007)
  10. "".
  11. "Decision won't sit well with Tory's detractors" London Free Press (February 24, 2008)
  12. 1 2 "Tory to remain leader of Ontario PCs despite lukewarm vote". The Globe and Mail. February 23, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2015.
  13. 1 2 "Controversy dogs Ontario PC leadership review". The Globe and Mail. February 23, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2015.
  14. "Ontario's Tory hopes party will forgive and forget". The Globe and Mail. February 22, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2015.
  15. "Tory to remain as PC leader". 24 February 2008.
  16. "'Time to move on' after divisive leadership vote: Conservative Leader John Tory" Canadian Press (February 24, 2008)
  17. 1 2 "Conservative Leader John Tory to remain after 67 per cent in leadership vote" Canadian Press (February 23, 2008)
  18. 1 2 "Critics assail 'weak' Tory" National Post (February 24, 2008)
  19. "Progressive Conservatives pick Jim Wilson as interim leader". Toronto Star. July 2, 2014. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
  20. Elections Ontario (2015). "Official Returns from the Records, 086 Simcoe North" (PDF). Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  21. 1 2 Ferguson, Rob (March 5, 2016). "Patrick Brown sees a new, inclusive Ontario PC party". Toronto Star. Retrieved March 7, 2016.
  22. Ferguson, Rob (March 5, 2016). "Ontario's PC Party unveils a new logo". Toronto Star. Retrieved March 7, 2016.
  23. Shared role with Sir John A. Macdonald as joint premiers of the Province of Canada representing Canada West (Ontario).
  24. "Ottawa Citizen - Google News Archive Search".
  25. 1 2 3 4 NinerNet Communications. "The Decline of Party Revisited « British Columbia Political Studies Association".
  26. "Legislative Assembly of Ontario - Debates & Proceedings - House Documents - Official Records for 16 October 1984". line feed character in |title= at position 34 (help)
  27. "CBC Archives". 10 April 2013.
  28. Won most seats in 1985 election, but lost power after Liberals signed a pact with the NDP to form the government.

See also

External links

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