Principality of Elba

This article is about the former principality. For the island, see Elba.
Principato d'Elba
Flag Coat of arms
Location of the Principality of Elba within Europe
Capital Portoferraio
Languages Italian
Religion Roman Catholic
Government Non-hereditary Monarchy
Prince of Elba
   1814-1815 Napoleon Bonaparte
Historical era Napoleonic Wars
   Treaty of Fontainebleau April 13, 1814
  Napoleon's Departure February 26, 1815
   Congress of Vienna June 9, 1815
   1814 224 km² (86 sq mi)
   1814 est. 12,000 
     Density 53.6 /km²  (138.7 /sq mi)
Currency French Franc
Preceded by
Succeeded by
First French Empire
Grand Duchy of Tuscany

The Principality of Elba (Italian: Principato d'Elba) was a non-hereditary monarchy established by the Treaty of Fontainebleau of 11 April 1814.

Sovereignty over the island, which until then had been part of the French département of Méditerranée, was given to Napoleon I of France after his abdication following the War of the Sixth Coalition. Article 3 of the Treaty stipulated that Elba was to be "an independent principality possessed by him in complete sovereignty and as personal property".[1] His rule was to persist until his death, at which point control of the Principality would return to Tuscany. The former emperor was also granted a stipend of two million francs per year to be paid by France.

On 26 February, after a rule of 9 months, Napoleon escaped from Elba and landed in southern France to lead the French again, beginning the War of the Seventh Coalition. After his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, the delegates of the Congress of Vienna agreed to exile Napoleon to the Island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic, and the Principality was returned to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.

Island of Elba, 1814


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