Pope Clement III
|Papacy began||19 December 1187|
|Papacy ended||20 March 1191|
|Birth name||Paulino or Paolo Scolari|
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
20 March 1191|
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
|Other popes named Clement|
Pope Clement III (Latin: Clemens III; 1130 – 20 March 1191), born Paulino (or Paolo) Scolari, reigned from 19 December 1187 to his death in 1191.
A Roman by birth, Pope Alexander III appointed him in succession Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian Basilica, Cardinal-deacon of Sergio e Bacco, and finally Cardinal bishop of Palestrina in December 1180. He appears as signatory of the papal bulls issued between 15 October 1179 and 11 December 1187.
Shortly after his accession at the conclusion of the papal election of December 1187, Clement succeeded in allaying the conflict which had existed for half a century between the Popes and the citizens of Rome, with an agreement by which the citizens were allowed to elect their magistrates, while the nomination of the governor of the city remained in the hands of the Pope. On 31 May 1188 he concluded a treaty with the Romans which removed long standing difficulties, thus returning the Papacy to Rome.
Clement also inherited a depleted college of cardinals, consisting of no more than twenty cardinals. He orchestrated three series of promotions (March 1188, May 1189 and October 1190) that resulted in over thirty new cardinals.
He settled a controversy with King William I of Scotland concerning the choice of the archbishop of St. Andrews, and on 13 March 1188 removed the Scottish church from the legatine jurisdiction of the Archbishop of York, thus making it independent of all save Rome.
In spite of agreeing to crown Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI, Clement III angered him by bestowing Sicily on Tancred, son of Roger III, Duke of Apulia. The crisis was acute when the Pope died in the latter part of March 1191.
- About the date of his death see Katrin Baaken: Zu Wahl, Weihe und Krönung Papst Cölestins III. Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters Volume 41 / 1985, pp. 203-211
- Cheetham, Nicolas, Keepers of the Keys, (Charles Scribner's Sons, 1982), 325.
- Rockwell 1911.
- Luscombe, David; Riley-Smith, Jonathan, eds. (2004). The New Cambridge Medieval History. 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 402.
- Robinson, Ian Stuart, The papacy 1073–1198: continuity and innovation, (Cambridge University Press, 1990), 55.
- Reston, James, Warriors of God: Richard the Lionheart and Saladin in the Third Crusade, (Random House Inc., 2001), 106.
- Blair, D. Oswald Hunter, History of the Catholic Church of Scotland, (Willian Blackwood and Sons, 1887), 329.
- Benson, Robert Louis and Robert Charles Figueira, Plenitude of power: the doctrines and exercise of authority in the Middle Ages, (Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2006), 40.
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:|
- Benson, Robert Louis and Robert Charles Figueira, Plenitude of power: the doctrines and exercise of authority in the Middle Ages, Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2006.
- Blair, D. Oswald Hunter, History of the Catholic Church of Scotland, Willian Blackwood and Sons, 1887.
- Cheetham, Nicolas, Keepers of the Keys, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1982.
- Reston, James, Warriors of God: Richard the Lionheart and Saladin in the Third Crusade, Random House Inc., 2001.
- Robinson, Ian Stuart, The Papacy, 1073–1198: Continuity and Innovation, Cambridge University Press 1990.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Rockwell, William Walker (1911). "Clement III". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Loughlin, James Francis (1908). "Pope Clement III". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
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