Politics of Tuscany

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The Politics of Tuscany, Italy takes place in the framework of a semi-presidential representative democracy, whereby the President of the Region is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in the Regional Council of Tuscany, while executive power is exercised by the Regional Government led by the President, who is directly elected by the people. The current Statute, which regulates the functioning of the regional institutions, has been in force since 2005.

Prior to the rise of Fascism, most of the deputies elected in Tuscany were part of the liberal establishment (see Historical Right, Historical Left and Liberals), which governed Italy for decades. Florence and the southern provinces of the region were anyway an early stronghold of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI). At the 1924 general election, which opened the way to the Fascist authoritarian rule, Tuscany was one the regions where the National Fascist Party (PNF) obtained more than 70% of the vote.[1]

After World War II, Tuscany became a stronghold of the Italian Communist Party (PCI), which was especially strong in rural areas. The PCI and its successors have governed the region since 1970. The region is now a stronghold of the "centre-left coalition" led by the Democratic Party (PD). The coalition has governed the region since 1995, under President Enrico Rossi since 2010.

Legislative branch

The Regional Council of Tuscany is composed of 41 members.

Councillors are elected in provincial constituencies by proportional representation using the D'Hondt method. The Florence constituency is further divided into 4 sub-constituencies. Preferential voting is allowed: a maximum of two preferences can be expressed for candidates of the same party list and provided the two chosen candidates are of different gender. In this system parties are grouped in alliances, supporting a candidate for the post of President of Tuscany. The candidate receiving at least 40% of the votes is elected to the post and his/her list (or the coalition) is awarded a majority in the Regional Council. If no candidate gets more than 40% of the votes, a run-off is held fourteen days after, with only the two top candidates from the first round allowed. The winning candidate is assured a majority in the Regional Council.[2]

The Council is elected for a five-year term, but, if the President suffers a vote of no confidence, resigns or dies, under the simul stabunt, simul cadent clause introduced in 1999 (literally they will stand together or they will fall together), also the Council is dissolved and a snap election is called.

Executive branch

Main article: President of Tuscany

The Regional Government (Giunta Regionale) is presided by the President of the Region (Presidente della Regione), who is elected for a five-year term, and is currently composed by ten members: the President and 9 regional ministers or assessors (Assessori), including a Vice President (Vice Presidente).[3]

List of Presidents

The current President of Tuscany is Enrico Rossi, who is serving his first term after winning the 2010 regional election.

Name Term of office Political Party Legislature
1 Lelio Lagorio 28 July 1970 28 July 1975 PSI I (1970)
28 July 1975 26 September 1978 II (1975)
2 Mario Leone 26 September 1978 28 July 1980 PSI
28 July 1980 31 May 1983 III (1980)
3 Gianfranco Bartolini 31 May 1983 13 August 1985 PCI
13 August 1985 10 July 1990 IV (1985)
4 Marco Marcucci 10 July 1990 11 January 1992 PCI V (1990)
5 Vannino Chiti 11 January 1992 24 April 1995 PDS
24 April 1995 16 April 2000 VI (1995)
6 Claudio Martini 16 April 2000 3 April 2005 DS/PD VII (2000)
3 April 2005 30 March 2010 VIII (2005)
7 Enrico Rossi 30 March 2010 1 June 2015 PD IX (2010)
1 June 2015 incumbent X (2015)

Local government


Tuscany is divided in ten provinces, which are a traditional form of local administration in the region.

Socialist and communist ideas had an early diffusion in quite all the provinces around World War I. After the Fascist parenthesis, left-wing parties found their strongholds in eastern rural provinces, especially Siena and Arezzo, while Christian Democracy used to be strong in the north-western part of the Region.

The city of Florence is now one of major national strongholds of Democratic Party. The Province of Siena is also called the "red province of Italy", because the Italian Communist Party has always governed it with the 60% of the votes since 1945 to its dissolution in 1991.

Province Inhabitants President Party Election
Florence 991,862 Dario Nardella Democratic Party 2015
Pisa 414,154 Marco Filippeschi Democratic Party 2014
Lucca 392,182 Luca Menesini Democratic Party 2015
Arezzo 348,327 Roberto Vasai Democratic Party 2014
Livorno 341,453 Alessandro Franchi Democratic Party 2014
Grosseto 227,063 Emilio Bonifazi Democratic Party 2014
Pistoia 292,108 Rinaldo Vanni Democratic Party 2015
Siena 270,333 Fabrizio Nepi Democratic Party 2014
Prato 248,174 Matteo Biffoni Democratic Party 2014
Massa and Carrara 203,642 Narciso Buffoni Democratic Party 2014


Tuscany is also divided in 287 comuni (municipalities), which have even more history, having been established in the Middle Ages when they were the main places of government. 18 comuni have more than 45,000 inhabitants, a large majority of which are ruled by the centre-left.

Municipality Inhabitants Mayor Party Election
Florence 370,702 Dario Nardella Democratic Party 2014
Prato 187,994 Matteo Biffoni Democratic Party 2014
Livorno 161,084 Filippo Nogarin Five Star Movement 2014
Arezzo 100,140 Alessandro Ghinelli Forza Italia 2015
Pistoia 90,226 Samuele Bertinelli Democratic Party 2012
Pisa 88,332 Marco Filippeschi Democratic Party 2013
Lucca 84,928 Alessandro Tambellini Democratic Party 2012
Grosseto 82,284 Antonfrancesco Vivarelli Forza Italia 2016
Massa 71,006 Alessandro Volpi Democratic Party 2013
Carrara 65,612 Angelo Zubbani Italian Socialist Party 2012
Viareggio 64,564 Giorgio Del Ghingaro Democratic Party 2015
Siena 54,561 Bruno Valentini Democratic Party 2013
Scandicci 50,304 Sandro Fallani Democratic Party 2014
Sesto Fiorentino 48,780 Lorenzo Falchi Left Ecology Freedom 2016
Empoli 47,997 Brenda Barnini Democratic Party 2014
Capannori 46,355 Luca Menesini Democratic Party 2014
Campi Bisenzio 45,325 Emilio Fossi Democratic Party 2013
Cascina 45,143 Susanna Ceccardi Lega Nord Toscana 2016

Parties and elections

Latest regional election

In the latest regional election, which took place on 31 May 2015, Enrico Rossi of the Democratic Party was re-elected for a second term. Claudio Borghi of Lega Nord came distant second. The Democrats were by far the largest party with 46.3% of the vote.

Candidates Regional lists Provincial lists Total
votes % seats Parties votes % swing seats party group
Enrico Rossi 656,920 48.0 1 Democratic Party 614,869 46.3 +4.1 24 25 25
Tuscan People–Reformists 2020 (incl. PSI) 22,760 1.7 new -
Claudio Borghi 273,795 20.0 2 Lega Nord Toscana 214,430 16.2 +9.7 4 6 7
Brothers of Italy 51,152 3.9 new 1 1
Giacomo Giannarelli 205,818 15.0 1 Five Star Movement 200,771 15.1 new 4 5 5
Stefano Mugnai 124,432 9.1 1 Forza Italia 112,658 8.5 -18.6 1 2 2
Tuscan LeagueMore Tuscany 7,996 0.6 new -
Tommaso Fattori 85,870 6.3 1 Left Ecology Freedom 83,187 6.3 +2.5 1 2 2
Giovanni Lamioni 17,146 1.3 - Popular Area 15,837 1.2 new - -
Gabriele Chiurli 3,621 0.3 - Direct Democracy 3,319 0.3 new - -
Total candidates 1,367,602 100.0 5+1 Total parties 1,326,979 100.0 = 35 40+1 40+1

Source: Tuscany Region


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