The spiric sections result from the intersection of a torus with a plane that is parallel to the rotational symmetry axis of the torus. Consequently, spiric sections are fourth-order (quartic) plane curves, whereas the conic sections are second-order (quadratic) plane curves. Spiric sections are a special case of a toric section, and were the first toric sections to be described.
The most famous spiric section is the Cassini oval, which is the locus of points having a constant product of distances to two foci. For comparison, an ellipse has a constant sum of focal distances, a hyperbola has a constant difference of focal distances and a circle has a constant ratio of focal distances.
- Tannery P. (1884) "Pour l'histoire des lignes et de surfaces courbes dans l'antiquité", Bull. des sciences mathématique et astronomique, 8, 19-30.
- Heath TL. (1931) A history of Greek mathematics, vols. I & II, Oxford.
- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Perseus", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.