A view of the Ponte Duarte Pacheco over the Douro in Penafiel
|Coordinates: 41°12′N 8°17′W / 41.200°N 8.283°WCoordinates: 41°12′N 8°17′W / 41.200°N 8.283°W|
|Intermunic. comm.||Tâmega e Sousa|
|• Total||212.24 km2 (81.95 sq mi)|
|• Density||340/km2 (880/sq mi)|
|Time zone||WET/WEST (UTC+0/+1)|
Penafiel (Portuguese pronunciation: [pɨnɐfiˈɛɫ] or [ˌpenɐfiˈɛɫ]) is a municipality in the northern Portuguese district of Porto. Capital of the Tâmega Subregion, the population was 72,265 in 2011, in an area of 212.24 square kilometres (81.95 sq mi).
The region was occupied since pre-history, as evidenced by the proliferation of megalithic monuments, stone settlements and castros. This includes the Menhir of Luzim, a 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) tall stone dating to an occupation of 3-4000 years B.C. Similarly, in the civil parish of Luzim, are the rock engravings that have existed for 3000 years. In addition, there are various rock forts (castros), subject of archaeological studies, such as the archaeological "city of the dead" in Citânia de Monte Mozinho. One of the largest in the Iberian Peninsula, it was the precursor to the Galician organized community of Cividade Gallaeci; the hill fort is dotted with traces of various cultures: Galician-Lusitanian, Roman, Visigoth and Moorish. There different legends that indicate the origins of the name Penafiel, although the common thread associates it with the many forts situated in the locality.
With the consolidation and incorporation into the Roman world, these hill forts were reorganized and moved down from the hilltops, dispersing into concentrated settlements in open areas and encircled by cultivated parcels, such as in Bouça do Ouro (Boelhe). The Roman spa town of São Vicente do Pinheiro was an example of these centres, developing around the natural resources in the region. In addition, vains of gold interspersed in the Schist and Quartzite quarries attracted Roman settlers from the empire, resulting in an intense artesnal economy, supported by the circulation of a single currency, culture and language.
In the 9th century, activity became concentrated in the Civitas Anegia on the headwaters of the Tâmega and Douro, that dominated the lands along margins of those rivers. This civitas was the precursor of Penafiel de Canas, an area that assumed an import role, but occupied a smaller area and embryonic place that concentrated on agriculture and fishing. The lands were seats of the Romanesque ecclesiastical seigneurs of the Benedictine monasteries of Paço de Sousa and Bustelo. Supporting a rich cultural influence, Paço de Sousa boasted a magnificent Romanesque architecture and gave shelter to the historian Egas Moniz Ribadouro, schoolmaster of Afonso Henriques. Other noble houses of medieval period include Barbosa de Honor (Rans), with its tower overlooking agricultural lands, or the transformed tower of Coreixas (Irivo). Romanesque religious architecture proliferated during the post-Roman period; the Romanesque temple of Boelhe or Church of São Salvador da Gândara (where they venerated a deceased saint's skull) attracted pilgrims to the reigon, as did the Church of Abragão, the late-Gothic Church of São Miguel da Eja or the funerary memorial of Ermida (Irivo).
During this time, emerged a new reality; in the parish of Moazares, home of the Romanesque church of Santa Luzia (circled by sculpted tombs) was a fortified settlement that developed along the banks of the rive, along the roadway from Porto and crossing the Sousa at the medieval bridge of Cepeda. This was an ideal local to build an urban community to specialize in services, artesnal commerce and sale of manufactured goods, supported by a medieval fair. The region was known as Arrifana de Sousa. Legend suggests that name came from the name Ariana (the daughter of Hermenegildo González and D. Mumadona Dias) who, following her father's death, inherited the land in the 10th century.
At its founding, it was dominated by two castles: one along the northern bank of the Sousa river, called the Castle of Aguiar de Sousa and the second along the southern margin, called Pena. It was attacked several times by Moors, but, owing to its resistance was referred to in Latin as Pennafidelis, shortened to the Castle of Penafiel.
The parish of Arrifana de Sousa was established in the sixteenth century. In the same century, in 1519, King Manuel I of Portugal granted the region a foral (charter) that raised the settlement to the status of village. Yet, its change would only occur in the reign of King D. John V (by decree on 7 October 1741).
The site was crossed by various roads, where João Correia, a rich Portoense merchant with contracts in Flanders established his home; he was a new Christian, who raised a Manueline chapel to the Holy Spirit (and who erected his bronze funerary tomb).
As it grew, Arrifana assumed the patron of São Martinho, and in the middle of the 16th century, a new Mannerist temple was constructed over the old chapel of João Correia.
The lands continued as an administrative dependency of Porto, until King D. John I conceded it a privilege for supporting his cause.
Arrifana de Sousa continued to grow as a centre of services and industry, supported by a annual fair on the feast day of São Martinho, resulting in the expansion of the urban environment to the upper elevations and the construction of the Church of the Misericórdia. Meanwhile, the nobles established their homes outside the town centre, preferring to live in their ancestral estates, established from the land rents and businesses and overseas commerce.
By law, during the reign of King Joseph (dated 3 March 1770), the place name was officially changed to Penafiel. At the same time, by papal bull issued by Pope Clement XIV the Diocese of Penafiel was established, separating it from the ecclesiastical Diocese of Porto. He appointed the Carmelite Bishop Friar Inácio São Caetano, then-confessor of Queen Maria I (then Princess of Brazil) as its first prelate. But, he would never administer the Diocese (as he was in Brazil), and was eventually convinced by the Queen to give-up the bishopric. In 1778, Pope Pius VI decided to extinguish the diocese, incorporating its administration (once more) into the Diocese of Porto.
The municipality extends within an area of 212.2 square kilometres (81.9 sq mi), in a confluence of river valleys marked by the Douro, Tâmega and Sousa Rivers, connecting the littoral region and the Transmontana zone. It is a landscape of deep valleys, with intense irrigated zones and pasturelands, with fields encircled by forests of pine and eucalyptus. This inter-fluvial region have granite soils and is rich in water resources, permitting intensive agriculture and extraction industries. The southwest extension of the municipality include a complex of Schist and Greywacke geology, resulting in mountainous, uncultivated and largely forest lands.
An intermediary zone, dividing the littoral and mountainous regions, the region was an important transitory point, with lines of communication extending along inter-regional, land and fluvial networks. The first example was the "royal roadways" that date to the medieval period, that connect Porto and the Trás-os-Montes, that resulted the development of the urban centre, that was a fulcrum in supporting transiting peoples and goods. The Douro was an important link and penetrated the interior, while the flanks of the Alto Douro were used to produce vineyards. The "Entre-os-Rios" district was also an important part in supporting travel along the interior.
With 28 civil parishes it includes a resident population of 72,000 inhabitants (approximately 338.4 people per kilometre square), integrated into the Associação de Municípios do Vale do Sousa (Vale de Sousa Municipal Association)and NUTSIII Tâmega Subregion. The region is settled, but in dispersed enclaves, supported by small industry and commerce, while newer residential homes juxtaposition older rural dwellings. These older homes are usually maintained by part-time farming families and seniors, perpetuated by intense migration and facilitated by their proximity to major roadways.
The municipality is administered by the following civil parishes (freguesias):
- Cabeça Santa
- Duas Igrejas
- Fonte Arcada
- Guilhufe e Urrô
- Lagares e Figueira
- Luzim e Vila Cova
- Paço de Sousa
- Rio de Moinhos
- Rio Mau
- São Mamede de Recezinhos
- São Martinho de Recezinhos
- Termas de São Vicente
The parishes are, largely, semi-industrialized, with a mixture of modern homes and rural dwellings in nature. Villages have houses made with small stones and granite, both of which are common in locality of Penafiel.
Extraction industries, civil construction firms and commerce employs a large number of workers, in addition to a strong concentration of service sector activities, confirmed by a Penafiel's central place in the regional economy.
Penafiel invested in new schools and renovating others during the 20th century, maintaining several kindergartens, primary and secondary schools.
The municipal council is responsible for maintaining several health centres, clinics and hospital, with Padre Américo Hospital situated in the parish of Guilhufe.
The council has has some train stations in their territory of buses throughout the country and a vast road system.
The region of Penafiel is known for a history dating to the pre-historic period, marked by dolmens, petroglyphs, necropoli and fortified settlements constructed of stone. But, over time and through the influence of various cultural groups (Romans, Visigoths, Moors) the area began to evolve into a modern centre, marked by the evolution in its architecture from rudimentary stone dolmens to signeurial manorhouses and monumental estates.
- Castro of Monte Mozinho (Portuguese: Povoado fortificado de Monte Mozinho/Cidade Morta de Penafiel)
- Dolmen of Santa Marta (Portuguese: Anta de Santa Marta/Dólmen da Portela/Forno dos Mouros
- Menhir of Luzim (Portuguese: Menir de Luzim/Marco de Luzim)
- Prehistoric Rock-Art Site of Lomar (Portuguese: Gravuras rupestres de Lomar)
- Prehistoric Rock-Art Site of Pegadinhas de São Gonçalo (Portuguese: Mamoa e gravuras rupestres/Pegadinhas de São Gonçalo/Mamoa da Tapada de Sequeiros)
- Prehistoric Rock-Art Site of Tapada das Eiras (Portuguese: Penedo com gravuras rupestres na Tapada das Eiras/Mata da Casa das Eiras)
- Tomb of Monte de São Roque (Portuguese: Túmulo do Monte de São Roque)
- Aqueduct of the Monastery of Bustelo (Portuguese: Aqueduto do Mosteiro de Bustelo)
- Asylum of Santo António dos Capuchos (Portuguese: Asilo de Meninas Pobres/Lar de Santo António dos Capuchos)
- Bridge Duarte Pacheco (Portuguese: Ponte Duarte Pacheco)
- Bridge of Espindo (Portuguese: Ponte de Espindo)
- Bridge of Lardosa (Portuguese: Ponte de Lardosa/Pontão de Barbosa)
- Bridge of Rans (Portuguese: Ponte Velha de Rans
- Bridge of Santa Marta (Portuguese: Ponte de Santa Marta)
- Bridge of Vau (Portuguese: Ponte do Vau)
- Estate of Cimo de Vila (Portuguese: Casa e Quinta do Cimo de Vila)
- Estate of Abol (Portuguese: Quinta de Abol)
- Estate of Aveleda (Portuguese: Quinta da Aveleda)
- Estate of Boveira (Portuguese: Quinta do Boveira)
- Estate of Casa Nova (Portuguese: Quinta de Casa Nova)
- Estate of Companhia (Portuguese: Casa e Quinta da Companhia)
- Estate of Curveira (Portuguese: Quinta da Curveira)
- Estate of Fentão de Baixo (Portuguese: Quinta Fentão de Baixo)
- Estate of Maragossa (Portuguese: Casa e Quinta da Maragossa)
- Estate of Mesão Fria (Portuguese: Quinta de Mesão Frio)
- Estate of Mogol (Portuguese: Quinta do Mogal)
- Estate of Pena (Portuguese: Quinta da Pena)
- Estate of Perosinho (Portuguese: Quinta do Perosinho)
- Estate of Souto (Portuguese: Quinta do Souto)
- Estate of Ventuzela (Portuguese: Quinta da Ventuzela)
- Fountain Armoriada (Portuguese: Fonte Armoriada nos Jardins da Casa de Cabanelas)
- Hospital Padre Américo Vale do Sousa (Portuguese: Hospital da Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Penafiel/Hospital Padre Américo Vale do Sousa)
- Jailhouse of Penafiel (Portuguese: Cadeia Comarcã de Penafiel/Câmara Municipal de Penafiel)
- Judicial Courts of Penafiel (Portuguese: Tribunal Judicial de Penafiel)
- Manorhouse and Tower of Honra de Barbosa (Portuguese: Solar e Torre da Honra de Barbosa/Honra de Barbosa)
- Municipal Palace/Hall of Penafiel (Portuguese: Câmara Municipal de Penafiel/Edifício dos Paços do Concelho de Penafiel)
- Palace Hotel of Termas de São Vicente (Portuguese: Palace Hotel e SPA Termal das Termas de São Vicente)
- Penafiel Railway Station (Portuguese: Estação Ferroviária de Penafiel)
- Pillory of Honra de Barbosa (Portuguese: Pelourinho da Honra de Barbosa/Pelourinho de Rans)
- Pillory of Penafiel (Portuguese: Pelourinho de Penafiel)
- Residence of Cantoneiros (Portuguese: Casa de Cantoneiros em Entre-os-Rios)
- Residence of Reboleira (Portuguese: Casa da Reboleira)
- School of Novelas (Portuguese: Escola Cantina de Novelas/Escola Básica de Novelas)
- Thermal Spa of Quinta da Torre (Portuguese: Edifício das Termas da Quinta da Torre)
- Thermal Spa of São Vicente (Portuguese: Termas de São Vicente/Balneário Romano de São Vicente)
- Tower of Coreixas (Portuguese: Torre de Coreixas/Torre de Durigo)
- Chapel of the Divino Salvador (Portuguese: Capela do Divino Salvador)
- Chapel of Lagares (Portuguese: Capela em Lagares)
- Chapel of Menino Jesus (Portuguese: Capela do Menino Jesus/Capela da Honra de Barbosa)
- Chapel of Nossa Senhora da Ajuda (Portuguese: Capela de Nossa Senhora da Ajuda)
- Chapel of Nossa Senhora da Cividade (Portuguese: Capela de Nossa Senhora da Cividade)
- Chapel of Nossa Senhora do Desterro (Portuguese: Capela de Nossa Senhora do Desterro)
- Chapel of Nossa Senhora da Lurdes (Portuguese: Capela de Nossa Senhora de Lourdes)
- Chapel of Nossa Senhora do Monte e São Brás (Portuguese: Capela de Nossa Senhora do Monte e São Brás)
- Chapel of Nossa Senhora de Paz (Portuguese: Capela de Nossa Senhora da Paz)
- Chapel of Nossa Senhora do Rosário (Portuguese: Capela de Nossa Senhora do Rosário)
- Chapel of Nossa Senhora da Saude (Portuguese: Capela de Nossa Senhora da Saúde)
- Chapel of the Sagrada Familia (Portuguese: Capela da Sagrada Família)
- Chapel of the Santa Casa da Misericórdia (Portuguese: Capela da Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Penafiel/Teatro Penafidelense)
- Chapel of Santa Luzia (Portuguese: Capela de Santa Luzia)
- Chapel of Santo António (Portuguese: Capela de Santo António)
- Chapel of São Bartolomeu (Portuguese: Capela de São Bartolomeu)
- Chapel of São Bartolomeu de Louredo (Portuguese: Capela de São Bartolomeu de Louredo)
- Chapel of São Domingos (Portuguese: Capela de São Domingos)
- Chapel of São João Baptista (Portuguese: Capela de São João Baptista)
- Chapel of São Julião (Portuguese: Capela de São Julião)
- Chapel of São Lourenço (Portuguese: Capela de São Lourenço)
- Chapel of São Mateus (Portuguese: Capela de São Mateus)
- Chapel of São Pedro (Portuguese: Capela de São Pedro)
- Chapel of São Roque (Portuguese: Capela de São Roque)
- Chapel of São Sebastião (Portuguese: Capela de São Sebastião)
- Chapel of São Simão (Portuguese: Capela de São Simão)
- Chapel of Senhor dos Aflitos (Portuguese: Capela do Senhor dos Aflitos)
- Chapel of Senhor do Calvário (Portuguese: Capela do Senhor do Calvário)
- Chapel of Senhor do Monte (Portuguese: Capela do Senhor do Monte)
- Chapel of the Thermals of Quinta da Torre (Portuguese: Capela das Termas da Quinta da Torre)
- Chapel of the Thermals of São Vicente (Portuguese: Capela das Termas de São Vicente)
- Convent of Santo António dos Capuchos (Portuguese: Convento de Santo António dos Capuchos/Igreja dos Capuchos)
- Chris the King of São Mamede de Recezinhos (Portuguese: Cristo Rei de São Mamede de Recezinhos
- Church of the Divino Salvador (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Cabeça Santa/Igreja do Divino Salvador)
- Church of Nossa Senhora de Fátima (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Oldrões/Igreja de Nossa Senhora de Fátima/Igreja Nova)
- Church of Nossa Senhora da Saúde (Portuguese: Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Saúde)
- Church of Nossa Senhora da Visitação (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Perozelo/Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Visitação)
- Church of Santo Adrião (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Duas Igrejas/Igreja de Santo Adrião)
- Church of Santo André (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Marecos/Igreja de Santo André)
- Church of Santo Estêvão (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Oldrões/Igreja de Santo Estêvão/Igreja Velha)
- Church of Santa Maria (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Coreixas/Igreja de Santa Maria/Capela de Nossa Senhora da Conceição)
- Church of Santa Marinha (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Figueira/Igreja de Santa Marinha)
- Church of Santa Marta (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Santa Marta/Igreja de Santa Marta)
- Church of Santiago (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Santiago de Subarrifana/Igreja de Santiago)
- Church of São João Baptista (Portuguese: Igreja de Rio Mau/Igreja de São João Baptista)
- Church of São João Evangelista (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Guilhufe/Igreja de São João Evangelista)
- Church of São Mamede (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Canelas/Igreja de São Mamede)
- Church of São Mamede de Recezinhos (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de São Mamede de Recezinhos/Igreja de São Mamede)
- Church of São Martinho (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Milhundos/Igreja de São Martinho)
- Church of São Martinho de Recezinhos (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de São Martinho de Recezinhos/Igreja de São Martinho)
- Church of São Martinho de Tours (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Lagares/Igreja de São Martinho de Tours/Igreja Nova)
- Church of São Miguel (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Entre-os-Rios/Igreja de São Miguel)
- Church of São Paio (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Portela/Igreja de São Paio)
- Church of São Paulo (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Sebolido/Igreja de São Paulo)
- Church of São Pedro (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Abragão/Igreja de São Pedro)
- Church of São Gens (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Boelhe/Igreja de São Gens/Igreja Nova)
- Church of São Salvador (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Galegos/Igreja de São Salvador)
- Church of São Tiago (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Capela/Igreja de São Tiago)
- Church of São Tomé (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Canas/Igreja de São Tomé/Capela de São Tomé)
- Church of São Vicente (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Irivo/Igreja de São Vicente)
- Church of Santa Casa da Misericórdia (Portuguese: Edifício e Igreja da Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Penafiel/Museu de Arte Sacra da Misericórdia de Penafiel)
- Hermitage Memorial (Portuguese: Memorial da Ermida)
- Monastery of Bustelo (Portuguese: Mosteiro de Bustelo/Igreja Paroquial de Bustelo/Igreja de São Miguel)
- Monastery of Paço de Sousa (Portuguese: Mosteiro de Paço de Sousa/Igreja Paroquial de Paço de Sousa/Igreja do Salvador)
- Niche of Nossa Senhora de Fátima da Igreja (Portuguese: Nicho de Nossa Senhora de Fátima junto à Igreja)
- Niche of Nossa Senhora de Fátima de São Mamede (Portuguese: Nicho de Nossa Senhora de Fátima em São Mamede de Recezinhos)
- Niche of Nossa Senhora de Fátima de Uchada (Portuguese: Nicho de Nossa Senhora de Fátima na Rua da Uchada)
- Niche of São José (Portuguese: Nicho de São José)
- Paroquial Residence of Abragão (Portuguese: Residência Paroquial de Abragão)
- Paroquial Residence of São Martinho de Recezinhos (Portuguese: Salão Paroquial de São Martinho de Recezinhos)
- Sanctuary of Senhor dos Remédios (Portuguese: Santuário do Senhor dos Remédios)
- Sanctuary of Senhora da Piedade e Santos Passos (Portuguese: Santuário da Senhora da Piedade e Santos Passos)
- Way of the Cross of Penafiel (Portuguese: Passos da Via Sacra de Penafiel)
- Way of the Cross of Senhor dos Passos (Portuguese: Passos da Via Sacra e Capela do Senhor dos Passos)
Penafiel began building its Library in 1863. On 6 June 1917, a new Municipal Library of Penafiel was inaugurated., located on Avenue Araújo e Silva. This would close in October 1919. It was reopened to the public on June 6, 1927 and was transferred to a small lounge on Avenida Sacadura Cabral.
Penafiel is the centre for therapeutic treatments and spas, highlighted by the São Vicente Spa and the Inatel Entre-os Rios Spa. The São Vicente is known for the characteristic quality of its waters: the spa is known for the hyper-mineralized waters, that include concentrated sulphurous and carbonaceous akline silicates and fluoridated water. It is considered the most alkaline among the sulphurous waters of Portugal and Europe, with temperatures of about 18.5 °C (65.3 °F), advocated for the treatment of respiratory diseases and musculo-skeletal system ailments.
One of the largest Portuguese is located in Penafiel: Magikland, formerly Bracalândia (and had moved from Braga), where it prospered.
Tourism is cyclical in the region, influence by the staggering of religious and secular activities, but marked by special events throughout the year, particularly around the religious feast of São Martinho. This includes the literary festival Escritaria and the agricultural fair Agrival, which had its basis in the traditional medieval fairs.
football is the most popular/practised sport within the municipality, leading hundreds of young people to the existing clubs. The largest club is FC Penafiel, which was founded in 1951 and has regular presence on many levels of professional Portuguese seasons. During the 2014-2015 season, the club played in the Premier League after obtaining a rise from the previous season, finishing in 3rd place behind Moreirense (Champion) and FC Porto B. The club is also involved in other athletics activities winning several national and international competitions.
- Instituto Nacional de Estatística
- Direção-Geral do Território
- Soeiro, Teresa (2015), Câmara Municipal, ed., Um brevíssimo olhar sobre o passado de Penafiel (in Portuguese), Penafiel, Portugal: Câmara Municipal de Penafiel
- Soeiro, Teresa (2015), Câmara Municipal, ed., Apresentação do concelho (in Portuguese), Penafiel, Portugal: Câmara Municipal de Penafiel
- Diário da República. "Law nr. 11-A/2013, pages 552 90-91" (pdf) (in Portuguese). Retrieved 29 July 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Penafiel.|