Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||A. Bhimsingh|
A. V. Meiyappan
|Written by||M. S. Solaimani (dialogues)|
|Screenplay by||A. Bhimsingh|
Sivaji Ganesan |
M. R. Radha
|Cinematography||G. Vittal Rao|
|Edited by||A. Bhimsingh|
|Distributed by||AVM Productions|
|16 March 1961|
Paava Mannippu (English: Forgiveness of sins) is a 1961 Indian Tamil-language drama film directed by A. Bhimsingh, who co-produced it under his banner Buddha Pictures, with AVM Productions. The film features an ensemble cast of Sivaji Ganesan, Gemini Ganesan, Savitri, Devika and M. R. Radha in the lead roles. M. V. Rajamma, Chittoor V. Nagaiah and T. S. Balaiah play supporting roles.
The film revolved around the theme of religious harmony with the central characters belonging to Hindu, Muslim and Christian communities. Four children are separated from their parents in childhood. They are then found and raised by foster parents of different religious backgrounds. The rest of the film shows how the children get back together with their biological parents.
The film's soundtrack and score were composed by Viswanathan-Ramamoorthy while Kannadasan was the lyricist. Songs from the soundtrack like "Aththan Ennaththan", "Kaalangalil Aval Vasantham", "Paalirukkum Pazham Irukkum" and "Vantha Naal Muthal" became immensely popular among the Tamil diaspora.
Pava Mannippu was released on 16 March 1961 to positive critical reception. It was a commercial success and became a silver jubilee film. It received the National Film Award for Second Best Feature Film, becoming the first South Indian film to do so. The film was dubbed into Telugu as Paapa Pariharam.
Aalavandhar (M. R. Radha) is a jeweller who lives with his wife (M. V. Rajamma) and two sons Ramu and Rajan. Out of greed, Aalavandhar kills a fellow jeweller who comes to sell him diamonds. When the police interrogate him, he smartly puts the blame on one of his workers named Manickam Pillai (T. S. Balaiah). Manickam lives with his wife and daughter Thangam. His wife, on learning about his implication in the murder, dies of shock immediately after delivering a baby girl. A sympathetic neighbour leaves the baby in the custody of Aalavandhar's wife and takes the elder daughter with her. Aalavandhar's wife hands cover the child to their family friend, James (S. V. Subbaiah). Manickam, on learning about his wife's death and before getting arrested by the police, kidnaps Ramu in revenge and leaves him on a railway track to be killed. Before he changes his mind to rescue him, a local Muslim doctor (Chittoor V. Nagaiah) saves the child and takes him away. All the four children grow: Aalavandhar's son Rajan (Gemini Ganesan), Ramu as Raheem (Sivaji Ganesan) in the doctor's house, Manickam's first daughter as Thangam (Savitri) in the neighbour's house and his second daughter as Mary (Devika) in James's house. Rajan falls in love with Thangam while Raheem likes Mary. The two women reciprocate Rajan's and Raheem's feelings.
Aalavandhar continues to indulge in illegal activities. Raheem, who has taken up his foster father's profession, protect the people living in a nearby slum area and fight for their rights. Though the slum does not belong to Aalavandhar, he claims it to be his property and plans to sell it for his own personal gain. Raheem and Aalavandhar often argue over this issue. Aalavandhar is also keen to get Mary married to Rajan so that he can inherit James' property. On learning about Raheem's love for Mary, Aalavandhar pours acid on Raheem's face while he is sleep to get rid of him. Though Raheem survives, his face is disfigured. Mary, nevertheless, continues to love Raheem. On hearing of this, Aalavandhar implicates Raheem in a false charge of theft and attempt to murder him; Raheem gets arrested. While Raheem is in jail, Aalavandhar gets the slum vacated.
In the meanwhile, Manickam, who has serving time in prison for Aalavandhar's murder, is released from jail on account of good behaviour and joins James as a driver to be with Mary. Rajan becomes a police officer and soon finds out about his father's illegal activities. After having a frustrating argument with Aalavandhar, Rajan resigns his job as he does not wish to take action against his father. Raheem soon comes out on bail and plans to get Rajan and Thangam married. Aalavandhar comes to know of this and, in a fit of rage, locks Raheem in a hut and lights it on fire. When Manickam learns about the conflict between Aalavandhar and Raheem, he reveals to Aalavandhar's wife that Raheem is her son Ramu, whom he kidnapped. All of them rush to save Raheem. When Aalavandhar learns the truth about Raheem, he immediately realises his mistakes, rushes inside the burning hut and saves him. Aalavandhar then confesses his wrongdoings to the police and is arrested. All the family members unite and propagate religious harmony.
- Lead and supporting actors
- Sivaji Ganesan as Ramu/Raheem
- Gemini Ganesan as Rajan
- M. R. Radha as Aalavandhar
- Chittoor V. Nagaiah as the Muslim doctor
- T. S. Balaiah as Manickam Pillai
- S. V. Subbaiah as Joseph
- Lead and supporting actresses
The idea for Pava Mannippu came to A. Bhimsingh based on a story narrated to him by comedian and singer J. P. Chandrababu. The story involved a man who was born a Hindu, raised as a Muslim and weds a Christian woman. Bhimsingh was impressed with Chandrababu's story and decided to direct a film based on it in addition to producing it under his banner Buddha Pictures. The project was titled Abdullah.
Bhimsingh initially filmed 2,000 feet (610 m) of test footage with scenes featuring Chandrababu as the protagonist. Not convinced with the outcome, Bhimsingh sought M. Saravanan's opinion by screening the filmed footage to him. Saravanan liked the story and narrated it to his father A. V. Meiyappan, who volunteered to co-produce the film with Bhimsingh under AVM Productions; Bhimsingh agreed and began to draft a new script under the new title of Pava Mannippu.
While attending the marriage ceremony of Sivaji Ganesan's brother V. C. Shanmugam, Bhimsingh approached Ganesan himself for the lead role as he felt that the film would not work with Chandrababu as the protagonist. Chandrababu too felt the same and agreed to Bhimsingh's choice of Ganesan doing the lead role. Ganesan agreed to do the role after being impressed with the script.
Actress Devika was chosen to play Ganesan's love interest, Mary, for which she accepted a salary of ₹ 4,500. The role of Aalavandhar's wife was initially offered to Pasupuleti Kannamba, but due to her poor health at that time, Bhimsingh cast M. V. Rajamma instead. T. S. Balaiah was cast as Manickam Pillai.
Principal photography for the film began with a Puja ceremony held at AVM Studios on 20 January 1960. The initial budget for the film was ₹ 450,000. After the inclusion of Ganesan instead of Chandrababu as well as making appropriate changes to the original script, the budget increased to ₹ 1.05 million.
Pava Mannippu revolves around the subject of religious tolerance and communal harmony. Film historians Aashish Rajadhyaksha and Paul Willemen, authors of the book Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema, believe that through the songs, the film attempts "to advocate a nationalist secularism." Tamil film historian and writer S. Theodore Baskaran points out in his book, The eye of the serpent: an introduction to Tamil cinema, that the liberal depiction of Muslims and Hindus living together in the slum area show the "harmonious intermingling of the two communities." The central characters in the film deliver what Baskaran describes as "pedagogic lines on the unity of all religions and on the equality of all human beings". The inclusion of religious symbols such as the crucifix and the figurine of Gautama Buddha further stress on the importance of communal harmony.
All the three opine that three of the main characters — a Hindu diamond merchant (M. R. Radha), a Muslim village doctor (Sivaji Ganesan) and a Christian do-gooder (Devika) — symbolise the three major religions of Tamil Nadu. They further elaborate that since Kannadasan, the film's lyricist, was affiliated with the erstwhile Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, he exhibited the political party's rationalist notions through his songs. While Baskaran says that Kannadasan wrote "quite a few lines lampooning religion", Rajadhyaksha and Willemen likewise state that he "included ironic lines which redeem the didacticism of the script."
According to French film historian Yves Thoraval, Paava Mannippu questions religion; the hero wonders in the song "Vantha Naal Muthal" why religions were created — ironical but crammed with gigantic symbols. In his book Popular Cinema and Politics in South India: The Films of MGR and Rajinikanth, S. Rajanayagam compared Paava Mannippu to two other Ganesan-Bhimsingh films: Pasamalar (1961) and Paarthaal Pasi Theerum (1962) as the three films "sentimentalised the family-based fraternal, filial and paternal love". Writing for The Hindu (Tamil), S. S. Vasan made a thematic comparison of "Vantha Naal Muthal" to Hemanta Mukherjee's song "Din Raat Badalte Hain" from Naya Sansaar (1959). The former mentions how the personality of humans keep changing inspite of natural elements around him remaining intact, while the latter notes that everything is prone to change, including humans and natural elements, and nothing ever really remains intact.
|Soundtrack album by Viswanathan–Ramamoorthy|
|Label||The Gramophone Company of India Ltd|
The soundtrack and score were composed by Viswanathan–Ramamoorthy while the lyrics for the songs were written by Kannadasan. The songs were recorded on 45 RPM record made by The Gramophone Company of India Ltd, under whose label the soundtrack was also released. The violin portions for the song "Vantha Naal Muthal", which is based on the Mohanam raga, were played by Ramamoorthy himself. Mukul Bose, the brother of film director Nitin Bose, was the sound designer for the film. For the recording of "Vantha Naal Muthal", Bose had to make use of another area that was allocated for film shooting as the recording theatre could not accommodate all the musicians. The song was recorded using electrical cable wires attached to the film shooting area from the recording theatre.
The soundtrack received critical acclaim, with "Aththan Ennaththan", "Kaalangalil Aval Vasantham", "Paalirukkum Pazham Irukkum" and "Vantha Naal Muthal" becoming evergreen hits. The soundtrack was particularly popular in Sri Lanka, where the songs were frequently broadcast on Radio Ceylon. Film critic and historian Randor Guy of The Hindu believed that Kannadasan’s lyrics and Viswanathan-Ramamoorthy's music contributed significantly to the film's success. Writing for the same newspaper, film critic Baradwaj Rangan, found "Kaalangalil Aval Vasantham" to be a "joyous list song". Singer Charulatha Mani, in her column, A Raga's Journey named "Vantha Naal Muthal" her "personal favourite" in the Mohanam raga and that T. M. Soundararajan's voice "expresses the gamakas with precision." According to Tamil film music historian Vamanan, Pava Mannippu "set the stage for a new musical phase that crowned Susheela as the queen of Tamil film songs." He also labelled "Aththan Ennaththan" as an "entrancing melody".
The song "Kaalangalil Aval Vasantham" provided a much needed breakthrough for P. B. Sreenivas as a playback singer. Bhimsingh and Viswanathan-Ramamoorthy convinced Meiyappan to let Sreenivas render the song instead of Gemini Ganesan's usual playback singer A. M. Rajah. The news organisation Firstpost included "Aththan Ennaththan" as one of "five great Tamil songs from 'Mellisai Mannar' MSV". A remix version of "Vantha Naal Muthal" is featured on music artist M. Rafi's album Aasaiyae Alaipolae. The song "Ellorum Kondaduvom" is aired on DD Chennai every Eid al-Fitr to commemorate the Islamic festival.
All lyrics written by Kannadasan.
|1.||"Aththan Ennaththan"||P. Susheela||04:38|
|2.||"Ellorum Kondaduvom"||T. M. Soundararajan, Nagore E. M. Hanifa||04:44|
|3.||"Kaalangalil Aval Vasantham"||P. B. Sreenivas||03:10|
|4.||"Paalirukkum Pazham Irukkum"||P. Susheela||03:27|
|5.||"Saaya Veeti"||T. M. Soundararajan, K. Jamuna Rani, L. R. Eswari||03:57|
|6.||"Silar Siripar Silar Azhuvar"||T. M. Soundararajan||05:24|
|7.||"Vantha Naal Muthal"||T. M. Soundararajan||04:57|
|8.||"Vantha Naal Muthal (Pathos)"||T. M. Soundararajan, G. K. Venkatesh||04:54|
For promoting the film, a giant sized Hydrogen-filled balloon was imported from Japan was hoisted above Shanthi theatre. On the balloon's head was written "AVM" in English signifying the production company's involvement. The tail end of the balloon had the name of the film written in Tamil ("பாவ மன்னிப்பு"). The balloon was considered the first of its kind in terms of promoting films in Tamil cinema as well as a source of attraction for all who passed by Shanthi theatre. AVM Productions, however, faced legal issues regarding the use of the balloon as it received separate notices — one directly from the Chennai International Airport authorities and the other from its explosives division — to procure permission to use Hydrogen cylinders to fly the balloon. Meiyappan managed to resolve the issue by obtaining permission from the authorities.
AVM also decided to use the popularity of the soundtrack album as another means to publicise the film. The production company conducted a contest for the film's songs on radio stations. In the contest, listeners can list down the songs from the soundtrack starting from which one they liked the most. The winners of the contest was determined based on whether the list from one of the listeners tallied with that of a list prepared by AVM, who announced the list after receiving the lists from all who participated in the contest. The winners would also receive a cash prize of ₹ 10,000. The contest was considered a first of its kind in Tamil cinema and received positive response from the people.
Release, reception and awards
Pava Mannippu was released on 16 March 1961. The film's premiere was initially scheduled to be held at Chitra theatre in Pudhupet, but Meiyappan wanted the film to be released at the newer and much bigger Shanthi theatre in Anna Salai. As a result, Pava Mannippu became the first Tamil film and the first film of Ganesan to be released at Shanthi theatre. The film was a commercial success, achieving a theatrical run of 175 days in theatres and becoming a silver jubilee film. The film received a National Film Award for Second Best Feature Film, the first South Indian film to do so. The film was dubbed into Telugu as Paapa Pariharam.
The film received positive critical reception with praises directed towards Bhimsingh's screenplay and direction, and the performances of the lead cast, especially that of M. R. Radha. According to Guy, Paava Mannippu is remembered till date for the "Superb performances by the actors, the music of Viswanathan-Ramamurthi [sic] and Bhim Singh’s [sic] direction." Rajadhyaksha and Willemen complemented Radha's "remarkable performance" and cited that with this film, Bhimsingh established himself "as the main purveyor of moralising all-star movies in the 60s." Baskaran likewise wrote, "The galaxy of stars, the eight songs, a riotous performance by M. R. Radha and the theme of communal harmony made Pavamannippu [sic] a successful and memorable film of the sixties."
Legacy and influence
Paava Mannippu was one of Bhimsingh's many successful films in the "Pa" series. Ganesan mentioned in his autobiography that Bhimsingh hardly imagined that he would make a series of films that began with the letter "Pa", implying that he "might have thought about it at first because his name starts with the same letter in Tamil. Later he might have decided to stay on with this letter for sentimental reasons." The film was also the first Tamil film that singers Lata Mangeshkar and Asha Bhosle had seen. The two singers had watched it at the Aurora theatre in Mumbai and that during the intermission stage, they found themselves crying even though they did not understand Tamil as they were reminded of their father, Deenanath Mangeshkar, on seeing Ganesan's performance. After the show, they called on Ganesan and each tied a Rakhi around Ganesan's right wrist, thereby embracing him as their brother. The sisters then requested Ganesan and Meiyappan for a 16mm print of Paava Mannippu for themselves to keep as a memento; Ganesan and Meiyappan agreed.
Pava Mannippu was referenced and parodied in various other films. In Moodu Pani (1980), Chandru (Pratap K. Pothen) and Rekha (Shoba) attend a screening of the film. When Goundamani and Senthil try to teach music to a Muslim butcher in Themmangu Paattukaaran (1997), the butcher sings the song "Paal Irukkum Pazhamirukkum" in a discordant manner, much to the duo's chagrin. In both Kakkai Siraginilae (2000) and Arul (2004), Vadivelu sings the song "Vantha Naal Muthal" while riding a bicycle. Vadivelu and Nassar sing "Paal Irukkum Pazhamirukkum" in Koodi Vazhnthal Kodi Nanmai (2000). In Panchathantiram (2002) Ramachandramurthy (Kamal Haasan) mentions the words "Silar Siripar Silar Azhuvar" when his friend's father-in-law, Parthasarathy (Nagesh) enquires about Ramachandramurthy's wife, Mythili (Simran). In King (2002), Vadivelu, who plays a wannabe film director, makes fun of Raja (Vikram) by saying "Pasi Irukkum. Pazham Irukkum. Paal Irukkadho?" (English: There will be hunger. There will be a fruit. Won't there be milk?) when the latter does not have milk to drink. Raja then takes an empty cup and miraculously drinks Vadivelu's cup of milk from his own empty cup. In retaliation to Vadivelu's couplet, he says "Paalirukkum. Pazham Irukkum. Kudikka Mudiyadhu." (English: There will be milk. There will be a fruit. They can't be drunk.) .
- The exchange rate in 1961 was 4.79 Indian rupees (₹) per 1 US dollar (US$).
- According to Rangan, a list song is a song "whose structure is that of a list, a catalogue of similar-sounding (or similar-meaning) things."
- The Tamil film industry had a superstitious belief that Shanthi theatre was jinxed as the films that had their premiere there failed commercially. Meiyappan wanted to prove that the theatre was not jinxed by premiering Pava Mannippu there. The film was successful and helped to break the streak of flops for the theatre.
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