Paul Watson

For other people named Paul Watson, see Paul Watson (disambiguation).
Paul Watson

Watson, with the MY Steve Irwin docked in Hobart, in 2009
Born Paul Franklin Watson
(1950-12-02) December 2, 1950
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Nationality Canadian
Occupation Activist, television personality
Home town Ontario, Canada
Spouse(s) Starlet Melody Lum
Lisa Ann DiStefano
Allison Lance
Yana Rusinovich[1]
Children 1

Paul Franklin Watson (born December 2, 1950) is a marine wildlife conservation and an environmental activist, who founded the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, an anti-poaching and direct action group focused on marine conservation and marine conservation activism. He is a citizen of Canada and the United States.

The Toronto native joined a Sierra Club protest against nuclear testing in 1969. He was an early and influential member of Greenpeace, crewed and skippered for it, and a founding board member in 1972. He has been credited by The New York Times, The New Yorker and other publications with being a founder of Greenpeace, but Greenpeace denies the claim. However the recent release of the film How to Change the World (film) by Producer Jerry Rathwell documents that Watson was indeed one of the original founding members of Greenpeace. Watson argued for a strategy of direct action that conflicted with the Greenpeace interpretation of nonviolence, was ousted from the board in 1977, and subsequently left the organization. That same year, he formed Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. The group is the subject of a reality show named Whale Wars.

He promotes veganism,[2] and a biocentric, rather than anthropocentric, worldview.[3]

Watson's activities have led to legal action from authorities in countries including the United States,[4] Canada, Norway, Costa Rica, and Japan. He was detained in Germany on an extradition request by Costa Rica in May 2012, The Interpol red notice was issued on September 14, 2012, at the request of Japan and Costa Rica.[5]

After staying at sea for 15 months he returned to Los Angeles late October 2013, going through customs and "was not arrested".[6] He appeared before a U.S. appeals court on November 6, 2013 stating that neither he nor Sea Shepherd violated a 2012 order requiring them to leave whaling vessels alone.[7] Although the United States is a signatory member of Interpol, Watson has not been detained for extradition to Japan or Costa Rica. He was living in Vermont, writing books.[8] He has resided in Paris since July 1, 2014.[9]

Early and personal life

According to the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, Paul Watson was born in Toronto to Anthony Joseph Watson and Annamarie Larsen, and grew up in St. Andrews, New Brunswick. As a child he was a member of the Kindness Club, which he has credited with teaching him to "respect and defend animals".[10] After working as a tour guide at Expo 67, the World's Fair that took place in Montreal in 1967, Watson moved to Vancouver.[11]

According to the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, in 1968 and the early 1970s, he joined the Canadian Coast Guard, where he served aboard weatherships, search and rescue hovercraft, and buoy tenders. He signed up as a merchant seaman in 1969 with the Norwegian Consulate in Vancouver and shipped out on the 35,000 ton bulk carrier Bris as a deck hand. The Bris was registered in Oslo, Norway and manifested for the Indian Ocean and Pacific trade.[11]

Watson has one daughter Lilliolani (born 1980) with his first wife, Starlet Lum,[12] who was a founding director of Greenpeace Quebec,[13] Earthforce!, Project Wolf, and Sea Shepherd. His second wife, Lisa Distefano, a former Playboy model, was Sea Shepherd's Director of Operations during the Makah anti-whaling campaigns in Friday Harbor.[14] His third wife, Allison Lance, is an animal rights activist and a volunteer crew member of Sea Shepherd. Watson has one grandchild.[15][16][17] Watson married his fourth wife Yana Rusinovich on February 14, 2015 in Paris, France.[1] Watson recently announced that he is expecting a son with Rusinovich, and that she is due to give birth in late September 2016.[18]


Early years

In October 1969, Watson joined a Sierra Club protest against nuclear testing at Amchitka Island. The group which formed as a result of that protest was the Don't Make a Wave Committee, which evolved into the group known today as Greenpeace.[19] Watson sailed as a crewmember aboard the Greenpeace Too! ship in 1971[20] and skippered the Greenpeace boat Astral in 1972.[11] Paul Watson continued as a crew member, skipper, and officer aboard several Greenpeace voyages throughout the mid-1970s.

According to The New Yorker, The New York Times and other sources,[14][21][22][23] Watson was a founding member of Greenpeace, but the organization denies this stating he "was an influential early member but not, as he sometimes claims, a founder."[24] Greenpeace claims that Watson joined Greenpeace on its Amchitka expedition, which they claim to be their second expedition, but Paul Watson claims that this was Greenpeace's first meeting.[25]

Sea Shepherd Conservation Society

The first Sea Shepherd vessel, the Sea Shepherd, was purchased in December 1978 with assistance from Fund for Animals.[20][26] Sea Shepherd soon established itself as one of the more controversial environmental groups, known for provocative direct action tactics. These tactics have included throwing objects onto the decks of whaling ships, the use of "prop foulers" in an attempt to sabotage the ships, boarding whaling vessels,[27] and the scuttling of two ships in an Icelandic harbor.[28] Watson uses the title "captain" although, as of November 2007, he had never been licensed as a ship's captain.[14] In January 2013, Watson relinquished captaincy of the Steve Irwin.[29] The organization and its activities to halt whaling are the focus of a reality TV series, Whale Wars, airing on Animal Planet.

In 2010, Watson personally received more than $120,000 from Sea Shepherd.[30]

Because of mounting legal complications, Watson has stepped down as head of Sea Shepherd Conservation Society in 2013, to abide by an injunction barring him from proximity with Japanese whaling ships.[31]

Other environmental activities

Watson was a field correspondent for Defenders of Wildlife from 1976 to 1980 and a field representative for the Fund for Animals from 1978 to 1981.[20] Watson also was a co-founder of Friends of the Wolf and Earthforce Environmental Society.[20]

During the 1980s, Watson declared his support for Earth First! and cultivated friendships with David Foreman and Edward Abbey. He proclaimed Sea Shepherd to be the "navy" of Earth First! According to the New Yorker, Watson revived the 19th century practice of tree spiking.[14] Watson ran as an independent candidate in the 1980 Canadian Federal election in Vancouver Centre, proclaiming he wasn't a politician but an environmentalist. He received less than 100 votes. Watson did work with the Green Party of British Columbia in Vancouver in the 1980s and 90s.[32] He ran for mayor in 1996, placing fourth.[33]

In April 2003, Watson was elected to the board of directors of the Sierra Club for a three-year term.[34] In 2006, he did not seek re-election. He resigned from the board a month before his term ended, in protest against the organization's sponsorship of a "Why I Hunt" essay contest.[35]

Watson feels that "no human community should be larger than 20,000 people," human populations need to be reduced radically to "fewer than one billion," and only those who are "completely dedicated to the responsibility" of caring for the biosphere should have children, which is a "very small percentage of humans." He likens humankind to a virus, the biosphere needs to get cured from with a "radical and invasive approach," as from cancer.[36]

In January 2008, Paul Watson was named by The Guardian as one of its "50 people who could save the planet" for the work of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society.[37]

Writings on activism

Watson published Earthforce!, a guide to strategy for environmental activists in 1993.[38] In it, he specifically endorsed the tactics of "monkeywrenching" previously described by Dave Foreman[39] and Edward Abbey.[40] According to Foreman in Eco-Defense—The Field Guide to Monkey-Wrenching, these are tactics of sabotage, covert activity, and direct action.[41] Watson says he incorporated his own personal experience in writing the book.[42]

In Earthforce! An Earth Warrior's Guide to Strategy, Watson expressed disdain for the truthfulness of mainstream media:

The nature of the mass media today is such that the truth is irrelevant. What is true and what is right to the general public is what is defined as true and right by the mass media. Ronald Reagan understood that the facts are not relevant. The media reported what he said as fact. Follow-up investigation was "old news." A headline comment on Monday's newspaper far outweighs the revelation of inaccuracy revealed in a small box inside the paper on Tuesday or Wednesday.[43]

Watson was explicit about what he perceived to be the lack of truthfulness in mass media: "If you do not know an answer, a fact, or a statistic, then simply follow the example of an American President and do as Ronald Reagan did—make it up on the spot and deliver the information confidently and without hesitation."[44][45] In a subsequent book, Ocean Warrior, Watson expanded on this view, saying: "Survival in a media culture meant developing the skills to understand and manipulate media to achieve strategic objectives."[46]


Separation from Greenpeace

Paul Watson continued as a crewmember, officer, and skipper (in 1972) aboard several Greenpeace voyages throughout the mid-1970s. He considers himself a founding member of Greenpeace and Greenpeace International, a claim Greenpeace disputes. According to an influential member, "No one doubted [Watson's] courage for a moment. He was a great warrior-brother. Yet in terms of the Greenpeace gestalt, he seemed possessed by too powerful a drive, too unrelenting a desire to push himself front and center, shouldering everyone else aside."[14]

In 1977, Watson was expelled from the Greenpeace's board of directors by a vote of 11 to 1[47][48] (Watson himself cast the single vote against it). The group felt his strong, "front and center" personality and frequently voiced opposition to Greenpeace's interpretation of "nonviolence" were too divisive.[49] Watson subsequently left the group. The group has since labeled his actions at the time as those of a "mutineer" within their ranks.[50][51] That same year, he founded his own group, the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society.[52]

During an interview in 1978 with CBC Radio, Watson spoke out against Greenpeace (as well as other organizations) and their role and motives for the anti-sealing campaigns.[53] Watson accused these organizations of campaigning against the Canadian seal hunt because it is an easy way to raise money and it is a profit maker for the organizations.[53]

Greenpeace has called Watson a violent extremist and will no longer comment on his activities.[54]

Charges and prosecutions

Watson was sentenced to 10 days in prison and fined $8,000 for his actions during a Canadian seal hunt protest in 1980. He was convicted of assaulting a peace officer. He was also found guilty under the Seal Protection Act for painting harp seal pups with red dye to devalue their pelts.[55] Watson was arrested in 1993 in Canada on charges stemming from actions against Cuban and Spanish fishing boats off the coast of Newfoundland.[56] In 1997, Watson was convicted in absentia[57] and sentenced to serve 120 days in jail by a court in Lofoten, Norway on charges of attempting to sink the small scale Norwegian fishing and whaling vessel Nybrænna on December 26, 1992.[58][59] Dutch authorities refused to hand him over to Norwegian authorities although he did spend 80 days in detention in the Netherlands pending a ruling on extradition before being released.[58]

There have not been any successful attempts at prosecuting Watson for his activities with Sea Shepherd since the trial in Newfoundland. Watson defends his actions as falling within international law, in particular Sea Shepherd's right to enforce maritime regulations against illegal whalers and sealers.[60]

Paul Watson leads protest against Makah whaling, Port Angeles, Washington, 1998.

Sea Shepherd activists Rod Coronado and David Howitt went to Iceland in 1986 and scuttled two whaling ships in port at Reykjavík and also damaged a whale meat processing factory.[61] Watson took responsibility for the operation, abiding by published Sea Shepherd principles.[62] He went to Iceland saying, "I am responsible for all activities undertaken in the name of Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. I give the orders."[63] He was deported without being charged and is considered a persona non grata by Iceland[64][65]

In April 2010 the Japanese Coast Guard obtained an arrest warrant for Watson "...on suspicion of ordering sabotage activities against Japan's whaling fleet",[66] and Interpol has listed him as wanted at the request of Japan. The red notice has the charges issued by Japan as, "Breaking into the Vessel, Damage to Property, Forcible Obstruction of Business, Injury".[67] In March 2012 Interpol issued a "written statement to all 190 member countries making it clear that it would not publish a Red Notice" for the detention of Watson,[68] but reversed that position in September 2012.[69] In both statements Interpol stated that a "Red Notice is not an international arrest warrant" that it is "a request for any country to identify or locate an individual with a view to their provisional arrest and extradition in accordance with the country's national laws".

A sign calling for the dropping of charges against Watson

In May 2012 Watson was detained by German authorities at the Frankfurt Airport because of a request from the government of Costa Rica. The charge stemmed from an altercation at sea in 2002 in which Sea Shepherd said that the other vessel was illegally shark finning in Guatemalan waters. Crew members of the other ship accused Sea Shepherd of trying to kill them.[70][71] Watson was charged with violating navigational regulations with the Interpol alert stating the charge as, "peligro de naufragio" (danger of shipwreck).[72][73] The conflict took place during filming for the documentary Sharkwater and the charges were dropped by prosecutors after video of the incident made by the documentary film makers was shown.[74] On May 21, Watson was released on bail of €250,000 but required to report to police in Frankfurt on a daily basis.[75][76] In June, Costa Rica formally requested Watson's extradition from Germany.[77] On July 19, 2012, Japan applied for an extradition order[78] and Watson left Germany,[79] resulting in a German court ordering his immediate re-arrest.[80] It is understood the statute of limitations on his Costa Rican charges was set to expire in June 2013.[81] On August 7, 2012 Interpol renewed the Red Notice for Watson on the charges of "causing a danger of drowning or of an air disaster" laid by Costa Rica.[82] It was reported that Watson would come out of hiding to join Sea Shepherd in the 2012–13 campaign against Japanese whaling.[83] Watson rejoined the crew of the Steve Irwin in the South Pacific in late November 2012.[84]

Sierra Club immigration stance

After his election to the national Sierra Club Board of Directors in 2003, Watson supported an unsuccessful slate of candidates supporting strict immigration controls as an element of a population stabilization policy. This effort was denounced by another candidate in the election, Morris Dees of the Southern Poverty Law Center, as a "hostile takeover" attempt by "radical anti-immigrant activists."[85] Watson responded by saying that the only change he was seeking in the organization's immigration stance was to restore the position it had held before its 1996 "neutrality policy."[86] Watson left the Sierra Club board in 2006.[87]

Anti-sealing activities

In April 2008, Watson stated that, while the deaths of three Canadian seal hunters (a fourth one is still missing) in a marine accident involving a Canadian Coast Guard vessel and a fishing boat during the 2008 Canadian Commercial Seal Hunt were a tragedy, he felt that the slaughter of hundreds of thousands of seals is an even greater tragedy. Canadian Federal Fisheries Minister Loyola Hearn accused Watson of trivializing the memory of the lost sealers.[88] Watson replied that Hearn was trying to distract attention from his government's incompetence as the boat the men were on capsized while under tow by a Canadian Coast Guard vessel, while his political ambitions continued to support and subsidize an industry that had no place in the 21st century.[89] In 1978, Watson expressed opposition to seal hunt protest organization, suggesting in an interview with CBC's Barbara Frum that saving seals is a cheap and easy fundraiser and that seals do not deserve special status over other species.[90] Newfoundland and Labrador Premier Danny Williams was quoted as saying, "I think what a lot of people don't realize is that this man is a terrorist."[91] Because of the operations against Canadian seal hunters, Danny Williams called Watson a terrorist and said that the Sea Shepherds were not welcome in the province.[92]

Australian visa issues

In October 2009, Watson, who carries a US passport,[93] complained to media outlets about having his request for an Australian visa denied. He states that the Australian government was attempting to sabotage the upcoming 2010 Sea Shepherd campaign by denying him entry into the country. Watson and several other shipmates were also unable to join the Steve Irwin on its promotional tour of Australia until they were able to provide documentation from the governments of the United States, Canada and Norway, exonerating them from previously claimed acts of violence, specifically claims by Sea Shepherd of intentionally sinking a ship in Norway.[94][95][96][97] In January 2013, Paul Watson was presented with an Aboriginal passport by the Krautungalung people of the Gunnai Nation.[98]

Alleged shooting

Paul Watson and the Farley Mowat crew in 2005.

On March 17, 2008, Paul Watson said that he was shot by the Japanese crew or coast guard personnel during the Operation Migaloo anti-whaling campaign in the Southern Ocean. The incident is documented during the season finale of season 1 of the Whale Wars TV reality show, and the first six episodes are covered as a buildup to what is portrayed as the major incident during the campaign. The footage in Whale Wars shows Watson standing on the deck of the Steve Irwin while Sea Shepherd crew throws glass bottles filled with butyric acid at the Nisshin Maru whaling vessel. Butyric acid was used for its foul odor and sticky properties.[99] The Japanese respond by throwing stun grenades, one crew member is injured from a grenade detonating close behind him and another injured trying to escape the explosions.[100] Watson is then shown reaching inside his jacket and body armour and remarking "I've been hit." Back inside the bridge of the Steve Irwin, a metal fragment is found inside the vest.[101]

The Japanese Institute of Cetacean Research disputes Sea Shepherd's statements. The Institute and Coast Guard said that they used seven stun grenades designed to temporarily debilitate a target by rendering them blind and deaf for a period of time.[100] The Japanese government also admitted that the whalers launched "noise balls", described as "loud explosive deterrent devices".[102] Neither of the two conflicting accounts have been independently verified. The Australian Foreign Affairs Department had condemned "actions by crew members of any vessel that cause injury". Two media releases were made on the same day from the office. One said that the Australian Embassy in Tokyo had been informed by the Japanese that the whalers had "fired warning shots"[103] while the updated version used the phrase "'warning balls' – also known as 'flashbangs' – had been fired".[104] Disgruntled former member Pete Bethune, claimed that unknown Sea Shepherd crew members had informed him that the episode was faked to gain publicity, but Bethune was not involved with the group at that time.[105]

Accusations of terrorism

Watson has been called an eco terrorist by the Japanese government for his direct action tactics against whalers, and have repeated their position after conflicts during the 2009–10 whaling season.[54][106]

At an animal rights convention in 2002, Paul Watson was also quoted as saying, "There's nothing wrong with being a terrorist, as long as you win. Then you write the history."[107] In 2010, Fox News commentator Glenn Beck also discussed the comment, criticizing Watson's views.[108] Watson responded to Beck's comments on the official Sea Shepherd website by stating that he had said that but that it was taken out of context, quoting Gerald Seymour's "One man's terrorist is another's freedom fighter."[109]

Comments following 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami

Watson was criticized for his comments immediately following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami in which he suggested that the disaster was divine punishment.[110][111] He responded to critics with a commentary on the Sea Shepherd website expressing "deepest concern and sympathy for the people of Japan who are suffering through one of the worst natural disasters in the history of civilization".[112]

Criticism of New Zealand over whaling

In 2013, three Sea Shepherd Conservation Society ships docked in New Zealand, and were searched by New Zealand authorities to see if Watson was aboard. He wasn't, having transferred to another ship in international waters, aware New Zealand was required to notify Interpol if he entered the country. Watson criticised the search, accusing New Zealand of siding with Japan on the issue of whaling in the Southern Ocean.[113]

Reactions to activism and leadership

Watson has stated that he does not consider himself a 'protester', but an 'interventionist', as he considers protesting as too submissive.[114] He often takes the attitude that he represents (or stands in for) law enforcement which is either unwilling or unable to enforce existing laws.[26]

His leadership style has variously been called arrogant, as well as pushing himself too much "front and center", which was cited as one of the reasons for expulsion from Greenpeace. The atmosphere aboard his vessels has been compared to an "anarchy run by God".[26]

The former member of Sea Shepherd and captain of the MY Ady Gil Pete Bethune described Watson as "morally bankrupt" who would order the intentional sinking of his own ships like the Ady Gil as a means to "garner sympathy with the public and to create better TV". Watson denied this, saying "No one ordered him to scuttle it. Pete Bethune was captain of the Ady Gil, all decisions on the Ady Gil were his."[115]


Paul Watson received the Jules Verne Award on October 10, 2012. He was the second person after Captain Jacques Cousteau to be honored with a Jules Verne Award dedicated to environmentalists and adventurers.[116] On June 28, 2010 Paul received the Asociación de Amigos del Museo de Anclas Philippe Cousteau: Defense of Marine Life Award, in recognition of his merits achieved by the work done in defense of marine life.[117] In 2002, Paul was inducted into the U.S. Animal Rights Hall of Fame for his outstanding contributions to animal liberation.[118] Paul received the George H. W. Bush Daily Points of Light Award in 1999 [119] and in 2000, he was named one of Time Magazine's Top 20 Environmental Heroes of the 20th Century.

Media portrayals

A biographical documentary on Paul Watson's early life and background entitled Pirate for the Sea was produced by Ron Colby in 2008.[120][121][122] The 2008 documentary At the Edge of the World chronicled the efforts of Watson and 45 volunteers to hinder the Japanese whaling fleet in the waters around Antarctica. In 2010, long time friend and filmmaker Peter Brown published the documentary Confessions of an Eco-Terrorist, a satirical look back at the last 30 years of actions.[123] The documentary Eco-Pirate: The Story of Paul Watson from 2011 features interviews and footage with early Greenpeace members Rex Weyler and Patrick Moore.[124]

Watson, Whale Wars, and the Japanese whaling industry were satirized in the South Park episode "Whale Whores". In its fictional Larry King show, Watson himself was called "An unorganized incompetent media whore who thought lying to everyone was OK as long as it served his cause" and "A smug, narcoleptic liar with no credibility".[125][126][127] Watson responded to the South Park episode by stating; "My understanding is that the Japanese Prime Minister was not amused and the whalers and dolphin killers are enraged at the way they were portrayed," Watson said. "That's music to my ears. If the humorless whale killers and the bank rollers of the dolphin killers did not like the show, then that's all I need to applaud it."[128]

Watson was portrayed (along with whale biologist, Nan Hauser), during a 60 Minutes episode[129] that aired in 2013, as contributing to the return of the Humpback whale populations in the South Pacific.

List of works

See also

Further reading


  1. 1 2 Lopez, Jaime (February 14, 2015). "Sea Shepherd's Paul Watson Gets Married on Valentine's Day". The Costa Rica Star. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
  2. "A Very Inconvenient Truth // Animals Australia". Retrieved May 22, 2014.
  3. "About the Authors". Retrieved May 22, 2014.
  4. Dwyer, Molly (December 17, 2012). "Appeal from the United States District Court for the Western District of Washington Richard A. Jones, District Judge, Presiding" (PDF). United States Court of Appeals. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  5. "N20120914 / 2012 / News & media releases / News and media / Internet / Home – INTERPOL". September 14, 2012. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
  6. "Paul Watson, Sea Shepherd Founder, Disembarks In U.S. For First Time In Months". October 31, 2013. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
  7. "Paul Watson, Sea Shepherd Conservation Society Founder, Testifies in U.S. Court". Huffington Post. November 6, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2013.
  8. "'Whale Wars' returns without captain Paul Watson". USA Today. December 13, 2013. Retrieved December 28, 2013.
  9. "Canada says environmentalist Paul Watson can reapply for passport". Reuters. June 16, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2015.
  10. Watson, Paul (14 March 2007). "How real Conservatives view the Canadian seal slaughter". Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  11. 1 2 3 "Paul Watson Biography". Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. Retrieved July 27, 2008.
  12. "Captain Watson's Biography". Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
  13. Broder, John (December 6, 2011). "Greenpeace leader visits boardroom, without forsaking social activism". The New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2013. 'It's all about extreme political correctness,' said Paul Watson, a founding director of Greenpeace who is now the head of Sea Shepherd
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 Khatchadourian, Raffi (November 5, 2007). "Neptune's Navy: Paul Watson's Wild Crusade to Save the Oceans". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 30, 2009.
  15. "Prosecutor Agrees to Release Allison and Alex jailed 22 days...but Fines Sea Shepherd 800,000 Yen ($8,000 US) for freeing dolphins!" December 3, 2003. . Retrieved February 23, 2009.
  16. Animal rights activist arrested in Seattle grand jury probe Komo Staff and News Services,, January 15, 2004. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  17. Shukovsky, Paul. "No perjury charges vs. animal activist." Seattle Post-Intelligencer, September 9, 2004.
  18. "Instagram". Instagram. April 30, 2016. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
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  29. Andrew Darby (January 8, 2013). "Sea Shepherd founder steps down". Retrieved August 22, 2013.
  30. Proussalidis, Daniel (August 3, 2012). "Germans search for Watson". Tillsonburg News. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
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  32. "33rd Parliament Election Results". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved February 13, 2009.
  33. "1996 Local General Election Results- Mayor". City of Vancouver. 1996. Retrieved February 13, 2009.
  34. "Paul Watson is elected to the Sierra Club Board of Directors in April, 2003". Retrieved February 25, 2010.
  35. "Sierra Club Director Paul Watson Resigns to Protest Hunting Prize". Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. April 17, 2006. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
  36. The Beginning of the End for Life as We Know it on Planet Earth? – There is a Biocentric Solution, Paul Watson,, April 5, 2007
  37. Vidal, John; Adam, David; Watts, Jonathan; Hickman, Leo; Sample, Ian (January 4, 2008). "0 people who could save the planet". The Guardian. London. Retrieved January 13, 2008.
  38. Paul Watson. 1993. Earthforce! An Earth Warrior's Guide to Strategy. La Caňada, CA: Chaco Press.
  39. Foreman, Dave, and Bill Haywood, eds. Ecodefense: A field guide to monkeywrenching. Tucson, AZ: Ned Ludd Book, 1987.
  40. Abbey, Ed. The monkeywrench gang. Salt Lake City: Dream Garden Press, 1985.
  41. Paul Watson. 1993. Earthforce! An Earth Warrior's Guide to Strategy. La Caňada, CA: Chaco Press, p. 61.
  42. Paul Watson. 1993. Earthforce! An Earth Warrior's Guide to Strategy. La Caňada, CA: Chaco Press, p. 10.
  43. Paul Watson. 1993. Earthforce! An Earth Warrior's Guide to Strategy. La Caňada, CA: Chaco Press, p. 42.
  44. Paul Watson. 1993. Earthforce! An Earth Warrior's Guide to Strategy. La Caňada, CA: Chaco Press, p. 43.
  45. Militants sink two of Iceland's Whaling Vessels. New York Times, November 10, 1986.
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