Papal election, 1198
The papal election of January 8, 1198 was convoked after the death of Pope Celestine III; it ended with the election of Cardinal Lotario dei Conti di Segni, who took the name Innocent III. In this election for the first time the new pope was elected per scrutinium.
Death of Celestine III
Pope Celestine III had been elected to the papacy in 1191 at the age of 85. In spite of his very advanced age, his pontificate lasted almost seven years. On Christmas Day, 1197 the 91-year-old Pope expressed the wish to abdicate the papacy on condition that his close collaborator Cardinal Giovanni di San Paolo would be elected the new pope. The cardinals rejected the suggestion as inconsistent with the rule that papal elections must be free ones. Shortly thereafter, on January 8, 1198, Celestine III died and the cardinals present at his deathbed immediately started proceedings for the election of his successor.
List of participants
At the death of Celestine III there were 29 cardinals in the Sacred College. However, no more than 21 were present at Rome:
|Ottaviano di Paoli||Bishop of Ostia e Velletri||December 18, 1182||Lucius III||He consecrated new pope to the priesthood and episcopate|
|Pietro Gallocia||Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina||1188||Clement III|
|Soffredo||Priest of S. Prassede||December 18, 1182||Lucius III|
|Pietro Diana||Priest of S. Cecilia||March 16, 1185||Lucius III|
|Giordano di Ceccano, O.Cist.||Priest of S. Pudenziana||March 12, 1188||Clement III|
|Giovanni da Viterbo||Priest of S. Clemente and bishop of Viterbo e Toscanella||May 1189||Clement III|
|Guido Papareschi||Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere||September 22, 1190||Clement III|
|Giovanni di Salerno, O.S.B.Cas.||Priest of S. Stefano in Monte Celio||September 22, 1190||Clement III||Elected Pope but declined|
|Cinzio Cenci||Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina||September 22, 1190||Clement III|
|Ugo Bobone||Priest of SS. Silvestro e Martino||September 22, 1190||Clement III||Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica|
|Giovanni di San Paolo||Priest of S. Prisca||February 20, 1193||Celestine III||Celestine III tried to designate him as his successor|
|Graziano da Pisa||Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano||March 4, 1178||Alexander III||Protodeacon; he crowned the new pope|
|Gerardo Allucingoli||Deacon of S. Adriano||December 18, 1182||Lucius III||Cardinal-nephew|
|Gregorio de San Apostolo||Deacon of S. Maria in Portico||March 12, 1188||Clement III|
|Gregorio Crescenzi||Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro||March 12, 1188||Clement III|
|Gregorio Carelli||Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro||September 22, 1190||Clement III|
|Lotario dei Conti di Segni||Deacon of SS. Sergio e Bacco||September 22, 1190||Clement III||Cardinal-nephew; elected Pope Innocent III|
|Gregorio Boboni||Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria||September 22, 1190||Clement III|
|Niccolò Scolari||Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin||September 22, 1190||Clement III||Cardinal-nephew|
|Bobo||Deacon of S. Teodoro||February 20, 1193||Celestine III||Cardinal-nephew|
|Cencio||Deacon of S. Lucia in Silice and Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church||February 20, 1193||Celestine III||Acting papal chancellor; future Pope Honorius III (1216-1227); possibly of Savelli family|
Four electors were created by Celestine III, five by Lucius III, one by Alexander III and the remaining thirteen by Clement III.
At least eight cardinals were absent:
|Konrad von Wittelsbach||Bishop of Sabina and Archbishop of Mainz||December 18, 1165||Alexander III||Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals; papal legate in the Holy Land; external cardinal|
|Guillaume aux Blanches Mains||Priest of S. Sabina and Archbishop of Reims||March 1179||Alexander III||Protopriest; Minister of State of the Kingdom of France; external cardinal|
|Ruggiero di San Severino||Priest of S. Eusebio and Archbishop of Benevento||Circa 1178-1180||Alexander III||External cardinal|
|Pandolfo da Lucca||Priest of SS. XII Apostoli||December 18, 1182||Lucius III||Papal legate in Tuscany|
|Adelardo Cattaneo||S.R.E. cardinalis and bishop of Verona||March 16, 1185||Lucius III||Resigned the titular church of S. Marcello after the election to the see of Verona in 1188; external cardinal|
|Bernardo, C.R.S.F.||Priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli||March 12, 1188||Clement III||Papal legate in Tuscany and Lombardy|
|Roffredo dell'Isola, O.S.B.Cas.||Priest of SS. Marcellino e Pietro||1188||Clement III||Abbot of Montecassino; ; external cardinal|
|Peter of Capua||Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata||February 20, 1193||Celestine III||He was legate in Bohemia and Poland in 1197. At the death of Celestine III he had already finished this mission but was unable to reach Rome before the election|
Election of Pope Innocent III
On the same day that Celestine III had died the cardinals assembled in Septizonium in the voluntary enclosure. For the first time the electors voted by scrutiny (per scrutinium). Some cardinals were elected scrutineers; they counted the votes, recorded the result and announced it to the rest of the Sacred College. In the first scrutiny Cardinal Giovanni di Salerno received the greatest number of votes (ten), but declared that he would not accept the election to the pontificate. In the second scrutiny the cardinals united their votes in favor of 37-year-old Cardinal Lotario dei Conti di Segni, deacon of SS. Sergio e Bacco, who was the youngest of all the cardinals. He accepted his election and took the name Innocent III, maybe as a reference to his predecessor Innocent II (1130-1143), who had succeeded in asserting the Papacy's authority over the emperor (in contrast with Celestine III's recent policy). .
On February 22, 1198 the new pope was ordained to the priesthood and consecrated to the episcopate by Cardinal Ottaviano di Paoli, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, and solemnly crowned by Cardinal Graziano da Pisa, protodeacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano.
- A. Piazzoni, p. 177
- The Catholic Encyclopedia: Pope Innocent III
- T. Greenwood, p. 358
- Number according to W. Maleczek, p. 241. K. Eubel, p. 3, note 1; and T. Greenwood, p. 358, give the number of only 28, but Eubel omitted Ruggiero of S. Eusebio, and Greenwood does not provide the list at all
- Reconstruction is based on the biographical data of the cardinals in: W. Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216, Wien 1984. This author, p. 354, suggests even the lower number of electors (19 or 20), but without indicating which cardinals were absent. T. Greenwood, p. 358, says that at least five out of twenty eight cardinals were absent
- For this reason, some authors consider this election as the first papal conclave (A. Piazzoni, p. 176, note 2), but the formal procedures of the conclave would not be developed until the papal election, 1268–1271, and were first implemented in the papal conclave, January 1276
- A. Piazzoni, p. 177. Piazzoni cites for this statement two anonymous contemporary sources: Oratio pro eligendo pontifice and Gesta Innocentii papae. However, according to T. Greenwood, p. 299, there is some evidence suggesting that similar procedure might have been already used in the papal election, 1191, but the source that he cited is brief and ambiguous, and is insufficient to ascertain it.
- W. Maleczek, p. 108
- Unanimity of the election: Smith, p. 12
- S. Miranda Cardinal Lotario dei Conti di Segni.
- See Julien Théry-Astruc, "Introduction", in Innocent III et le Midi (Cahiers de Fanjeaux, 50), Toulouse, Privat, 2015, p.11-35, at p. 13-14
- S. Miranda Cardinal Lotario dei Conti di Segni.
- Eubel, Konrad (1913). "Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi" (in Latin). I. Münster.
- Greenwood, Thomas (1865). Cathedra Petri. XII, XIII. London: William Macintosh.
- Jaffé, Philipp (1851). Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita Ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII (in Latin). Berlin: Veit et Socius.
- Maleczek, Werner (1984). Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 (in German). Vienna: M. Schöbel.
- Miranda, Salvador. "Consistory of September 1190 (III)". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church.
- Ott, Michael (1910). "Pope Innocent III". The Catholic Encyclopedia. VIII. Robert Appleton Company.
- Piazzoni, Ambrogio (2003). Historia wyboru papieży (in Polish). Kraków: Wydawnictwo M. ISBN 83-7221-648-7.
- Smith, Damian J (2004). Innocent III and the Crown of Aragon. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-3492-2.
- Julien Théry-Astruc, "Introduction", in Innocent III et le Midi (Cahiers de Fanjeaux, 50), Toulouse, Privat, 2015, p.11-35.