Papal conclave, 1676
Coat of arms during the vacancy of the Holy See
|Dates and location|
2 August – 21 September 1676|
Apostolic Palace, Papal States
|Camerlengo||Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni|
(Name taken: Innocent XI)
After the death of Pope Clement X on 22 July 1676, the College of Cardinals convened in Rome to elect a successor. The college consisted of 67 members: 44 of them took part at the opening of the conclave, and the number rose to 63 when others finally arrived from abroad. Seven of these cardinals had been created by Urban VIII, twelve by Innocent X, eight by Alexander VII, and nineteen by Clement IX and Clement X. Absent cardinals included Friedrich of Hessen and Pascal of Aragon.
A list was already in circulation indicating possible papal candidates. Only Cardinal Benedetto Odescalchi was suitably "papabile" at the time of the conclave. Odescalchi had emerged as a strong candidate for the papacy after the earlier death of Pope Clement IX on 9 December 1669, but the French Government had vetoed his nomination. After the death of Clement X, King Louis XIV of France had again intended to use his royal influence against the election of Odescalchi, who he viewed as sympathetic to Spain. But, seeing that his popularity had grown among the cardinals as well as the Roman people, he reluctantly instructed the cardinals of the French party to acquiesce in his candidacy.
On the 1st ballot, held on 3 August 1676, Odescalchi received 14 votes. 13 other candidates remained in the running, with 25 abstentions. The number of candidates sank, but the vote on 20 September gave only 8 votes to Odescalchi. 19 votes were spread among cardinals Barberini, Rospigliosi and Alberizzi, while 30 cardinals abstained.
Finally on 21 September, Odescalchi was surrounded in the chapel of the conclave and proclaimed pope by acclamation rather than formal vote. Each cardinal kissing his hand. Once pope-elect, Innocent XI made the College swear to the Conclave capitulation that had been drafted by the previous conclave before accepting his election, in an attempt to avoid any limits to the papal supremacy. Innocent was then formally enthroned as pope on 4 October 1676. Cardinals Virginio Orsini and Carlo Bonelli both died during the conclave.
- Francesco Barberini, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
- Ulderico Carpegna, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
- Giulio Gabrielli, bishop of Sabina.
- Cesare Facchinetti, bishop of Palestrina.
- Girolamo Grimaldi-Cavalleroni, bishop of Albano.
- Carlo Rossetti, bishop of Faenza.
- Niccolò Albergati-Ludovisi.
- Benedetto Odescalchi. (Elected Pope Innocent XI)
- Alderano Cibo, bishop of Iesi.
- Lorenzo Raggi.
- Jean-François-Paul de Gondi de Retz.
- Luigi Omodei.
- Pietro Vito Ottoboni.
- Francesco Albizzi.
- Carlo Pio di Savoia.
- Girolamo Buonvisi, bishop of Lucca.
- Antonio Bichi, bishop of Osimo.
- Giacomo Franzoni, bishop of Camerino.
- Pietro Vidoni.
- Gregorio Barbarigo, bishop of Padua.
- Girolamo Boncompagni, archbishop of Bologna.
- Celio Piccolomini.
- Carlo Carafa della Spina.
- Alfonso Litta, archbishop of Milan.
- Neri Corsini.
- Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni, prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide.
- Giannicolò Conti, bishop of Ancona.
- Giacomo Filippo Nini.
- Giulio Spinola, bishop of Nepi and Sutri.
- Innico Caracciolo, archbishop of Naples.
- Giovanni Delfino.
- Giacomo Rospigliosi, legate in Avignon.
- Sigismondo Chigi.
- Emmanuel Théodose de la Tour d'Auvergne de Bouillon.
- Luis Manuel Fernández de Portocarrero-Bocanegra y Moscoso-Osorio.
- Carlo Cerri, bishop of Ferrara.
- Lazaro Pallavicino.
- Camillo Massimi.
- Gasparo Carpegna, prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars.
- Bernhard Gustave von Baden-Durlach, O.S.B.
- César d'Estrées.
- Johann Eberhard Nidhard, S.J.
- Pierre de Bonzi, archbishop of Narbonne, France.
- Vincenzo Maria Orsini, O.P., bishop of Manfredonia.
- Francesco Nerli, archbishop of Florence.
- Girolamo Gastaldi.
- Federico Baldeschi Colonna, secretary of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council.
- Galeazzo Marescotti, legate in Ferrara.
- Alessandro Crescenzi, bishop of Recanati and Loreto.
- Bernardino Rocci, archbishop-bishop of Orvieto.
- Fabrizio Spada.
- Mario Alberizzi, archbishop-bishop of Tivoli.
- Philip Howard, O.P.
- Francesco Maidalchini.
- Carlo Barberini.
- Decio Azzolino, iuniore.
- Paolo Savelli.
- Flavio Chigi, seniore.
- Niccolò Acciaioli, legate in Ferrara.
- Bonaccorso Bonaccorsi, legate in Bologna.
- Felice Rospigliosi.
- Girolamo Casanate.
- Pietro Basadonna.
Two cardinals, who never entered the conclave, died in Rome during the sede vacante:
- Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros., bishop of Frascati (+ August 21, 1676);
- Carlo Bonelli (+ August 27, 1676).
And two were absent from Rome:
- Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt, O.S.Io.Hieros.
- Pascual de Aragón-Córdoba-Cardona y Fernández de Córdoba.
- Baumgartner, Frederic J. 2003. Behind Locked Doors: A History of the Papal Elections. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-29463-8
- S. Miranda: Papal Conclave, 1676
- The Triple Crown: An Account of the Papal Conclaves by Valérie Pirie.