Papal conclave, 1644
Coat of arms during the vacancy of the Holy See
|Dates and location|
9 August – 15 September 1644|
Apostolic Palace, Papal States
|Dean||Marcello Lante della Rovere|
|Sub-Dean||Pier Paolo Crescenzi|
|Protodeacon||Carlo de Medici|
|Vetoed||Giulio Cesare Sacchetti|
Giovanni Battista Pamphilj|
(Name taken: Innocent X)
The papal conclave of 1644 was the papal conclave called upon the death of Pope Urban VIII. It lasted from 9 August to 15 September 1644; the cardinal electors chose Giovanni Battista Pamphili, who took office as Pope Innocent X.
Pope Urban VIII died on July 29, 1644. His reign (which included the costly First War of Castro) had been financially troubling for Rome and for the Church and the conflict for control of the Church between Spain and France and the ongoing Thirty Years' War meant many cardinals arrived at the conclave seeking a compromise that would bring stability to the Church.
But Urban's reign had also subjected the Church to his notorious nepotism. He had appointed three family members as Cardinals; his brother Antonio Marcello Barberini and his two nephews, Francesco Barberini and Antonio Barberini. His nephews, especially, were keen to retain the wealth, power and property they had amassed during their uncle's reign and both sought to move the conclave in their favour.
They started by hiring, it was rumoured, bands of brigands and mercenaries to roam the streets of the city causing trouble, creating noise and generally making it uncomfortable for the cardinals inside the conclave.
Francesco Barbarini sided with the cardinals loyal to Spain. Urban VIII had been a strong francophile and the mood of the conclave was with Spain from the beginning. Antonio, at the direction of Cardinal Jules Mazarin, sided with the cardinals loyal to France and was supported with funding from the French with which he was to buy wavering votes. Maria Antonietta Visceglia suggests that it may have been part of Spain's strategy to split the influence of the Barbarini family.
So rather than working for consensus, the two brothers split the conclave. When voting started on 29 August, Antonio Barberini put Giulio Cesare Sacchetti forward as a candidate but without great success. The following day, Francesco Barberini nominated Giovanni Battista Pamphili with much the same result.
At a standoff, the brothers then sought to win each other over. Antonio Barberini moved about the conclave offering all form of incentives to the various cardinals, from official positions to cash to Spanish supporters in return for switching their vote in favour of Sacchetti. The deals were to be brokered by the recently arrived French Ambassador and would likely have been concluded had the ambassador not tried to slip advantageous clauses into the agreement when it came time for the brothers to agree. The new agreement signed 20,000 doubloons over to the ambassador and his family in return for acting as agent between the two parties. Antonio furiously withdrew the offer and broke off negotiations.
With the Hapsburgs in Spain as well as the Empire, the results of a papal election often depended on the strength -or lack thereof, of anti-Spain groups, and whether these could unite. Conclave protodeacon Cardinal Carlo de' Medici led a prestigious coalition of non-aligned Italian cardinal-princes connected to the Roman aristocracy. Urban's practice of concentrating power and curial appointments in his family and those related to his relatives came as a disappointment to those very cardinal-princes instrumental in his election.
Antonio Barberini continued to promote the candidacy of Cardinal Sacchetti, in accordance with the French policy. Urban VIII and his family had been so overly partial to the French that the Imperialists and the Spanish were determined that no supporter of French interests would be elected. On August 9, Spain's Cardinal Gil de Albornoz presented a veto against Sacchetti, signed by the king. Cardinal Antonio Barberini let it be known that the Barberini were prepared to stay in conclave until everyone died before they allowed someone who was not a member of their faction to be elected pope, and that their candidate was Sacchetti. The effect, however, was to increase opposition to Sacchetti.
The French Ambassador, Saint-Chamont, became alarmed by reports of the movement of Spanish Neapolitan troops on the southern border of the Papal States. He feared that this might be an invasion, with the purpose of capturing the College of Cardinals and forcing the election of a pope favorable to the Spanish interest. He assured the Cardinals the full support of the French, and informed them that the Marshal de Brézé was at Marseille, with a fleet and troops, prepared to rush to the assistance of the College of Cardinals. There were also French troops in Lombardy and Savoy who could be called upon to defend the Papal States if necessary. Similar assurances were offered by the Spanish ambassador and the Prince of Parma. Nothing came of the saber-rattling, except to unnerve some members of the Sacred College.
Cardinal Mazarin was furious and blamed the ambassador who in turn claimed Antonio Barberini had included the clause is his own agreement as an excuse for turning on the French and siding with the Spanish. Mazarin, keen to remain on good terms with the Barberini, recalled the ambassador and continued to support the Barberini. Mazarin later provided shelter for the Barberini nephews (including the cardinals' brother, Taddeo Barberini) after Innocent X had them investigated and exiled to Paris. Mazarin planned to exercise France's jus exclusivae against Pamphili's nomination but the veto arrived too late.
Though it's likely he didn't have to, Francesco Barberini countered with a generous offer from the Spanish delegation, which included a promise of the protection of the King Philip IV of Spain for the Barberini (including Francesco himself). Antonio and his delegation agreed and the following morning, on 15 September 1644, Pamphili was elected and took the papal throne as Pope Innocent X.
Among Innocent X's first orders of business was to order the removal of the soldiers guarding the various palaces, princes, ambassadors and other notables. He also disbanded the conscripted mounted troops and foot soldiers so that Rome would be less of an armed camp.
Furious at the power Innocent's election gave to his already-powerful sister-in-law, Olimpia Maidalchini, Cardinal Alessandro Bichi was said to have exclaimed, "We have just elected a female pope". Supporters of Bichi and the French delegation hung banners in churches calling her "Pope Olimpia I".
- Cardinal Dean: Marcello Lante della Rovere
- Sub-dean: Pier Paolo Crescenzi
- Giambattista Pamphili (Elected Pope Innocent X)
- François de la Rochefoucald
- Baltasar Moscoso y Sandoval
- Agustín Spínola
- Jules Raymond Mazarin
- Virginio Orsini
- Adams, John Paul. "Sede Vacante July 29, 1644—September 15, 1644", California State University Northridge
- Visceglia, Maria Antonietta. "Factions in the Sacred College", Court and Politics in Papal Rome, 1492–1700, (Gianvittorio Signorotto, Maria Antonietta Visceglia, eds.), Cambridge University Press, 2002 ISBN 9781139431415
- Pope Alexander the Seventh and the College of Cardinals by John Bargrave, edited by James Craigie Robertson (reprint; 2009)
- McPhee, Sarah. Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican, Yale University Press, 2002 ISBN 9780300089820
- S. Miranda: Papal Conclave, 1644.
- The Triple Crown: An Account of the Papal Conclaves by Valérie Pirie.
- Catholic Hierarchy: Conclave - 1644.
- Ave Papa/Ave Papabile: the Sacchetti family, their art patronage, and political aspirations by Lilian H. Zirpolo (2005).
- Mistress of the Vatican by Eleanor Herman.