|Provincia Pannonia Inferior|
|Province of the Roman Empire|
Pannonia Inferior (125 AD)
|Capital||Aquincum and Sirmium|
|Today part of|| Bosnia and Herzegovina|
Pannonia Inferior, lit. Lower Pannonia, was an ancient Roman province. It was one on the border provinces on the Danube. It was formed in the year 103 AD by the emperor Trajan, dividing the old province of Pannonia into two parts, Pannonia Superior and Pannonia Inferior. The province included parts of present-day Hungary, Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. While Pannonia Superior bordered with the Quadi to the north, Pannonia Inferior had to the west the Sarmatian Iazyges and later on the Vandals to the north-east.
Major settlements in Pannonia Inferior included:
- Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica) which several times served as an imperial residence for several emperors.
- Aquincum (Buda), the provincial capital.
- Cuccium (Ilok)
- Cibalae (Vinkovci)
- Mursa (Osijek)
- Certissa (Đakovo)
- Marsonia (Slavonski Brod)
- Sopianae (Pécs)
Aftermath and legacy
The province was yet again split during the reign of the tetrarchs into two more provinces, Pannonia Valeria in the north, with the new provincial capital at Sopianae, and Pannonia Secunda in the south with Sirmium as the provincial capital. In the Frankish period, in the 9th century, Lower Pannonia was a duchy that spanned from the Drava to the Sava.