Pakubuwono X

Portrait of Pakubuwono X, wearing the uniform of a KNIL major-general
Pakubuwono X of Surakarta poses with the Governor General of Dutch East Indies Andries Cornelis Dirk de Graeff (center) in 1928
Pakubuwono X (in black military uniform) with King Chulalongkorn of Siam (center) during the latter's state visit to the Dutch East Indies in 1896

Pakubuwono X (also transliterated Pakubuwana X, sometimes abbreviated 'PBX[1] (29 November 1866 20 February 1939) was the tenth Susuhunan (ruler of Surakarta).


His reign corresponded with the political changes happening in the Dutch East Indies at the time, in particular the growth of local indigenous political organizations such as Budi Utomo and Sarekat Islam of which he and the royal family were patrons. [2]


Pakubuwono X was known to have many concubines, but his main consort was GKR Hemas, the daughter of Sultan Hamengkubuwono VII of Yogyakarta. He was also known major contributor to improvements at the Royal Graveyard of Imogiri, where he himself is buried.

Name sequence

His correct title in Javanese etiquette standards contains honorific appellations, some of which each successive ruler inherits. He reigned from 1893 to 1939 and was the longest ruling Susuhanan of Surakarta to his time.[3]

Names in Javanese royalty are adjusted with status changes.



Thirteen daughters of Pakubuwono X (circa 1921-1926), photo by Tassilo Adam

Pakubuwono X received many honours from foreign countries.

Death and funeral train

The prepared carriage with the coffin of PB X on trip to Yogyakarta

When PB X his coffin was delivered between Surakarta and Yogyakarta by a NIS train. His coffins trip to Imogiri was one of the most photographed royal funeral processions of rulers of his ers.

See also


  1. "PB XIII Tegaskan Lembaga Adat Sudah Dihapus Sejak PB X" [PB XIII Emphasises that Traditional Institutions Have Been Abandoned since PB X]. Tribun (in Indonesian). Yogyakarta. 27 May 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  2. Lawson, George D. (George Donald); Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (Netherlands) (1987), Prelude to revolution : palaces and politics in Surakarta, 1912-1942, Foris Publications, ISBN 978-90-6765-217-9
  3. 1 2 "solo8".

Further reading

Miksic, John (general ed.), et al. (2006) Karaton Surakarta. A look into the court of Surakarta Hadiningrat, central Java (First published: 'By the will of His Serene Highness Paku Buwono XII'. Surakarta: Yayasan Pawiyatan Kabudayan Karaton Surakarta, 2004) Marshall Cavendish Editions Singapore ISBN 981-261-226-2

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pakubuwono X.
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Pakubuwono IX
Susuhunan of Surakarta
Succeeded by
Pakubuwono XI

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