Outline of cryptography

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to cryptography:

Cryptography (or cryptology) practice and study of hiding information. Modern cryptography intersects the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and engineering. Applications of cryptography include ATM cards, computer passwords, and electronic commerce.

Ciphers

Main article: Cipher

Classical

Substitution

• Monoalphabetic substitution

Transposition

Modern symmetric-key algorithms

Stream ciphers

Main article: Stream ciphers

Block ciphers

Main article: Block ciphers
Further information: Block cipher modes of operation
• CAST-256 (CAST6) 128-bit block; the successor to CAST-128 and a candidate for the AES competition
• Polyalphabetic substitution machine cyphers
• Enigma WWII German rotor cypher machine—many variants, any user networks for most of the variants
• Purple highest security WWII Japanese Foreign Office cypher machine; by Japanese Navy Captain
• SIGABA WWII US cypher machine by William Friedman, Frank Rowlett et al.
• TypeX WWII UK cypher machine
• Hybrid code/cypher combinations
• JN-25 WWII Japanese Navy superencyphered code; many variants
• Naval Cypher 3 superencrypted code used by the Royal Navy in the 1930s and into WWII

Modern Asymmetric-key algorithms

• ACE-KEM NESSIE selection asymmetric encryption scheme; IBM Zurich Research
• ECIES Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption System, Certicom Corporation
• ECIES-KEM
• ECDH Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman key agreement, CRYPTREC recommendation
• RSA-KEM NESSIE selection asymmetric encryption scheme; ISO/IEC 18033-2 draft
• RSA-OAEP CRYPTREC recommendation
• Rabin-SAEP
• HIME(R)

Keys

Main article: Key (cryptography)

Authentication

Main article: Key authentication

Transport/exchange

Weak keys

Main article: Weak key

Cryptographic hash functions

• MD5 one of a series of message digest algorithms by Prof Ron Rivest of MIT; 128-bit digest
• SHA-1 developed at NSA 160-bit digest, an FIPS standard; the first released version was defective and replaced by this; NIST/NSA have released several variants with longer 'digest' lengths; CRYPTREC recommendation (limited)
• SHA-3 originally known as Keccak; was the winner of the NIST hash function competition using sponge function.
• Streebog Russian algorithm created to replace an obsolete GOST hash function defined in obsolete standard GOST R 34.11-94.
• RIPEMD-160 developed in Europe for the RIPE project, 160-bit digest; CRYPTREC recommendation (limited)
• RTR0 one of Retter series; developed by Maciej A. Czyzewski; 160-bit digest
• Tiger by Ross Anderson et al.
• Snefru NIST hash function competition
• Whirlpool NESSIE selection hash function, Scopus Tecnologia S.A. (Brazil) & K.U.Leuven (Belgium)

Cryptanalysis

Main article: Cryptanalysis

Classical

Modern

• Symmetric algorithms
• Hash functions:
• Network attacks
• External attacks

Organizations and selection projects

Standards

General cryptographic

Open efforts

• Data Encryption Standard (DES) NBS selection process, ended 1976
• RIPE division of the RACE project sponsored by the European Union, ended mid-1980s
• Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) a "break-off" competition sponsored by NIST, ended in 2001
• NESSIE Project an evaluation/selection program sponsored by the European Union, ended in 2002
• eSTREAM program funded by ECRYPT; motivated by the failure of all of the stream ciphers submitted to NESSIE, ended in 2008
• CRYPTREC evaluation/recommendation program sponsored by the Japanese government; draft recommendations published 2003
• CrypTool an e-learning freeware programme in English and German exhaustive educational tool about cryptography and cryptanalysis

Influential cryptographers

• Cryptography and law enforcement

Academic and professional publications

Further information: Important publications in cryptography & Books on cryptography