Outline of cryptography

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to cryptography:

Cryptography (or cryptology) practice and study of hiding information. Modern cryptography intersects the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and engineering. Applications of cryptography include ATM cards, computer passwords, and electronic commerce.

Essence of cryptography

Uses of cryptographic techniques

Branches of cryptography

History of cryptography


Main article: Cipher




Modern symmetric-key algorithms

Stream ciphers

Main article: Stream ciphers

Block ciphers

Main article: Block ciphers
Further information: Block cipher modes of operation
  • CAST-256 (CAST6) 128-bit block; the successor to CAST-128 and a candidate for the AES competition
  • Enigma WWII German rotor cypher machine—many variants, any user networks for most of the variants
  • Purple highest security WWII Japanese Foreign Office cypher machine; by Japanese Navy Captain
  • SIGABA WWII US cypher machine by William Friedman, Frank Rowlett et al.
  • TypeX WWII UK cypher machine
  • JN-25 WWII Japanese Navy superencyphered code; many variants
  • Naval Cypher 3 superencrypted code used by the Royal Navy in the 1930s and into WWII

Modern Asymmetric-key algorithms

  • ACE-KEM NESSIE selection asymmetric encryption scheme; IBM Zurich Research
  • ECIES Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption System, Certicom Corporation
  • ECDH Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman key agreement, CRYPTREC recommendation
  • RSA-KEM NESSIE selection asymmetric encryption scheme; ISO/IEC 18033-2 draft
  • RSA-OAEP CRYPTREC recommendation
  • Rabin-SAEP
  • HIME(R)


Main article: Key (cryptography)


Main article: Key authentication


Weak keys

Main article: Weak key

Cryptographic hash functions


Main article: Cryptanalysis



Robustness properties

Undeciphered historical codes and ciphers

Organizations and selection projects


General cryptographic

Open efforts

Influential cryptographers

Academic and professional publications

Further information: Important publications in cryptography & Books on cryptography

Allied sciences

See also

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