Orleans County, New York
|Orleans County, New York|
County courthouse and clerk's office in Albion
Location in the U.S. state of New York
New York's location in the U.S.
|Named for||House of Orléans|
|• Total||817 sq mi (2,116 km2)|
|• Land||391 sq mi (1,013 km2)|
|• Water||426 sq mi (1,103 km2), 52%|
|• Density||110/sq mi (42/km²)|
|Time zone||Eastern: UTC-5/-4|
When counties were established in New York State in 1683, the present Orleans County was part of Albany County. This was an enormous county, including the northern part of New York State as well as all of the present State of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean. This county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766 by the creation of Cumberland County, and further on March 16, 1770 by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now in Vermont.
On March 12, 1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. One of the other pieces, Tryon County, contained the western portion (and thus, since no western boundary was specified, theoretically still extended west to the Pacific). The eastern boundary of Tryon County was approximately five miles west of the present city of Schenectady, and the county included the western part of the Adirondack Mountains and the area west of the West Branch of the Delaware River. The area then designated as Tryon County now includes 37 counties of New York State. The county was named for William Tryon, colonial governor of New York.
Before 1776, most of Tryon County's Loyalists fled to Canada. In 1784, following the peace treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War, Tryon County's name was changed to Montgomery County to honor the general, Richard Montgomery, who had captured several places in Canada and died attempting to capture the city of Quebec, replacing the name of the hated British governor.
In 1789, Ontario County was split off from Montgomery.
In 1802, Genesee County was created by a splitting of Ontario County. This was much larger than the present Genesee County, however, containing the present Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie, Niagara, Orleans, and Wyoming Counties, and parts of Livingston and Monroe Counties.
In 1806, Genesee County was reduced in size by the splitting off of Allegany County. In 1808, Genesee County was further reduced in size by the splitting off of Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, and Niagara Counties. Niagara County at that time also included the present Erie County.
In 1821, Genesee County was reduced in size by the splitting off of portions which were combined with portions of Ontario County to create Livingston and Monroe Counties. By this time Genesee County had been reduced considerably in size from its original area of 1802, still containing the present Orleans and Wyoming Counties in addition to its present area, however.
In 1824, Orleans County was created from what was left of Genesee County. When the county was formed, a dispute arose about naming it after Andrew Jackson or John Adams; the conflict was ended by choosing the name Orleans.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 817 square miles (2,120 km2), of which 391 square miles (1,010 km2) is land and 426 square miles (1,100 km2) (52%) is water.
The high proportion of water is due to the extension of Orleans County north into Lake Ontario to the Canada–US border (a line of latitude running through the middle of the lake). The distance from the Orleans shore north to the international border is greater than the distance from the shore south to the Genesee County line, meaning the area of Orleans underwater is actually greater than that above water.
The Erie Canal passes (east-west) through the middle of the county.
- New York State Route 18
- New York State Route 31
- New York State Route 63
- New York State Route 98
- New York State Route 104
- Lake Ontario State Parkway
National protected area
State protected areas
- Lakeside Beach State Park
- Oak Orchard State Marine Park
- Oak Orchard Wildlife Management Area
- Tonawanda Wildlife Management Area
Government and politics
Starting in 1824, the county government was run by a Board of Supervisors consisting of supervisors from each township in Orleans County. In 1980, a seven member legislature was established to replace the Board of Supervisors and is headed by a chairman.
Orleans County Legislature
|Office||District||Area of the county||Officeholder||Party||Residence|
|County Legislator||District 1||Barre, Clarendon, Shelby||William H. Eick||Republican||Medina|
|County Legislator - Vice Chairman||District 2||Ridgeway, Yates||Lynne M. Johnson||Republican||Lyndonville|
|County Legislator - Minority Leader||District 3||Albion, Gaines||Fred Miller||Democratic||Albion|
|County Legislator||District 4||Carlton, Kendall, Murray||Kenneth DeRoller||Republican||Kendall|
|County Legislator - Chairman||At Large||All||David Callard||Republican||Medina|
|County Legislator||At Large||All||Don Allport||Republican||Albion|
|County Legislator||At Large||All||E. John DeFilipps||Republican||Holley|
|Name||Title||Method||Years of Service|
|Orange Butler||District Attorney||Appointed||1825-1828|
|George W. Fleming||District Attorney||Appointed||1828-1830|
|Henry R. Curtis||District Attorney||Appointed||1831|
|George W. Fleming||District Attorney||Appointed||1832-1835|
|Henry R. Curtis||District Attorney||Appointed||1836-1845|
|Sanford E. Church||District Attorney||Elected||1846-1849|
|William K. McAllister||District Attorney||Elected||1850-1852|
|Benjamin L. Bessac||District Attorney||Elected||1853-1855|
|Henry D. Tucker||District Attorney||Elected||1856-1858|
|John W. Graves||District Attorney||Elected||1859-1861|
|John G. Sawyer||District Attorney||Elected||1862-1864|
|Irving M. Thompson||District Attorney||Elected||1865-1867|
|Henry A. Childs||District Attorney||Elected||1868-1876|
|Charles A. Keeler||District Attorney||Elected||1877-1879|
|Isaac S. Signor||District Attorney||Elected||1880-1882|
|Charles D. Knapp||District Attorney||Elected||1883-1885|
|William P. L. Stafford||District Attorney||Elected||1886-1891|
|Edwin B. Simonds||District Attorney||Elected||1892-1898|
|Thomas A. Kirby||District Attorney||Elected||1899-1901|
|Leon M. Sherwood||District Attorney||Elected||1902-1906|
|William Crawford Ramsdale||District Attorney||Elected||1907-1909|
|John Cole Knickerbocker||District Attorney||Elected||1910-1915|
|William H. Munson||District Attorney||Elected||1916-1925|
|Gordon H. Payne||District Attorney||Elected||1926-1928|
|William H. Munson||District Attorney||Elected||1929-1940|
|Russell Scharping||District Attorney||Elected||1941-1943|
|J. Kenneth Servé||District Attorney||Elected||1944-1960|
|Franklin B. Cropsey||District Attorney||Elected||1960-1963|
|Hamilton Doherty||District Attorney||Elected||1964-1973|
|Curtis Lyman||District Attorney||Elected||1974-1985|
|James P. Punch||District Attorney||Elected||1986-1990|
|Conrad F. Cropsey||District Attorney||Elected||1991|
|Joseph V. Cardone||District Attorney||Elected||1992-Present|
State and federal government
|Office||District||Area of the county||Officeholder||Party||First took office||Residence|
|Congressman||New York's 27th congressional district||All||Christopher C. Collins||Republican||2013||Clarence, Erie County|
|State Senator||62nd State Senate District||All||Rob Ortt||Republican||2015||, Niagara County|
|State Assemblyman||139th State Assembly District||All||Stephen M. Hawley||Republican||2006||Batavia, Genesee County|
Orleans County is part of:
- The 8th Judicial District of the New York Supreme Court
- The 4th Division of the New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2000, there were 44,171 people, 15,363 households, and 10,846 families residing in the county. The population density was 113 people per square mile (44/km²). There were 17,347 housing units at an average density of 44 per square mile (17/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 89.12% White, 7.31% Black or African American, 0.46% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.54% from other races, and 1.21% from two or more races. 3.89% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 20.3% were of German, 18.3% English, 10.8% Italian, 10.3% Irish, 9.4% American and 7.3% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. 96.0% spoke English and 3.0% Spanish as their first language.
There were 15,363 households out of which 35.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.3% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.4% were non-families. 23.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.13.
In the county the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 31.3% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, and 12.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 98.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.2 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $37,972, and the median income for a family was $42,830. Males had a median income of $32,450 versus $22,605 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,457. About 7.7% of families and 10.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.0% of those under age 18 and 5.2% of those age 65 or over.
The county is considered to have five school districts, although the actual district boundaries can extend into neighboring counties, and the same is true for neighboring counties' districts. The five districts, from west to east, are:
- Lyndonville Central School District (northern half of western third, roughly covering Lyndonville village and the towns of Yates and Ridgeway)
- Medina Central School District (southern half of western third, roughly covering Medina village and the towns of Ridgeway and Shelby)
- Albion Central School District (middle third, roughly covering Albion village and the towns of Carlton, Gaines, Albion, and Barre)
- Kendall Central School District (northern half of eastern third, roughly covering the towns of Kendall and Murray)
- Holley Central School District (southern half of eastern third, roughly covering Holley village and the towns of Murray and Clarendon)
The only post-secondary education available in the county are two branches of Genesee Community College located in Albion and Medina.
- Barre Center
- County Line
- Eagle Harbor
- East Shelby
- Kendall Mills
- Oak Orchard
- Shelby Center
- Yates Center
- Orleans County Sheriff's Office
- List of fire departments in Orleans County, New York
- List of counties in New York
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Orleans County, New York
- "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
- Sands, N. (2014). Some Good Lawyers: Biographies of the Orleans County District Attorneys. Albion, New York: Office of the Orleans County District Attorney.
- W, Eric (2012-04-02). "Congressional District 27" (PDF). View 2012 Congressional Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved 2013-01-13.
- W, Eric (2012-03-02). "Senate District 62" (PDF). View 2012 Senate District Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved 2013-01-13.
- W, Eric (2012-01-25). "Assembly District 139" (PDF). View Proposed 2012 Assembly District Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved 2013-01-13.
- "County Totals Dataset: Population, Population Change and Estimated Components of Population Change: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Retrieved July 2, 2016.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
- "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
- "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
- "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Official Webpage
- Orleans County at DMOZ
- Orleans County travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Genesee Community College in Orleans County
- Brief historical summary of Orleans County, NY
|Niagara County||Monroe County|
|Erie County||Genesee County|