Inscription in Polish and Ukrainian at a church in Beskid Niski, Poland: "In memory of those expelled from Lemkivshchyna, on the 50th anniversary of 'Operation Vistula,' 1947-1997."
|Native name||Akcja "Wisła"|
|Time||28 April – 31 July 1947|
|Location||Bieszczady and Low Beskids|
UPA massacres of Poles,|
Communist policy of ethnic homogenization
|Organised by||Polish and Soviet governments, NKVD, MBP|
|Participants||Polish United Workers' Party, Polish People's Army, and the Internal Security Corps|
|Outcome||Deportation of 141,000 civilians to the Recovered Territories|
Operation Vistula (Polish: Akcja "Wisła") was a codename for the 1947 forced resettlement of Ukrainian minority including Boykos and Lemkos from the south-eastern provinces of post-war Poland, to the Recovered Territories in the west of the country. The action was carried out by the Soviet-installed Polish communist authorities with the aim of removing material support and assistance to the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. The Ukrainian Insurgent Army continued to fight until 1947 in both Subcarpathian and Lublin Voivodeships with no hope for any peaceful resolution. Operation Vistula effectively brought an end to the hostilities.
In three months beginning April 28, 1947 with the Soviet approval and aid, about 141,000 civilians residing around Bieszczady and Low Beskids were forcibly resettled to formerly German territories, ceded to Poland at the Yalta Conference at the end of World War II. The operation was named after the Vistula River, Wisła in Polish. Some Polish and Ukrainian politicians as well as historians condemned the operation following the 1989 fall of communism in Eastern Europe, and described it as ethnic cleansing. Others pointed out that no other means of stopping the violence existed at the time since partisans used to regroup outside the Polish borders.
During Operation Vistula conditions of the United Nations Charter of June 26, 1945 on the right of self-determination and international laws have been respected. The deported farmers received financial help from the Polish government, and took over homes and farms left behind by the Germans, in most cases improving their living conditions due to increased size of newly acquired properties, brick buildings, and running water. In the years 1956-1958 they received mostly non-repayable credits totalling 170 million PLN which was a considerable amount of money in the Polish national budget. A similar operation was performed in Ukrainian SSR by the Soviet Union at exactly the same time. It was dubbed "Operation West". Both operations were coordinated from Moscow; however, there was a shocking difference between their outcomes. Operation West parallel to Operation Vistula was conducted in West Ukraine by the Soviet NKVD targeting families of suspected UPA members. Over 114,000 mostly women and children were deported to Kazakh SSR and Siberia and forced into extreme poverty. Only 19,000 men were among the NKVD deportees, most of them sent to coal mines and stone quarries in the north. None of the people deported by the NKVD received any farms or empty homes to live in.
The stated goal of the operation was to suppress the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), which had been fighting the communist Polish People's Army in the south-eastern territory of the Polish People's Republic. The original codename of the operation was Akcja Wschód (Operation East), similar to Operation West (Akcja Zachód) conducted by the NKVD on the Soviet side of the border. It is sometimes assumed that the direct cause for Operation Vistula was the March 28, 1947 assassination of the Polish communist General Karol Świerczewski in an ambush set up by UPA. About 12 hours after the incident, the Polish communist authorities made the decision to deport all Ukrainians and Lemkos away from the embattled region. It is known, however, that preparations for Operation Vistula had started already in January 1947, if not earlier. On September 10, 1947 the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union issued an Order № 3214-1050, for the deportation of all Ukrainian families of alleged UPA members to Siberia. Between 1945 and 1947 over 126,000 Ukrainians were apprehended by the NKVD and almost 32,000 of the Ukrainian underground were killed, attesting to the continuity of the same Soviet policy from before 1947.
The operation was carried out by the Operational Group Vistula consisting of about 20,000 personnel commanded by General Stefan Mossor. The group included soldiers of the Polish People's Army and the Internal Security Corps, as well as functionaries of the police Milicja Obywatelska and the Security Service Urząd Bezpieczeństwa. The operation commenced at 4 a.m., April 28, 1947. Initially, the expellees comprised about 20,000 Ukrainians and Lemkos. With time, the total number grew to 80,000 and eventually to 150,000 inhabitants of Polesie, Roztocze, Pogórze Przemyskie, Bieszczady, Low Beskid, Beskid Sądecki, and Ruś Szlachtowska.
The expellees were resettled over a wide area in the Northern and Western Territories assigned to Poland by the Potsdam Agreement including Warmia and Masuria. They received financial credits and material help from the government, including grain contingents and other foodstuffs. Their new homes were renovated with public funds; in Olsztyn Voivodeship 2,427 houses were rebuilt by the state, in Szczecin Voivodeship, only 717 although the needs were exponentially greater reaching 10,000 households, way beyond the available state budget. Most of their personal debts, however, have been remitted in the following years.
A consequence of Operation Vistula was the almost total depopulation of Pogórze Przemyskie, Bieszczady and Beskid Niski coupled with the NKVD-led forcible repatriation of Ukrainians from Poland to the Soviet Union (the Ukrainian SSR and Siberia) in 1944–46. The relocation of the population put the UPA forces in Poland in the most difficult position; deprived of human and other resources, the outnumbered Ukrainian partisans were unable to uphold their armed resistance against the communist forces. Nevertheless, the UPA continued its fight for a few more years. After the last relocations, UPA's activities on Polish territory died out. Some Ukrainian insurgents fled to Western Europe, notably to West Germany, and the United States. They were helped by the former Nazis from the Gehlen Organization.
The deportations occurred in stages. Poland and the Soviet Ukraine conducted population exchanges resulting from bilateral agreements signed on September 9, 1944 and August 16, 1945. The first transfers occurred at the end of World War II. The Poles who resided east of the newly established borders were deported back to new Poland over three years. In 1944 the expulsion from Ukraine involved 117,000 Poles officially. In 1945 the number swelled to 512,000 Poles. In 1946 the total was 158,500 Poles from Ukrainian SSR alone.
Some 482,000 Lemkos, Rusyns and Ukrainians were deported back to Ukrainian SSR between September 1944 and April 1946, although some 300,000 remained in their native settlements within the borders of Poland. Many Ukrainians and Lemkos as well as tens of thousands of Poles (ca. 200,000 persons or more) fled from south-eastern Poland back to central Poland between 1944 and 1945 independently of treaties due to pacification campaign by the Bandera faction.
Operation Vistula occurred within the Polish national borders. The transfer involved persons who were internally relocated as citizens of the country. The final relocation of Ukrainians and Poles between the state borders occurred in 1951, when Poland was forced by the Soviet Union to adjust the border in the upper San River area and in the Belz area for economic reasons. Poland has given up rich deposits of coal including the city of Bełz that was in Poland, and in exchange, was assigned a stretch of barren land with low quality soil and no natural resources east of the San River and south of Przemyśl. The new Soviet acquisitions went to Ukraine, and populations were exchanged. Following the transfer of land, the Soviets built large coal mines there with the total capacity of 15 million ton annually.
Situation of Lemkos in Poland
Some five thousand Lemko families returned to their home regions in south-eastern Poland in 1957 and 1958. While the Polish census of 2003 shows only 5,800 Lemkos (self-identification), there are estimates that up to 100,000 Lemkos in total live in Poland today, and up to 10,000 of them in the area known as Łemkowszczyzna. The largest communities of Lemkos live in villages: Łosie, Krynica, Nowica, Zdynia, Gładyszów, Hańczowa, Zyndranowa, Uście Gorlickie, Bartne, Bielanka, and in eastern part of Łemkowszczyzna – Wysoczany, Mokre, Morochów, Szczawne, Kulaszne, Rzepedź, Turzańsk, Komańcza. Also in towns: Sanok, Nowy Sącz, and Gorlice.
On August 3, 1990, the Polish Senate adopted a resolution condemning the postwar Polish government's Operation Vistula. In response, the Ukrainian Parliament (Verkhovna Rada) adopted the statement of understanding of the Polish Senate resolution as a serious step towards the correction of the injustices towards the Ukrainians in Poland. In the same resolution the Rada condemned the criminal acts of the Stalinist regime towards the Polish people.
On April 18, 2002 in Krasiczyn, Polish President Aleksander Kwaśniewski expressed regret over Operation Vistula. The President described the operation as the symbol of harm against Ukrainians committed by the communist authorities. "Speaking on behalf of the Republic of Poland I want to express regret to all those wronged by the operation" - Kwaśniewski wrote in a letter to the National Remembrance Institute (IPN) and participants in the conference on the 1947 Operation Vistula and openly rejected the notion that it should in any way be linked to earlier events in Volhynia. "It was believed for years that the Vistula operation was the revenge for slaughter of Poles by the UPA forces in the east in the years 1943-1944. Such attitude is wrong and cannot be accepted. The Vistula operation should be condemned."
In 2007 the presidents of Poland (Lech Kaczyński) and Ukraine (Viktor Yushchenko) condemned the operation as a violation of human rights. President Yushchenko also noted that the operation was executed and was the responsibility of a "totalitarian communist regime".
- Minorities in Poland after the Second World War
- Repatriation of Ukrainians from Poland to USSR (1944-1946)
- Massacres of Poles in Volhynia
- Grzegorz Motyka (2011). Od rzezi wołyńskiej do akcji "Wisła". Konflikt polsko-ukraiński 1943-1947. Wydawnictwo Literackie. p. 447. ISBN 9788308045763. "Rozmowa z Grzegorzem Motyką, autorem książki". Janusz Jabłoński. Gazeta Olsztyńska. 2011-03-01.
Obejmuje on swoim zasięgiem lata 1943–1947 i takie wydarzenia jak ludobójcze czystki etniczne dokonane przez Ukraińską Powstańczą Armię na Wołyniu i w Galicji Wschodniej (popularnie zwane rzezią wołyńską), ale też wysiedlenia ludności ukraińskiej w czasie akcji „Wisła”. Warto dodać, że mówimy o jednym z najkrwawszych polskich epizodów II wojny światowej – w wyniku działań UPA śmierć poniosło około 100 tysięcy Polaków. (Grzegorz Motyka)
- "Akcja "Wisła" (Wschód) przeciw UPA". Twoje Bieszczady. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Eugeniusz Misiło (Євген Місило), Wydział Polityczno-Wychowawczy 7 DP. "Akcja Wisła". Przebieg i statystyki wysiedleń (Introductory notes and tables of data per each voivodeship with index of reference books). Sources: A. B. Szcześniak, W. Z. Szota, Droga do nikąd. Działalność organizacji ukraińskich nacjonalistów i jej likwidacja w Polsce, MON, Warsaw 1973, 433 pages; G. Motyka, Łemkowie i Bojkowie, and Tak było w Bieszczadach, Biuletyn Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej, nr 8-9/2001; Andrzej Kaczyński, U nas tu, u nas tam, Rzeczpospolita, nr 106, 08.05.1997. Archived from the original on January 28, 2006. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
- Dr Zbigniew Palski (30 May 2008). "Operacja Wisła: komunistyczna akcja represyjna, czy obrona konieczna Rzeczypospolitej? (Operation Vistula: communist repressions, or the necessary defense of the new Polish Republic?)". Dodatek historyczny IPN Nr. 5/2008 (12). Nasz Dziennik, Institute of National Remembrance. pp. 6-7 (3-4 in PDF). Archived from the original on October 28, 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
- The Euromosaic notes on the Ukrainian in Poland. European Commission, October 2006. Wayback Machine.
- Timothy Snyder, To Resolve the Ukrainian Question Once and for All: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ukrainians in Poland, 1943-1947. Journal of Cold War Studies, Spring 1999.
- Bohdan S. Kordan (1997), "Making Borders Stick: Population Transfer and Resettlement in the Trans-Curzon Territories, 1944–1949". International Migration Review Vol. 31, No. 3., pp. 704-720 (in) Galicia: A Multicultured Land.
- Dr. Łukasz Kamiński, IPN (30 May 2008). "Wygnańcy" [The Expelled]. Dodatek historyczny IPN Nr. 5/2008 (12). Nasz Dziennik, Institute of National Remembrance. pp. 12 (2 of 4 in PDF). Archived from the original on October 28, 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
- IPN Bulletin. Nr 11/46. See: UPA Chrin and Stach sotnias.
- Постановление Совмина СССР. Подпункт "д" пункта 5 и пункт 7 Постановления Совета Министров СССР от 10 сентября 1947 г. N 3214-1050.
- John Prados (2006). Safe for Democracy: The Secret Wars of the CIA. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 71–73. ISBN 1566635748.
- Jerzy Kochanowski (2001). "Gathering Poles into Poland. Forced Migration from Poland's Former Eastern Territories". In Philipp Ther, Ana Siljak. Redrawing Nations: Ethnic Cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944-1948. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-7425-1094-4.
- Sylwester Fertacz, Krojenie mapy Polski: Bolesna granica. Alfa. Retrieved from the Internet Archive on 14 November 2011.
- J.A.S. Grenville, The major international treaties, 1914–1973. A history with guide and text. Taylor & Francis. 572 pages.
- Bogdan Kawałko, "Prostowanie granicy." Dziennik Wschodni, 2006-02-03. Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania i Administracji w Zamościu.
- "Dostaną lasy albo pieniądze". Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "POLANDEMBASSY.ORG". Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Office of President, Wspólne oświadczenie Prezydenta RP i Prezydenta Ukrainy z okazji 60-tej rocznicy Akcji „Wisła” Warszawa, 2007. Joint statement by Polish and Ukrainian Presidents.
- Office of President, Juszczenko w rocznicę akcji "Wisła": Zrobili to komuniści.
- Jan Jacek Bruski (April 28, 2002), "Unjustly exiled", Wprost, Polish original. Russian translation.
- Rafał Wnuk, Recent Polish Historiography on Polish-Ukrainian Relations during World War II and its Aftermath. (PDF), Columbia.
- PWN, „Wisła”, PWN Encyklopedia
- Eugeniusz Misiło, Akcja "Wisła", ISBN 83-900854-2-9.
- Robert Witalec, Biuletyn Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej nr 11 ""Kos" kontra UPA", ISSN 1641-9561, PDF format, last accessed 10 December 2005.
- Tomasz Kalbarczyk, Biuletyn Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej nr 1-2 "Powrót Łemków", ISSN 1641-9561, PDF format, last accessed 10 December 2005.
- Akcja Wisła. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Semper.pl. Internet Archive.
- ^ Beskid Niski, Rewasz, Pruszków 1999 (in Polish language) ISBN 83-85557-59-8.
- Władysław A. Serczyk, Historia Ukrainy, 3rd ed., Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, Wrocław 2001, ISBN 83-04-04530-3
- Andrzej L. Sowa, Stosunki polsko-ukraińskie 1939-1947, Kraków 1998, OCLC 48053561
- Grzegorz Motyka (various authors), Służby bezpieczeństwa Polski i Czechosłowacji wobec Ukraińców (1945–1989), Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Warszawa 2005, ISBN 83-89078-86-4.
Russian and Ukrainian sources
- Roman Drozd, "Явожно– трагічний символ акції «Вісла»" ("Jaworzno - the tragic symbol of Wisła Action") in "Наше слово" weekly magazine, number 18, 2004
- Subpage of Instytut Pamięci Narodowej in Ukrainian
- Roman Drozd: Droga na zachód. Osadnictwo ludności ukraińskiej na ziemiach zachodnich i północnych Polski w ramach akcji «Wisła». Warszawa: 1997.
- Roman Drozd: Ukraińcy w najnowszych dziejach Polski (1918–1989). T. II: "Akcja «Wisła». Warszawa: 2005.
- Roman Drozd: Ukraińcy w najnowszych dziejach Polski (1918–1989). T. III: «Akcja „Wisła“. Słupsk: 2007.
- Roman Drozd, Bohdan Halczak: Dzieje Ukraińców w Polsce w latach 1921–1989». Warszawa: 2010.
- Дрозд Р., Гальчак Б. Історія українців у Польщі в 1921–1989 роках / Роман Дрозд, Богдан Гальчак, Ірина Мусієнко; пер. з пол. І. Мусієнко. 3-тє вид., випр., допов. – Харків : Золоті сторінки, 2013. – 272 с.
- A statement of Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian SSR of September 9, 1990, in response to the resolution of the Senate of the Republic of Poland of September 3, 1990, regarding the "Visla" action, in Ukrainian.
- "Polish, Ukrainian presidents sign concord declaration" in Ukrainian Weekly
- Ярослав Грицак (Yaroslav Hrytsak) (1996). Формування модерної української нації XIX-XX ст. (Formation of the Modern Ukrainian Nation in the late 19th–20th centuries). Kiev: Генеза (Heneza). ISBN 966-504-150-9.. Available online.
- Yuri Havrylyuk, "To solve conclusively the Ukrainian question in Poland", Zerkalo Nedeli (The Mirror Weekly), April 28 - May 11, 2007 in Russian, in Ukrainian
- About Operation Wisła on lemko.org.
- The Consequences of the Deportation of Lemkos and the process of Polish-Ukrainian Reconciliation.
- Military Court of Operation Group "Wisla"
- "Figures of the 20th century. Józef Piłsudski: the Chief who Created a State for Himself," in Zerkalo Nedeli (the Mirror Weekly), February 3–9, 2001, available online in Russian and in Ukrainian.