Open-mid central rounded vowel
|Open-mid central rounded vowel|
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The open-mid central rounded vowel, or low-mid central rounded vowel, is a vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɞ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is 3\. The symbol is called closed reversed epsilon. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ⟨ɔ̈⟩.
The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".
Due to either typographic or design error, IPA charts were published with this vowel transcribed as a closed epsilon, ⟨ʚ⟩, and this graphic variant made its way into Unicode as U+029A ʚ LATIN SMALL LETTER CLOSED OPEN E. The form ⟨ɞ⟩ (U+025E ɞ LATIN SMALL LETTER CLOSED REVERSED OPEN E) is considered correct.
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|Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded|
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- Its vowel height is open-mid, also known as low-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between an open vowel (a low vowel) and a mid vowel.
- Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel.
- It is rounded, which means that the lips are rounded rather than spread or relaxed.
|English||Irish||but||[bɞθ̠]||'but'||Corresponds to [ʌ] in other varieties. See English phonology|
|New Zealand||not||[nɞʔt]||'not'||Possible realization of /ɒ/.|
|German||Standard||Parfum||[pʰäʁˈfɞ̃ː]||'perfume'||Nasalized, somewhat fronted and lowered. Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨œ̃ː⟩. Present only in loanwords. See German phonology|
|Icelandic||öld||[ɞl̪t̪]||'age'||Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨œ⟩. Often diphthongized to [ɵɞ] when long. See Icelandic phonology|
|Irish||tomhail||[tɞːlʲ]||'consume' (imp.)||See Irish phonology|
|Navajo||tsosts’id||[tsʰɞstsʼɪt]||'seven'||See Navajo phonology|
|Northern Tiwa||Taos dialect||[ʔãˌtʃʊt̚ːˈʔuɞnbɑ]||'his-garment-around'||Allophone of /ɑ/. See Taos phonology|
|Norwegian||Stavangersk||topp||[tʰɞpː]||'top'||See Norwegian phonology|
|Poitevin||o doune||[ɞ dun]||'he gives'|
|Somali||keenaysaa||[keːnɞjsɑː]||'she brings'||See Somali phonology|
|West Frisian||Southwestern dialects||boare||[bɞːrə]||'tomcat'||Corresponds to [wa] in other dialects. See West Frisian phonology|
- Wells (1982:422)
- Bauer et al. (2007:98)
- Mangold (2005:37)
- Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
- Haugen (1958:65)
- "Icelandic Phonetic Transcription.PDF - ptg_ice.pdf" (PDF). Retrieved 23 March 2015.
- McDonough, Ladefoged & George (1993). Note that the authors gave a narrow transcription of [ɵ], though at the time the IPA had only this one symbol for a mid central rounded vowel, and it is clear from the discussion and formant charts that this vowel a centralized open-mid vowel.
- Vanvik (1979:17)
- Hoekstra (2003:202), citing Hof (1933:14)
- Árnason, Kristján (2011), The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-922931-4
- Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 97–102, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002830
- Einarsson, Stefán (1945), Icelandic. Grammar texts glossary., Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, ISBN 978-0801863578
- Gussmann, Edmund (2011). "Getting your head around: the vowel system of Modern Icelandic" (PDF). Folia Scandinavica Posnaniensia. 12: 71–90. ISBN 978-83-232-2296-5.
- Haugen, Einar (1958). "The Phonemics of Modern Icelandic". Language. 34 (1): 55–88. doi:10.2307/411276. JSTOR 411276.
- Hoekstra, Jarich (2003), "Frisian. Standardization in progress of a language in decay", Germanic Standardizations. Past to Present (PDF), 18, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 193–209, ISBN 978-90-272-1856-8
- Hof, Jan Jelles (1933), Friesche Dialectgeographie (PDF), The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff
- Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, ISBN 978-3411040667
- McDonough, Joyce; Ladefoged, Peter; George, Helen (1993), "Navajo Vowels and Phonetic Universal Tendencies", UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, Fieldwork Studies of Targeted Languages, 84: 143–150
- Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6
- Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English, II: The British Isles, Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-28541-0