Odia phonology

This article is about the phonetics and phonology of the Odia language.

Pronunciation of Odia alphabet.

Odia has twenty-eight consonant phonemes, two semivowel phonemes and six vowel phonemes.


Odia vowel phonemes
High iu
Mid eo
Low aɔ

All vowels except /o/ also have nasal counterparts, but these are not always contrastive. Final vowels are standard and pronounced, e.g. Odia [pʰulo] contra Bengali [pʰul] "flower".[1]


Odia consonant phonemes
Bilabial Alveolar
Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ (ŋ)
voiceless p ʈ k
voiceless aspirated t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
voiced b ɖ ɡ
voiced aspirated d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
Fricative ɳ h
Flap ɾ ɺ̢[2]
Lateral approximant l

The velar nasal [ŋ] is given phonemic status in some analyses. Nasals assimilate for place in nasal–stop clusters. /ɖ ɖʱ/ have the flap allophones [ɽ ɽʱ] in intervocalic position and in final position (but not at morpheme boundaries). Stops are sometimes deaspirated between /s/ and a vowel or an open syllable /s/+vowel and a vowel. Some speakers distinguish between single and geminate consonants.[3]


  1. Ray (2003:488–489)
  2. Masica (1991:97)
  3. Ray (2003:490–491)


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