Ocaina language

Native to Peru, Colombia
Native speakers
190 (1998–2000)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 oca
Glottolog ocai1244[2]

Ocaina is an indigenous American language spoken in western South America.


Ocaina belongs to the Witotoan language family. It is its own group within the Huitoto-Ocaina sub-family.

Geographic distribution

Ocaina is spoken by 54 people in northeastern Peru and by 12 more in the Amazonas region of Colombia. Few children speak the language.


There are two dialects of Ocaina: Dukaiya and Ibo'tsa.



Ocaina consonant phonemes
  Bilabial Alveolar Postalveolar/
Velar Glottal
Nasal lenis m n ɲ
fortis ɲː
Plosive p b t ɲ k ɡ ʔ
Affricate ts dz
Fricative ɸ β s ʃ ʒ ɸ h


Ocaina vowel phonemes
  Front Central Back
High i, ĩ h, ɨ̃
Low e ɡ, ã o, õ


Syllables in Ocaina may be marked with one of two tones: high or low.


Syllables in Ocaina consist of a vowel; single consonants may appear on either side of the vowel: (C)V(C).

Writing System

Ocaina is written using a Latin alphabet. A chart of symbols with the sounds they represent as is follows:

a/a/b/b/c/k/ch/tʃ/ds/dz/dy/dʲ/ e/e/f/ɸ/g/a/h/ʔ/i/i/
j/h/k/k/ll/dʒ/m/m//mː/n/n/ /nː/ñ/ɲ/ñ̈/ɲː/o/o/p/p/
q/k/r/ɲ/s/s/sh/ʃ/t/t/ts/ts/ ty/tʲ/u/h/v/β/x/ɸ/y/ʒ/


  1. Ocaina at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Ocaina". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
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