# Non-standard model

In model theory, a discipline within mathematical logic, a **non-standard model** is a model of a theory that is not isomorphic to the intended model (or standard model).^{[1]}

## Existence

If the intended model is infinite and the language is first-order, then the Löwenheim–Skolem theorems guarantee the existence of non-standard models. The non-standard models can be chosen as elementary extensions or elementary substructures of the intended model.

## Importance

Non-standard models are studied in set theory, non-standard analysis and non-standard models of arithmetic.

## See also

## References

- ↑ Roman Kossak, 2004
*Nonstandard Models of Arithmetic and Set Theory*American Mathematical Soc.

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