Other names Nili-Ravi
Distribution Bangladesh, China, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka[1]
Use dairy
Weight Male: 728 kg
  Female: 605 kg
Height Male: ca. 142 cm
  Female: ca. 133 cm
Coat black or brown
Water buffalo
Bubalus bubalis

The Niliravi is a water buffalo breed. Nili and Ravi were two different breeds until 1950, but after this period it was difficult to distinguish between the two breeds probably due to an overlapping selection criteria of breeders. Thus, the common name Nili-Ravi became popular.[2]


This breed is similar to the Murrah buffalo in almost all characteristics except for the white markings on extremities and walled eyes. It is black in colour and has short horns, which are less curled than in the Murrah buffalo. The udder is well shaped and extends well forward up to the naval flaps. Adult males weigh up to 700 kg, and females up to 600 kg.[2]


Niliravi is the most important livestock in Pakistan and also present in India and in the Punjab. Population size is estimated at 6.5 million heads.[2]


Niliravi buffalos are traditionally managed under domestic conditions together with the calf and hand-milked twice a day. They are fed different kinds of roughages such as barley and wheat straw, cornstalks and sugar cane residuals. In addition, they are given concentrate mixtures. If grazing is available, they graze all day long. They are naturally mated. Calving interval is 443 days. Cows lactate during 305 days with an average milk yield of 2000 kg in this period.[2]


  1. Breed data sheet: Buffalo. Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed September 2013.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Moioli, B. and A. Borghese (2005). Buffalo Breeds and Management Systems. Pages 51–76 in Borghese, A. (ed.) Buffalo Production and Research. REU Technical Series 67. Inter-regional Cooperative Research Network on Buffalo, FAO Regional Office for Europe, Rome.
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