Narmer was an ancient Egyptian king of the Early Dynastic Period.[1] Probably the successor to the Protodynastic kings Scorpion and/or Ka, some consider him the unifier of Egypt and founder of the First Dynasty, and in turn the first king of a unified Egypt.

Narmer's identity is the subject of ongoing debate, although mainstream Egyptological consensus[2][3][4][5] identifies Narmer with the First Dynasty pharaoh Menes, who is also sometimes credited with the unification of Egypt, as the first pharaoh. This conclusion is based on the Narmer Palette (which shows Narmer as the unifier of Egypt) and the two necropolis seals from the necropolis of Abydos that show him as the first king of the First Dynasty.

The approximate date of Narmer/Menes is mostly estimated as close to the 31st or 32nd century BCE, although recent Egyptological literature comprises estimates of anywhere between the 34th and the 30th centuries BCE.[6]


The famous Narmer Palette, discovered by James E. Quibell in 1898 in Hierakonpolis,[7] shows Narmer displaying the insignia of both Upper and Lower Egypt, giving rise to the theory that he unified the two kingdoms.[8] Since its discovery, it has been debated whether the Narmer Palette represents a historic event[8][9] or was purely symbolic.[10][11] In 1993, however, Günter Dreyer discovered in Abydos a year label of Narmer depicting the same event as that on the Narmer Palette which clearly shows that the Narmer Palette depicts an actual historic event.[12]

The mainstream Egyptological consensus identifying Narmer with Menes is by no means universal. This has ramifications for the agreed history of ancient Egypt. Some Egyptologists hold that Menes is the same person as Hor-Aha and that he inherited an already-unified Egypt from Narmer;[13] others hold that Narmer began the process of unification but either did not succeed or succeeded only partially, leaving it to Menes to complete. Arguments have been made that Narmer is Menes because of his appearance on a mud seal impression found in Abydos in conjunction with the gameboard hieroglyph for "mn", which appears to be a contemporary record of the otherwise unattested king.[14]

Another possible theory is that Narmer was an immediate successor to the king who did manage to unify Egypt (perhaps the King Scorpion whose name was found on a macehead also discovered in Hierakonpolis), but he adopted symbols of unification that had already been in use for perhaps a generation.[15]

Two necropolis mud sealings listing kings recently found in the tombs of Den and Qa'a (both in Abydos) show Narmer as the founder of the First Dynasty, who was then followed by Hor-Aha. The Qa'a sealing shows all eight kings of the First Dynasty in the correct sequence beginning with Narmer.[16] Menes is not mentioned on either list of kings because at that time the name generally used on the monuments was the Horus name, while Menes was a personal name.[17]

Until recently, Narmer's wife was thought to have been Neithhotep, whose name means "Neith is satisfied". In this theory, she would have been a princess of Lower Egypt. Inscriptions bearing her name were found in tombs belonging to Narmer's immediate successors Hor-Aha as well as Djer, which Egyptologists took to suggest that she was the mother of Hor-Aha.[18] However, the discovery in 2012 of rock inscriptions in Sinai during an expedition under the authority of Pierre Tallet raise questions about this theory.[lower-alpha 1]

Tomb and artifacts

Chambers B17 and B18 in the Umm el-Qa'ab constitute the tomb of Narmer.

Narmer's tomb is composed of two joined chambers (B17 and B18) found in the Umm el-Qa'ab region of Abydos. It is located next to the tomb of Ka, who ruled Upper Egypt just before him.[19]

Narmer is well attested throughout Egypt, the and southern Canaan, and Sinai altogether, at 25 sites.[lower-alpha 2] At every site except Coptos, it appears in a serekh. In Egypt his name has been found at 17 sites: four in Upper Egypt (Hierakonpolis, Naqada,[20] Abydos ,[21][22] and Coptos[23]), ten in Lower Egypt (Tarkhan,[24][25] Helwan,[26] Zawyet el'Aryan,[27] Tell Ibrahim Awad, Ezbet el-Tell,[28] Minshat Abu Omar,Saqqara ,[29] Buto ,[30] Tell el-Farkhan [31] and Kafr Hassan Dawood [32]), and one in the Eastern Desert (Wadi el-Qaash[33]), and two in the Western Desert (Kharga Oasis[34] and Gebel Tjauti[35]).

During Narmer's reign, Egypt had an active economic presence in southern Canaan. Pottery sherds have been discovered at several sites, both from pots made in Egypt and imported to Canaan and others made in the Egyptian style out of local materials. The latter discovery has led to the conclusion that Egypt's presence in Canaan was in the form of a colony rather than just the result of trade.[36] While Egypt's presence in Canaan has been explained as the result of a military invasion,[37] this view is not generally accepted.[38][39] Fortifications at Tel es-Sakan dating to this period and almost entirely Egyptian in construction suggest a military presence, if not a military invasion.[40]

The extent of Egyptian activity in southern Canaan is shown by the discovery of 33 serekhs on pottery sherds at sites in Canaan dating from the Protodynastic Period to the beginning of the First Dynasty.[41] Thirteen of these belong to Narmer, and came from seven different sites: Tel Arad,[42] En Besor (Ein HaBesor),[43] Tel es-Sakan,[44] Nahal Tillah (Halif Terrace),[45] Tel Erani (Tel Gat),[46] Small Tell Malhata,[47] and Tel Lod.[48] An additional serekh from Tel Lod is attributed to Narmer's probable predecessor, Ka.[49] Significantly only one is attributable to Narmer's successors, to Hor Aha, his immediate successor. The remainder of the serekhs either have no name on them or have a name not attributable to any known pharaoh.[41] Narmer's serekh, along with those of other Predynastic and Early Dynastic kings, has been found at the Wadi 'Ameyra in the southern Sinai, where inscriptions commemorate Egyptian mining expeditions to the area.[50]

During the summer of 1994, excavators from the Nahal Tillah expedition, in southern Israel, discovered an incised ceramic sherd with the serekh sign of Narmer. The sherd was found on a large circular platform, possibly the foundations of a storage silo on the Halif Terrace. Dated to c. 3000 BCE, mineralogical studies of the sherd conclude that it is a fragment of a wine jar which had been imported from the Nile valley to Canaan.[51]

After about 200 years of active presence in Canaan,[52] Egyptian presence peaked during Narmer's reign and quickly declined after that.[41]

Gallery of images

See also


  1. In 2012, Pierre Tallet discovered an important new series of rock caarvings in Wadi ‘Ameyro in the Sinai. This discovery was reported in Tallet 2015, and in 2016 in two web articles by Owen Jarus, “Earlyl Egyptian Queen Revealed in 5,000-Year-Old Hieroglyphs” and “ Photos: 5,000-Year Old Hieroglyphs Discovered in Sinai Desert” . These inscriptions strongly suggest that Nieth-Hotep was Djer’s regent for a period of time, but do not resolve the question of whether she was Narmer’s queen. In the first of Jarus’ articles, he quotes Tallet as saying that Nieth-Hotep “ was not the wife of Narmer”. However, Tallet , in a personal communication with Thomas C Heagy explained that he had been misquoted. According to Tallet, she could have been Narmer’s wife (Djer’s grandmother), but that it is more likely that she was in the next generation – for example Narmer’s daughter or Aha’s sister ( Djer’s aunt). This is consistent with the discussion in Tallet 2015, pp. 28-29.
  2. Sites with more than one inscription are footnoted with either references to the most representative inscriptions, or to sources that are the most important for that site. All of the inscriptions are included in the Narmer Catalog ( . Several references discuss substantial numbers of inscriptions. They include: Database of Early Dynastic Inscriptions , Kaplony 1963, Kaplony 1964, Kaiser & Dreyer 1982, Kahl 1994,van den Brink 1996, van den Brink 2001, Jiménez-Serrano 2003, Jiménez-Serrano 2007, and Pätznick 2009.


  1. Wilkinson 1999, p. 67.
  2. Lloyd 1994, p. 7
  3. Edwards 1971, p. 13
  4. Cervelló-Autuori 2003, p. 174
  5. Heagy 2014, pp. 59–92.
  6. Dee et al. (2013): "recent estimates range from 3400 to 2900 BCE", based on: J. Mellaart, 1979, Egyptian and Near Eastern chronology: a dilemma?. Antiquity 53, 6–1; J. von Beckerath, 1997, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Agypten. Mainz, Germany: Verlag Philipp von Zabern; KA Kitchen, 2000, Regnal and genealogical data of ancient Egypt (absolute chronology I). In The synchronisation of civilisations in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Second illennium BC I (ed. Bietak M), pp. 39–52. Vienna, Austria: Austrian Academy of Sciences; R. Krauss and DA Warburton, 2006, 'Conclusions' in: Ancient Egyptian Chronology (eds Hornung E, Krauss R, Warburton DA), pp. 473–489. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill; D Wengrow, 2006, The archaeology of Early Egypt. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  7. Quibell 1898, pp. 81–84, pl. XII–XIII.
  8. 1 2 Gardiner 1961, pp. 403–404.
  9. Edwards 1961, pp. 41–43.
  10. Baines 1995, p. 117.
  11. O'Connor 2011.
  12. Dreyer 2000, pp. 6–7.
  13. Midant-Reynes 2000, pp. 243–50.
  14. Gardiner 1961, pp. 404–5.
  15. Schulman 1991–92, p. 85.
  16. Cervelló-Autuori 2005, pp. 31–37.
  17. Seidlmayer 2010, p. 25.
  18. Tyldesley 2006, p. 26–29.
  19. Dreyer 1999, pp. 110–11.
  20. Spencer 1980, p. 64(454), pl. 47.454, pl.64.454.
  21. Petrie 1900.
  22. Petrie 1901.
  23. Williams 1988, p. 35-50, fig. 3a.
  24. Petrie, Wainwright & Gardiner 1913.
  25. Petrie 1914.
  26. Saad 1947, p. 26-27.
  27. Dunham 1978, pp. 25-26, pl. 16A.
  28. Bakr 1988, pp. 50-51, pl. 1b.
  29. Lacau & Lauer 1959, pp. 1-2, pl. 1.1.
  30. von der Way 1989, p. 285-286, n.76, fig. 11.7.
  31. Jucha 2008, p. 132-133, fig 47.2.
  32. Hassan 2000, p. 39.
  33. Winkler 1938, pp. 10,25, pl.11.1.
  34. Ikram & Rossi 2004, pp. 211-215, fig 1 & 2.
  35. Darnell & Darnell 1997, pp. 71-72, fig. 10.
  36. Porat 1986–87, p. 119.
  37. Yadin 1955, pp. 1-16.
  38. Campagno 2008, pp. 695–96.
  39. Porat 1986–87, p. 109.
  40. de Miroschedji 2008, p. 2028–29.
  41. 1 2 3 Anđelković 2011, p. 31.
  42. Amiran 1974, p. 4-12, fig. 20, pl.1.
  43. Schulman 1976, pp. 25-26.
  44. de Miroschedji & Sadeq 2000, pp. 136-137, fig. 9.
  45. Levy et al. 1997, pp. 31-33.
  46. Yeivin 1960, pp. 193-203, fig. 2, pl. 24a.
  47. Amiran, Ilan & Aron 1983, pp. 75-83, fig.7c.
  48. van den Brink & Braun 2002, pp. 167-192.
  49. Jiménez-Serrano 2007, p. 370, Table 8.
  50. Tallet & Laisney 2012, pp. 383–389.
  51. Levy et al. 1995, pp. 26–35.
  52. Anđelković 1995, p. 72.


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