Notable bearers of this name include:
- Muawiyah I (602–680), first Umayyad Caliph (r. 661–680)
- Muawiya II (661–684), third Umayyad Caliph (r. 683–684)
- Mu'awiya ibn Hudayj, Umayyad general and governor
- Mu'awiya ibn Hisham (died 737), Umayyad prince and general (fl. 725–737)
- Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya (born 1941), Prime-Minister, then President of Mauritania
- Mu'awiyah Rayyan Nieshaem ibn Mohd Elfie Nieshaem, son of Malaysian Islamist activist who was exposed for his pornography hosting business.