Mount Pico

Mount Pico
Ponta do Pico

Aerial view of Mount Pico
Highest point
Elevation 2,351 m (7,713 ft)[1]
Prominence 2,351 m (7,713 ft)[1]
Parent peak None - HP Pico
Listing Country high point
Coordinates 38°28′08″N 28°23′56″W / 38.46889°N 28.39889°W / 38.46889; -28.39889Coordinates: 38°28′08″N 28°23′56″W / 38.46889°N 28.39889°W / 38.46889; -28.39889[1]
Mount Pico

Location in the Azores, on the island of Pico

Location Pico Island, Azores
Parent range Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Age of rock < 230,000 Years
Mountain type Stratovolcano
Volcanic arc/belt Volcanic Arc
Last eruption July to December 1718
Easiest route Scramble, Class 2; YDS Grade II

Mount Pico (Portuguese: Montanha do Pico) is a stratovolcano located on Pico Island, in the mid-Atlantic archipelago of the Azores. It is the highest mountain of Portugal, at 2,351 metres (7,713 ft) above sea level, and is one of the highest Atlantic mountains; it is more than twice the elevation of any other peak in the Azores.


An image of the island of Pico, showing Mount Pico (1848)
A view of the stratovolcano of Pico at sunset
The landscape of the East Fissural Zone with some scoria cones

Historical eruptions of Pico have occurred from vents on its flanks rather than the summit crater. In 1562–64, an eruption on the southeast flank produced lava flows which reached the sea. Another flank eruption in 1718 also produced flows which reached the coast. The most recent eruption occurred in December 1718.

On 29 September 2009 there were reports from local news sources that indicated that a fumarole existing at the pinnacle of the mountain (Piquinho) began emitting volcanic gas. The region's seismic and volcanological monitoring centre (Portuguese: CIVISA Centro de Informação e Vigilância Sismovulcânica dos Açores) indicated that the phenomenon occurred in the early morning, turning intense and visible in various points throughout the island and from Faial. Although the event resulted from exceptional meteorological conditions and was visible in the Central Group, there was no liberation of anomalous volcanic gases and all other parameters fell within norms.


The pit crater rim of Pico Alto on the summit of Pico
The pinnacle of the mountain: Pico Piquinho or Pequeno

Mount Pico is part of the Madalena Volcanic Complex, one of three volcanological units that comprise the island of Pico, associated with three historic eruptions in 1562, 1718 and 1720.[2] Current morphology suggests an age dating to the Holocene age, confirmed by radiocarbon dates younger than 6000 years.[2][3][4] Structurally, this complex can be subdivided into two other sections: the Pico Volcano and the East Fissural Zone.[2]

Pico is a stratovolcano, with a pit crater on its summit.[2] Pico Alto the round crater about 500 meters (1,600 ft) in diameter and 30 meters deep tops the volcano, with Pico Piquinho (or Pequeno) a small volcanic cone rising 70 meters within it to form the true summit. Meanwhile, the East Fissural Zone comprises several alignments of Hawaiian/Strombolian scoria cones and associated lava flows, which overflowed many of the cliffs, cut in older units and originated lava deltas (Portuguese: fajãs).[2]

The tectonic structure is characterized by two fault systems.[2] The main WNW-ESE structures are the dextral faults of Lagoa do Capitão and Topo, that merge to the east, forming a narrow shallow graben (or trench).[2] To the west, the graben is completely covered by the Pico stratovolcano occurring less than 10,000 years ago, and infilled by lava flows and cones of the Eastern Fissural zone, that includes many of the volcanic alignments and scarps.[2] The second fault zone, running NNW-SSE, are markedly less in number and includes normal left lateral, oblique slip faults responsible for the main volcanic eruptions: the Lomba de Fogo-São João fault (basis of the 1718 eruption)and the Santo António volcanic alignment.[2]

On top of Pico (Piquinho) there is an area of permanent degasification characterized by the emission of water vapour at a temperature of between 50 °C to 75 °C. In addition, other vents also exist between 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) and 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) above sea level, as well as diffuse degasification along the graben between the Lagoa do Capitão and Topo faults. There is also a carbon dioxide-rich spring in the locality of Silveira (along the southern coast of Lajes do Pico, formed in the base of Pico.

Hiking trails are available and the ascent to the summit can be made in around two to four hours from the trailhead for fit persons depending on weather which can be quite treacherous especially in winter months.

See also


  1. 1 2 3 "Europe: Atlantic Island Ultra-Prominences". Retrieved 2014-05-23.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 José Madeira & António Brum da Silveira (October 2003), p.748
  3. Madeira (1998)
  4. Nunes (1999)
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