Military history of Indonesia
Part of a series on the
|History of Indonesia|
Military history of Indonesia is the military history of the archipelagic realm that today formed modern nation of Republic of Indonesia, which encompassed kaleidoscope of conflicts that spanned for over a millennia. Started as tribal warfare among indigenous population, the martial activity developed further to classical kingdom conquests, foreign colonial occupations, battles for independence through guerrilla warfare during Indonesian National Revolution, regional conquests and disputes with neighbouring countries, to Indonesian Republic struggle to maintain its unity and integrity against separatist movements in some of its provinces.
Prehistoric tribal warfare
The archaeological findings dated from prehistoric era has discovered numbers of stone and metal tools, such as axes, arrows and spearheads. These are mostly used for hunting, and might also be used in tribal warfare. Some of this bronze tools such as elaborate axe might had ceremonial purpose instead. Indonesian tribes also familiar with natively-developed edged weapons, such as parang, klewang, mandau, badik, pedang, kujang, golok and kris.
The martial activity in Indonesia started as tribal warfare among Indonesian tribes. Mostly motivated by various factors; such as to gain lands, to take over natural resources, acquiring slaves from neighbouring village, tribal ways to settle disputes, to coming of age rituals of certain tribal custom, such as headhunting. Indonesian tribes such as Dayak, Nias and Batak are known to practice the headhunting rituals. The tribal warfare among villages still happen today among Papuan tribes of Indonesian West Papua and Papua provinces. Certain warlike tribes are often employed by other developed kingdoms and polities as mercenaries, such as Nias warriors employed in Aceh Sultanate service, to Ambonese warriors employed in Dutch East India Company service.
It is important to understand, that due to its geographical conditions, some distant islands or remote interiors are virtually isolated from the rest of the archipelago. Plus some tribes has been fiercely protecting their land and retain their tribal way of life for centuries, by chasing away intruders. As the result, the developments and experiences are not evenly distributes among various parts of Indonesia. Some parts such as Java, Bali and coastal South Sumatra has developed and experienced sophisticated kingdom as their national institution and social system, while other parts such as interior Borneo and Sumatra, also distant islands like Nias, Maluku and Papua, still retain their tribal way of life, well until the early 20th century.
The ancient kingdoms of Indonesia developed a martial art which was used both in warfare and for self-defense. It is today collectively known as pencak silat.
The standing military unit started to form when Indonesians entering the kingdom phase c. 4th century, after adopting Hindu-Buddhist style of civic institution and social system. The formation of ancient Indianised Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms saw the establishment of Hindu-caste Kshatriya class, the social category which includes warriors, soldiers, generals, warlords, and kings. Studies of bas-reliefs depiction in Javanese temples dated from Mataram Kingdom, especially Borobudur and Prambanan, revealed some battle scenes and soldiers wielding various types of weapons used in warfare during this period. These weapons mostly sharp-edged weapons such as spears, swords, sabre, klewang, golok, stab dagger predecessor of kris, archery (bow and arrow), to blunt weapons such as gada mace, and shields made of woven rattan, hard wood or metal.
Major Indonesian empires such as Srivijaya and Majapahit are known as the regional military powerhouse, as they launched naval raids and conquests against neighbouring kingdoms. The bas-relief also depicting wooden double outtriggered (cadik) ships, which testified that during this period, some thallasocratic kingdoms has developed armada or naval military units.
The earliest written historical records of martial activities, was the 7th century Srivijayan conquest, launched by Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa. The Kedukan Bukit inscription mentioned about Dapunta Hyang's siddhayatra expedition that brought 20,000 troops, 312 people in boats, with 1,312 foot soldiers. This is the earliest record of military activity in Indonesian history. Also from 7th century Srivijaya, the Telaga Batu inscription mentions titles related to military unit; such as senāpati (general), cātabhata (soldier), puhāvam (ship captain) and vāsīkarana (blacksmith/weapon maker). This shows that a specialized military ranks and titles, also profession related to military activity, has been established in Srivijayan court institution. Followed by Kota Kapur inscription, which mentions about Srivijayan naval military expedition against Bhumi Java, a period coincides with the fall of Tarumanagara and Kalingga kingdom in Java.
In the 7th century, the Srivijayan Maharaja Dharmasetu, launched various naval raids against the Cham ports of Indochina. The city of Indrapura by the Mekong River was temporarily controlled from Palembang in the early 8th century. By 7th to 9th century Srivijaya held an alliance to the Sailendras of Central Java as the member of two royal houses intermarried. The Srivijayans continued to dominate areas around present-day Cambodia until the Khmer King Jayavarman II, the founder of the Khmer Empire dynasty, severed the Srivijayan link later in the same century.
In the late 10th century, the rivalry between Sumatran Srivijaya and Javanese Medang kingdom has become more intense and hostile. In the year 990, king Dharmawangsa launched a naval invasion against Srivijaya, and unsuccessfully attempted to capture Palembang. Dharmawangsa's invasion led the Maharaja of Srivijaya, Chulamaniwarmadewa to seek protection from China. In 1006, Srivijaya successfully repelling the Javanese invasion, and in retaliation, Srivijaya assisted Haji (king) Wurawari of Lwaram to revolt, attacking and destroying the Medang palace. With the death of Dharmawangsa and the fall of the Medang capital, Srivijaya contributed to the collapse of Medang kingdom.
In 1025 Rajendra Chola, the Chola king from Coromandel in South India, launched naval raids on ports of Srivijaya and conquered Kadaram (modern Kedah) from Srivijaya. This calamity marked the decline of Srivijayan military might.
After defeating Dharmasraya kingdom (Srivijaya's successor) in Sumatra in 1275, the Kingdom of Singhasari in Java has become the most powerful kingdom in the region. King Kertanegara launched the Pamalayu expedition against Sumatran states and conquered them. On the other hand, the Mongol Yuan dynasty of China demanded Java to send tribute to Kublai Khan's court. Kertanegara responded by insulting and torturing Khan's envoy. As the result Khan will send 1,000 ships to punish the Javanese king.
Meanwhile, Jayakatwang, the ruler of Gelang-gelang (Kediri) kingdom revolted and manage to destroy Singhasari and killed Kertanegara. Raden Wijaya, the son in law of Kertanegara, later used Mongol invading forces to ousted Jayakatwang, turned back against Mongol forces, and drive them to the sea. By 1293 Raden Wijaya established Majapahit kingdom that grew to become one of the most powerful state in Indonesian history.
Majapahit would be plagued by regional rebellions, such as the rebellions of Sadeng and Keta, rebellion of Ranggalawe, and Nambi. After that, under the able and aggressive Prime Minister Gajah Mada, Majapahit spread its influences to overseas realm within Indonesian archipelago. During the reign of Hayam Wuruk, Majapahit was involved in a Battle against the royal family of Sunda Kingdom in the Battle of Bubat. However it was the Paregreg war, a civil war that took place in 1404-1406, and was fought between Western court led by Wikramawardhana, against Eastern court led by Bhre Wirabhumi, that drain of financial resources and exhausted Majapahit, that led to its decline in the following years.
For centuries, numerous kingdoms rose and fell in the Indonesian archipelago. By the 15th century, Islamic states began to spread their influence, as a number of Sultanates started flourished in Indonesia.
In the 17th century, Mataram Sultanate had replaced Demak and previous hegemon Majapahit, as the most powerful kingdom in Java. The reign of able and ambitious Sultan Agung of Mataram marked the apogee of Javanese Mataram martial power. The Sultan launched a series of military expeditions against other polities in Java, such as Pajang, Surabaya, Priangan, and went further by attacking the Dutch East India Company (VOC) fortress in the Siege of Batavia (1628–29).
Aceh was one of the earliest Muslim states in the Indonesian archipelago, and they had the ambition to spread Islam as well as their political influence in northern parts of Sumatra. The Sultanate was founded by Ali Mughayat Syah, who began campaigns to extend his control over northern Sumatra in 1520. His conquests included Deli, Pedir, and Pasai, and he attacked Aru. His son Alauddin al-Kahar (d.1571) extended the domains farther south into Sumatra, but was less successful in his attempts to gain a foothold across the strait, though he made several attacks on both Johor and Malacca, with the support along with men and firearms from Suleiman the Magnificent's Ottoman Empire. The Aceh sultanate has formed a military alliance with the Ottoman Empire, that sent a relief force of 15 Xebecs.
Aceh's military ambition reach its peak during the reign of Iskandar Muda. He extended the Sultanate's control over most of Sumatra. He also conquered Pahang, a tin-producing region of the Malayan Peninsula. The strength of his formidable fleet was brought to an end with a disastrous campaign against Malacca in 1629, when the combined Portuguese and Johor forces managed to destroy all his ships and 19,000 troops according to Portuguese account. Aceh forces was not destroyed, however, as Aceh was able to conquer Kedah within the same year and taking many of its citizens to Aceh.
In 1871, the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of Sumatra allowed for Dutch control throughout Sumatra in exchange for concessions in the Gold Coast and equal trading rights in northern Aceh. The treaty was tantamount to a declaration of war on Aceh, and the Aceh War followed soon after in 1873. In 1874 the Sultan abandoned the capital, withdrawing to the hills, while the Dutch announced the annexation of Aceh into Dutch East Indies colonial state.
European colonial state
Started during the age of exploration in the 16th century, the European kingdoms and empires began to established themselves in Southeast Asia. From Portuguese, Spanish, British to the Dutch, each of them involved in some fierce contests, during the age of European colonialism, to rule Indonesian archipelago. Because of the European's advance military technology, such as gunpowder technology in canons and muskets, many kingdoms and polities in Indonesian archipelago were conquered and subjugated by European power.
Dutch East India Company
The Dutch East India Company (VOC) was the first multinational corporation in the world It was a powerful company, possessing quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to form military units or militias, wage war, imprison and execute convicts, negotiate treaties, strike its own coins, and establish colonies.
The Company in particular, was extremely successful on conquering local Indonesian polities, mostly contributed from European superiorities on weaponry and military technology. Start by subjugated Ternate Sultanate in Maluku, wrestled former Portuguese ports by conquering Amboina and Banda islands, acquired port of Jayakarta from Banten Sultanate as they were establishing their headquarter in Batavia (now Jakarta), and the conquest of Makassar in 1669. They went further by weakening the Sultanate of Mataram, and conquered most parts of Java, except the interior of Vorstenlanden Mataram and Banten.
By 1800, the company was declared bankrupt and the Dutch nationalised VOC assets and creating the colonial state of Dutch East Indies.
Dutch East Indies
The colonial state of Dutch East Indies expanded further as they launched a series of conquest against native kingdoms and sultanates started in the early 19th century to the early 20th century.
The Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger (KNIL) was formed on 10 March 1830. It was not part of the Royal Netherlands Army, but a separate military arm specifically formed for service in the Netherlands East Indies. Its establishment coincided with the Dutch ambition to expand colonial rule from the 17th century area of control to the far larger territories comprising the Dutch East Indies seventy years later.
The KNIL was involved in many campaigns against indigenous polities and militias in the Indonesian archipelago including the Padri War (1821–1845), the Java War (1825–1830), crushing the resistance of Bali in 1849, and the prolonged Aceh War (1873–1904). In 1894, Lombok and Karangasem were annexed. Bali was finally taken under full control through the campaign in 1906 and the final campaign in 1908.
Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the KNIL launched some conquests on the Indonesian archipelago, and after 1904 the Netherlands East Indies were considered pacified, with no large-scale armed opposition to the Dutch rule. By 1920 the Dutch colonial state has integrated most of Indonesian archipelago within its territory. The Dutch East Indies has become the most precious colony for Dutch crown.
World War II
The Dutch colonial state was brought into an abrupt end when the Japanese Empire launched some fast and systematic attacks in 1942. The Japanese occupation in Indonesia was part of larger war of the Pacific theatre during World War II. To gain popular support and mobilise Indonesian people in their war effort against the Western Allied force, Japanese occupation forces encouraged Indonesian nationalistic movements and recruiting Indonesian nationalist leaders; Sukarno, Hatta, Ki Hajar Dewantara and Kyai Haji Mas Mansyur to rally the people support for mobilisation centre Putera (Indonesian: Pusat Tenaga Rakyat) on 16 April 1943, replaced with Jawa Hokokai on 1 March 1944. Some of these mobilised populations were sent to forced labour as romusha.
Japanese military also provided Indonesian youth with military trainings and weapons, including the formation of volunteer army called PETA (Pembela Tanah Air – Defenders of the Homeland). The Japanese military trainings for Indonesian youth originally was meant to rally the local's support for the collapsing power of Japanese Empire, but later it has become the significant resource for Republic of Indonesia during Indonesian National Revolution in 1945 to 1949, and also has leads to the formation of Indonesian National Armed Forces in 1945.
Republic of Indonesia
War of independence
Just two days after Japanese Emperor Hirohito announced the surrender of Japanese Empire to the Allied force, the Indonesian Republic was proclaimed by Sukarno and Hatta in Jakarta on 17 August 1945. At first, The Indonesian Army started out as BKR (Badan Keamanan Rakjat – People's Security Corps), which was formed on 29 August 1945, it was created more as a civil defence force than an army.
However, the Dutch with the help of British forces tried to reestablish the colonial state of Dutch East Indies. Indonesian nationalist republicans fought hard to protect their newly declared independence. The fierce Battle of Surabaya on October to November 1945 saw the birth of Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (TKR – People's Security Army) on 5 October 1945; this was a move taken to formalise, unite, and organise the splintered pockets of independent troopers ('laskar') across Indonesia, ensuing a more professional military approach, to contend with the Netherlands and the Allied force invaders. This is the predecessor of Indonesian armed force, Tentara Nasional Indonesia.
In January 1946, TRI (Tentara Republik Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia Army) was formed, in a further step to professionalise the army and increase its ability to engage systematically. In June 1947 then, TRI changed its name to TNI (Tentara Nasional Indonesia - Indonesian National Army) which is a merger between the TRI with independent troopers paramilitary people's struggle (laskar) across Indonesia.
On 20 July 1947, the Dutch launched a major military offensive called Operatie Product, with the intent of conquering the Republic. Claiming violations of the Linggajati Agreement, the Dutch described the campaign as politionele acties ("police actions") to restore law and order. This used to be the task of the KNIL. However, at the time the majority of the Dutch troops in Indonesia belonged to the Royal Netherlands Army.
The United Nations Security Council brokered the Renville Agreement in an attempt to rectify the collapsed Linggarjati Agreement. The agreement was ratified in January 1948 and recognised a cease-fire along the so-called 'Van Mook line'; which connected the most advanced Dutch positions. Many Republican positions, however, were still held behind the Dutch lines. In February 1948 the Siliwangi Division (35,000 men) of the Republican Army, led by Nasution, marched from West Java to Central Java; the relocation was intended to ease internal Republican tensions involving the Division in the Surakarta area. The Battalion, however, clashed with Dutch troops while crossing Mount Slamet, and the Dutch believed it was part of a systematic troop movement across the Renville Line.
The Dutch launched a military offensive on 19 December 1948 called 'Operatie Kraai' (Operation Crow). By the following day it had conquered the city of Yogyakarta, the temporary Republican capital. By the end of December, all major Republican held cities in Java and Sumatra were in Dutch hands. The Republican President, Vice-President, and all but six Republic of Indonesia ministers were captured by Dutch troops and exiled on Bangka Island off the east coast of Sumatra. In areas surrounding Yogyakarta and Surakarta, Republican forces refused to surrender and continued to wage a guerrilla war under the leadership of Republican military chief of staff General Sudirman who had escaped the Dutch offensives. An emergency Republican government, the Pemerintahan Darurat Republik Indonesia (PDRI), was established in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra.
Although Dutch forces conquered the towns and cities in Republican heartlands on Java and Sumatra, they could not control villages and the countryside. Republican troops and militia led by Lt. Colonel (later President) Suharto attacked Dutch positions in Yogyakarta at dawn on 1 March 1949. The Dutch were expelled from the city for six hours but reinforcements were brought in from the nearby cities of Ambarawa and Semarang that afternoon. Indonesian fighters retreated at 12:00 pm and the Dutch re-entered the city. The Indonesian attack, later known in Indonesia as Serangan Oemoem (new spelling: Serangan Umum '1 March General Offensive'). A similar attack against Dutch troops in Surakarta was led by Lt. Col. Slamet Riyadi on 7 August the same year.
The resilience of Indonesian Republican resistance and active international diplomacy set world opinion against the Dutch. The United States pushed the Netherlands government into negotiations. The Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference was held in The Hague from 23 August 1949 to 2 November 1949 between the Republic, the Netherlands, and the Dutch-created federal states. The Netherlands agreed to recognise Indonesian sovereignty over a new federal state known as the 'United States of Indonesia' (RUSI). It would include all the territory of the former Dutch East Indies with the exception of Netherlands New Guinea; which was retained by the Netherlands until further negotiations with Indonesia. Sovereignty was formally transferred on 27 December 1949.
Securing the Republic
In the period between the 1949 to 1965, Indonesian national unity faced some dire ordeals, as Indonesian Central Government in Jakarta faced numerous regional rebellions and separatist movements that appeared almost simultaneously. They had established the alternative government and declared separate independent states within the Republic of Indonesia. The Indonesian Islamic state appeared in 1949, Republic of South Maluku was declared in 1950, while the PRRI and Permesta rebellions appeared in the same period between 1957 and 1958.
During the Indonesian National Revolution, Kartosuwirjo founded his own band of freedom fighters in West Java, called Hizbullah and Sabilillah. As a protest toward the Renville Agreement signed by Indonesian leaders in 1948, which ceded West Java to the Dutch, Kartosuwirjo proclaimed a Darul Islam ("Islamic State") in West Java on 7 August 1949. Darul Islam did not disband itself after the transfer of sovereignty in 1949, resulting in a clash with the government of the Indonesian Republic.
On 25 April 1950, the Republic of South Maluku (RMS) was declared and promptly quashed by Indonesian Republic. The RMS on Ambon was defeated by Indonesian forces in November 1950. The defeat on Ambon resulted in the flight of the self-declared RMS government to the island of Seram, where guerrilla clashes would take place for more than a decade.
In 1951, rebels in South Sulawesi led by army deserter Abdul Kahar Muzakkar joined the Darul Islam movement. On 20 September 1953, Daud Beureu'eh declared that Aceh was part of the Islamic State of Indonesia (Negara Islam Indonesia) under the leadership of Kartosuwirjo. In 1957, it was estimated that the Darul Islam controlled one-third of West Java and more than 90% of South Sulawesi and Aceh provinces. The movement had 15,000 armed guerrillas operating under the banner of Tentara Islam Indonesia (Indonesian Islamic Army).
Indonesian Republic launched some crackdown operations against the Islamist state. Smaller Darul Islam bands operating in Central Java under Amir Fatah was crushed by Colonel Ahmad Yani's Banteng Raiders in 1954–1957. Amir Fatah was killed in 1954, while Ibnu Hadjar was eventually executed in 1962.
On 2 March 1957, the Permesta rebellion was declared by civil and military leaders of East Indonesia, centred in Manado. The movement was led by Colonel Ventje Sumual. In 1958, the Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Pemerintah Revolusioner Republik Indonesia/PRRI) set up an alternative government in Sumatra to oppose the Indonesian Central Government. On 17 February 1958 the Permesta rebels joined forces with the PRRI rebels based in Sumatra who had declared a revolutionary government two days earlier.
Darul Islam forces in South Kalimantan under Ibnu Hadjar were forced to surrender in 1959. Three years of negotiations (1959–1962) led to a peace agreement that ended the conflict in Aceh, in which Aceh was restored as an autonomous province with special rights for Islamic law. Introduction of effective "fence-of-legs" method of encircling rebel mountain hideouts in 1959 succeeded in breaking the strong rebel grip over West Java's rural areas.
The Central Government launched military operations against PRRI headquarter in Central Sumatra. General Nasution, who was leading the government forces, launched Operasi Pemanggilan Kembali (Operation Call Back) at the end of 1960 to take advantage of internal rifts within the PRRI. The main objective of which was to persuade the army officers supporting the PRRI to surrender themselves. By 1961 PRRI rebellion surrendered. Following successful Central Government attacks on the PRRI based in Sumatra, the conflict swung to the east where the Permesta rebels were based. Central Government forces were able to capture the Permesta capital of Manado at the conclusion of June 1958. However, the Permesta rebels continued their resistance, fighting a guerrilla campaign against central government troops until the last remnants surrendered and were given an amnesty in 1961.
In June 1962, Kartosuwirjo, the leader of Darul Islam, was captured on his hideout of Mount Geber near Garut. In captivity, Kartosuwirjo issued order for all his followers to surrender, after which he was quickly tried and executed. The last Darul Islam band in West Java surrendered in August 1962. Successive military operations also crushed the Darul Islam in South Sulawesi.
RMS armed struggle continued on the island of Seram until defeated in December 1963. In February 1965, Darul Islam's leader Kahar Muzakkar was killed in a military ambush in the interior of Southeast Sulawesi province, ending the Darul Islam insurgency in Indonesia. The fall of RMS position in Maluku has led to the formation of RMS government in exile in the Netherlands in 1966.
In the early 1960s, Indonesia has succeed on maintaining its national unity against regional rebellions, and shifted their attention to Dutch-held West New Guinea. Indonesia argued that as a successor state of Dutch East Indies, West Papua is theirs. Feeling confidence, Indonesia has won Soviet Union's supports to modernise their weapons and military equipment, and soon would embarked on regional military campaigns, first against Dutch to wrestle West New Guinea, then against the formation of Malaysia, and later in the 1970s against Portuguese Timor.
In July 1959, the Indonesian government adopted a policy of confrontation against the Dutch to claim West New Guinea and increased military incursions into the island. Sukarno also developed closer relations with the Soviet Union, which shared Indonesia's anti-colonial outlook. Later that year, the Soviet government decided to supply the warships and other military hardware directly to the Indonesians.
Between 1960 and 1962, Indonesia pursued a policy of confrontation against the Netherlands for the control of West New Guinea, which combined diplomatic, political, and economic pressure with limited military force. The final stage of the Indonesian Confrontation also involved a planned military invasion of the territory. The Indonesians also secured military weapons and political support from the Soviet Union, which induced the United States to intervene in the conflict as a third-party mediator between Indonesia and the Netherlands. Throughout 1960, Indonesian armed forces launched several infiltrations into West New Guinea. On 19 December 1961 Indonesian President Sukarno decreed the establishment of the Operation Trikora or Tri Komando Rakyat with the objective of 'liberating' West New Guinea by 1 January 1963. During the ensuing Vlakke Hoek incident, one of Indonesian torpedo boats was sunk while the remaining two boats were forced to retreat. Many Indonesian crew members and embarked marines being killed and 55 survivors taken prisoner. Among the casualties was Commodore Yos Sudarso, the deputy chief of the Indonesian Navy Staff.
On 24 June 1962, four Indonesian Air Force C-130 Hercules jets dropped 213 paratroopers near Merauke. Throughout the year, a total of 1,200 Indonesian paratroopers and 340 naval infiltrators landed in West New Guinea. By mid-1962, the Indonesian military had begun preparations to launch a full-scale invasion of Dutch New Guinea known as Operation Jayawijaya around August 1962. However, a ceasefire agreement between the Dutch and Indonesians, which facilitated the transfer of West New Guinea to Indonesia control by 1963, was signed on 15 August. As a result, the Indonesian military cancelled Operation Jayawijaya on 17 August 1962. Following the Act of Free Choice plebiscite in 1969, West Papua was formally integrated into the Republic of Indonesia.
In 1963, Indonesia opposed the British decolonisation initiative on the formation of Malaysia, arguing that it was the western imperialist move to block Indonesian influence. This led to an undeclared war popularly called Konfrontasi that took place between 1963 and 1966. This tension was marked by the infiltration of Indonesian forces into Northern Borneo. The conflict lasted nearly four years; however, following General Suharto's replacement of Sukarno, Indonesian interest in pursuing the war with Malaysia declined, and combat eased. Peace negotiations were initiated during May 1966 before a final peace agreement was ratified on 11 August 1966.
On 7 December 1975, Indonesian forces invaded East Timor under the pretext of anti-colonialism. Operasi Seroja (Operation Lotus) was the largest military operation ever carried out by Indonesia. Following a naval bombardment of Dili, Indonesian seaborne troops landed in the city while simultaneously paratroopers descended. 641 Indonesian paratroopers jumped into Dili, where they engaged in six-hours combat with FALINTIL gunmen. Indonesia would rule East Timor as its province for 24 years until 1999, when East Timorese vote for independence from Indonesia.
By 1970s Indonesian Republic facing two main separatist movements in both edges of the archipelagic realm; separatist movement in Aceh on western front, and small scale separatist movement in Papua on eastern front.
Between 1976 and 2005 in Aceh, there was an insurgency waged by the Free Aceh Movement (GAM) aspired for the province to be independent from Indonesia. Previously in the 1950s, Aceh has been a part of similar separatism aspiration, the Darul Islam. On 4 December 1976 Hasan di Tiro, the leader of Free Aceh Movement, declared Acehnese independence. In 1985, di Tiro secured Libyan support for GAM—taking advantage of Muammar Gaddafi's policy of supporting nationalist rebellions. Incidents began in 1989 after the return of the Acehnese trainees from Libya. Operations by GAM included weapons raiding, attacks against police and military posts, arsons and targeted assassinations of police and military personnel, government informants and other individuals.
The GAM's actions led the Indonesian government to institute repressive measures. The period between 1989 and 1998 became known as the "Military Operation Area" or Daerah Operasi Militer (DOM) era as the Indonesian military stepped up its counter-insurgency measures. This measure, although tactically successful in destroying GAM as a guerrilla force, alienated the local Acehnese. Shortly the GAM re-establish itself when Indonesian military was almost totally withdrawn from Aceh by order of president Habibie in late-1998. Destruction caused by the armed conflicts and 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake brought a peace deal and an end to the insurgency. The resulting peace agreement was signed on 15 August 2005. Under the agreement, Aceh would receive special autonomy under the Republic of Indonesia, and non-Aceh native government troops would be withdrawn from the province in exchange for GAM's disarmament. As part of the agreement, the European Union dispatched 300 monitors. Their mission expired on 15 December 2006, following local elections.
In eastern front, despite the official international recognition of West New Guinea absorption into Indonesia in 1969, there is some residual problems that still haunting the province up until this day. This is mostly because previously the Netherlands New Guinea has promoted Papuan nationalism among native population back in the 1950s that inspired their desire to establishing an independence state separated from Indonesia. There is an ongoing low-level conflict between the Indonesian Government and portions of the indigenous populations of West Papua in the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua. One of the separatist group, the Free Papua Movement (OPM), a militant Papuan-independence organisation, has conducted a low-level guerrilla war against the Indonesian state, targeting the Indonesian military and police, as well as engaging in the kidnapping of both non-Papuan Indonesian settlers and foreigners. Up until this day, most of the West Papuan insurgency were considered as low-level security disturbances and dealt by deploying Indonesian police and military force.
War against terror
After the crack down of Darul Islam in 1962 and the death of most of its leaders in 1965, the Islamist aspiration in Indonesia were seems to be repressed, but not completely eradicated. During and after the rule of Suharto, numbers of Islamist movement has been aspired to establish Islamic state based on sharia and toppled the secular Republican government of Indonesia. Among these organisation, the most notable is Jemaah Islamiyah Islamist terrorist group, that orchestrated series of terror attacks in Indonesia, such as 2000 Christmas Eve bombings, 2002 Bali bombings, 2003 Marriott Hotel bombing, 2004 Australian Embassy bombings, 2005 Bali bombings and 2009 Jakarta bombings. Since then Indonesian Police and authority has been successfully crack down the terrorist-cells and arrested their leaders and masterminds.
Since 1956, Indonesia has been participating in United Nations' peacekeepers force drawn from the Indonesian military called Garuda Contingent. It has deployed to three continents. The Garuda Contingent was first deployed to Egypt and Israel in November 1956 as part of the United Nations Emergency Force. The next two contingents were sent to the Congo. The first contingent consisted of 1,074 troops, served from September 1960 to May 1961. The second contingent to the Congo consisted of 3,457 troops, served from 1962 to 1963 and saw one casualty.
The Garuda Contingent's fourth and fifth deployments were to Vietnam in 1973 and 1974, towards the end of the Vietnam War. This was followed by a sixth deployment to Egypt after the Yom Kippur War under the command of Colonel Rudini. The Garuda Contingent later returned to Vietnam and Egypt for a seventh and eighth deployment, respectively.
After an eight-year hiatus, the Garuda Contingent deployed as part of the United Nations Iran–Iraq Military Observer Group in 1988, followed by the mission to Somalia and Cambodia in 1992, Mozambique in 1994, Bosnia in 1995,Congo in 2003, and Lebanon in the 2010.
Military role in modern Indonesia
Throughout the history of modern Indonesia, military has maintained an important role in political and social affairs. Numbers of Indonesian prominent figures has military backgrounds. Since the rise of Suharto regime in 1965, the armed forces has been actively involved on supporting the regime. However, after the fall of Suharto regime in 1998, there were some calls to limit the military role in national politics. With the inauguration of the newly elected national parliament in October 2004, the military no longer has a formal political role, although it retains important influence.
- Pamalayu expedition
- Battle of Bubat
- Java War
- Aceh War
- Dutch intervention in Bali (1906)
- Dutch East Indies campaign
- Indonesian National Revolution
- West New Guinea dispute
- Operation Trikora
- Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation
- Indonesian invasion of East Timor
- Insurgency in Aceh
- Insurgency in Papua
- Terrorism in Indonesia
- Budi Kurniawan Supangat & Dimas Muhamad (21 October 2014). "Defining Jokowi's vision of a maritime axis". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
- Vaisutis, 407
- Howard Alexander, Quintin Chambers, Donn F. Draeger (1979). Pentjak Silat: The Indonesian Fighting Art. Tokyo, Japan : Kodansha International Ltd.
- Irfan, N.K.S., (1983), Kerajaan Sriwijaya: pusat pemerintahan dan perkembangannya, Girimukti Pasaka
- Munoz, 132
- Munoz, 140
- Victor M Fic (2 January 2014). From Majapahit and Sukuh to Megawati Sukarnoputri. Abhinav Publications. p. 104. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Ricklefs, 32
- Ricklefs, 33
- Ricklefs, 34
- D. G. E. Hall, A History of South-east Asia. London: Macmillan, 1955.
- Ricklefs, 144
- http://www.kb.nl/dossiers/voc/voc.html VOC at the National Library of the Netherlands (in Dutch)
- "Slave Ship Mutiny: Program Transcript". Secrets of the Dead. PBS. 11 November 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- Ames, Glenn J. (2008). The Globe Encompassed: The Age of European Discovery, 1500–1700. pp. 102–103.
- The Royal Netherlands Indies Army
- Ibrahim, Alfian. "Aceh and the Perang Sabil." Indonesian Heritage: Early Modern History. Vol. 3, ed. Anthony Reid, Sian Jay and T. Durairajoo. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, 2001. p132–133
- Vickers, Adrian. (2005) A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p10–11
- "Sejarah TNI" (in Indonesian). Tentara Nasional Indonesia. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
- Kahin (2003), p. 29
- Reid (1973), page 153
- Reid (1974)
- Friend, Theodore (2003). Indonesian Destinies. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 38. ISBN 0-674-01834-6.
- Audrey R. Kahin and George McT. Kahin, Subversion as Foreign Policy: The secret Eisenhower and Dulles debacle in Indonesia, p. 143
- M.C. Ricklefs, A history of modern Indonesia since c.1200, p. 299.
- Audrey R. Kahin, Rebellion to Integration: West Sumatra and the Indonesian Polity, p. 226-228.
- Soedjati Djiwandono, Konfrontasi Revisited, p.125
- Soedjati Djiwandono, Konfrontasi Revisited, pp.1–2
- Soedjati Djiwandono, Konfrontasi Revisited, pp.122–35.
- "Operation Trikora — Indonesia's Takeover of West New Guinea". Pathfinder: Air Power Development Centre Bulletin. Air Power Development Centre (150): 1–2. February 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- Bilveer Singh, West Irian and the Suharto Presidency, p.86
- Soedjati Djiwandono, p. 131
- Ken Conboy, 'Kopassus: Inside Indonesia's Special Forces', p. 66.
- Wies Platje, p.304.
- Wies Platje, pp.305–07.
- Easter, "Britain and the Confrontation with Indonesia 1960–1966", p. 46
- Goldsworthy, "Facing North: A Century of Australian Engagement with Asia, p. 342,"
- Martin, Ian (2001). Self-determination in East Timor: the United Nations, the ballot, and international intervention. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 16.
- Indonesia (1977), p. 39.
- Budiardjo and Liong, p. 22.
- Schwarz (2003), p. 204
- Aspinall. Islam and Nation. p. 110.
- Schulz. Op cit. p. 4.
- Leonard Sebastian, "Realpolitik: Indonesia's Use of Military Force", 2006, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
- Text of the MOU (PDF format)
- Pike, John (17 April 2009). "Free Papua Movement". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Jusuf, Muhammad (2003). "Pasukan Perdamaian Indonesia Bertugas Lagi di Kongo" [Indonesian Peacekeepers Deployed Again] (in Indonesian). Indonesian Army. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
- "Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI". Global Security.org.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Military history of Indonesia.|
- History of TNI In Indonesian
- Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Editions Didier Millet. ISBN 981-4155-67-5.
- Ricklefs, M. C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1300, Second Edition. MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.
- Vaisutis, Justine (2007). Lonely Planet Indonesia: Travel Survival Kit Series. Lonely Planet. ISBN 9781741044355.