Madrid Metro

Madrid Metro
Native name Metro de Madrid
Locale Madrid, Spain
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 13[1]
Number of stations 301[1]
Annual ridership 560.9 million (2014)[1]
Website Metro De Madrid
Began operation October 17, 1919
Operator(s) Metro De Madrid
Number of vehicles 2404]
System length 293.0 km (182.1 mi)[1]
Track gauge 1,445 mm (4 ft 8 78 in),
1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
System map

The Madrid Metro (Spanish: Metro de Madrid) is a metro system serving the city of Madrid, capital of Spain. The system is the 7th longest metro in the world, having a total length of 293 km (182 mi), though Madrid is approximately the fiftieth most populous metropolitan area in the world. Its fast growth in the last 20 years has also put it among the fastest growing networks in the world, rivalling many Asian metros such as the Shanghai Metro, Guangzhou Metro, Beijing Subway, and Delhi Metro. Unlike normal Spanish road and rail traffic, which uses right hand drive, Madrid Metro trains use left-hand running on all lines because traffic in Madrid drove on the left until 1924, well after the Madrid Metro started operation. The Madrid Metro operates every day from 6 am until 1:30 am.[2]

A light rail system feeding the metro opened in 2007 called Metro Ligero (light metro).[3] The 'Cercanias' system works in conjunction with the metro servicing commuter train services to and across the city.

Some underground stations are large enough to hold public events, such as the three-day fitness festival in May 2011, which attracted 2,600 visitors. One station contains a 200-square-meter archaeological museum.

The Madrid Metro has 1,698 escalators, the most of any system in the world. It also has 522 elevators.


The closed Chamberí station on line 1
Metro de Madrid Diesel motors used for generating electricity before the Spanish War

The first line of the Madrid metro opened on 17 October 1919 under the direction of the Compañía de Metro Alfonso XIII, with 8 stations and 3.5 km (2.2 mi). The Madrid Metro is the first metro system in Spain and the second in the Spanish-speaking world after the Buenos Aires Underground. It was constructed in a narrow section and the stations had 60 m platforms. The enlargement of this line and the construction of two others followed shortly after 1919.[4]

In 1924, traffic in Madrid switched from driving on the left, to driving on the right, but the lines of the Madrid Metro kept operating on the left hand side.[5] In 1936, the network had three lines and a branch line between Opera and Norte railway station. All these stations served as air raid shelters during the Spanish Civil War. After the Civil war, the public works to extend the network went on little by little. In 1944, a fourth line was constructed and it absorbed the branch of line 2 between Goya and Diego de León in 1958, a branch that had been intended to be part of line 4 since its construction but was operated as a branch of line 2 until the construction of line 4.

In the 1960s, a suburban railway was constructed between Plaza de España and Carabanchel, linked to lines 2 (at Noviciado station with a long transfer) and 3. A fifth metro line was constructed as well with narrow section but 90 m platforms. Shortly after opening the first section of line 5, the platforms in line 1 were enlarged from 60 to 90 m, closing Chamberí station since it was too close to Iglesia (less than 500 m). Chamberí has been closed ever since and has recently been opened as a museum.

In the early 1970s, the network was greatly expanded to cope with the influx of population and urban sprawl from Madrid's economic boom. New lines were planned with large 115 m platforms. Lines 4 and 5 were enlarged as well. In 1979, bad management led to a crisis. Works already started were finished during the 1980s and all remaining projects were abandoned. After all those projects, 100 km (62 mi) of rail track had been completed and the suburban railway had also disappeared since it had been extended to Alonso Martínez and thence converted to line 10.

Typical Madrid metro entrance, designed by Antonio Palacios, at Tribunal station

At the beginning of the 1990s, control of the network was transferred to a public enterprise, Metro de Madrid. More large-scale expansion projects were carried out. Lines 1, 4 and 7 were extended and a new line 11 was constructed towards the outlying areas of Madrid. Lines 8 and 10 were joined together into a longer line 10 and a new line 8 was constructed to expand the underground network towards the airport. The enlarged line 9 was the first to leave the outskirts of Madrid to arrive in Rivas-Vaciamadrid and Arganda del Rey, two towns located in the southeast suburbs of Madrid.

In the early 2000s, a huge project installed approximately 50 km (31 mi) of new metro tunnels. This construction included a direct connection between downtown Madrid (Nuevos Ministerios) and the airport, the lengthening of line 8, and adding service to the outskirts with a huge 40 km loop called MetroSur serving Madrid's southern suburbs.

MetroSur, one of the largest ever civil engineering projects in Europe, opened on 11 April 2003. It includes 41 km (25 mi) of tunnel and 28 new stations, including a new interchange station on Line 10, which connects it to the city centre and stations linking to the local train network. Its construction began in June 2000 and the whole loop was completed in less than three years. It connects Getafe, Móstoles, Alcorcón, Fuenlabrada, and Leganés, five towns located in the area south of Madrid.

Most of the current efforts of Madrid regional government are channeled towards the enlargement of the Metro network. In the 2003-2007 term, President Esperanza Aguirre funded a multibillion-dollar project, which has added to, joined, or extended almost all of the metro lines. The project included the addition of 90 km (56 mi) and the construction of 80 new stations. It has carried the underground railway to many districts that had never previously had Metro service (Villaverde, Manoteras, Carabanchel Alto, La Elipa, Pinar de Chamartín) and to the eastern and northern outskirts as well (Coslada, San Fernando de Henares, Alcobendas, San Sebastián de los Reyes). For the first time in Madrid, 3 interurban light rail (Metro Ligero or ML) lines were built to the western outskirts (Pozuelo de Alarcón, Boadilla del Monte) - mL2 and mL3 - and to the new northern districts of Sanchinarro and Las Tablas - mL1. As a last-minute addition, a project on line 8 connected it to the new T4 terminal of Madrid-Barajas Airport.

There are numerous expansion and improvement projects pending; many suspended due to the current financial crisis (as of 2010). For example, lines 1 and 5 reaching Valdebebas, extending line 11 further north towards Atocha railway station and beyond, as well as extending line 9 to the north, opening the station Arroyo del Fresno on line 7 and extending line 3 further south.

Station design and setup

Lago station in the old Line S (now Line 10) is one of the few surface stations in the Metro network.
Alonso Martínez station in Line 4: old stations are often compact, and usually not too deep underground
Getafe Central in Line 12, with a Cercanías transfer: new stations are built deliberately ample, with several cross-visible levels and elevators for disabled people.
Estrella station in Line 9, in the old style.

The age of Madrid Metro stations is evident in their design: older stations on the narrow lines are often quite compact, similar to the stations on the Paris Metro. They were decorated with tilings in different colour schemes depending on the station. In recent years, most of these stations have been refurbished with single-coloured plates matching those in the newest ones. The stations built between the late 70s and the early 90s are slightly more spacious and most of them have cream colored walls.

On the other hand, the most recent stations are built with space in mind, and have natural-like lighting and ample entryways. The colour scheme varies between stations, using single-colored plates and covering the whole station in light colors. Recently built transfer stations have white walls, but this is not the norm.

Most stations are built with two side platforms, but a handful of them (the busiest transfers) have a central island platform in addition to the side platforms theoretically dedicated to exits. This system was originally used on the Barcelona Metro and is called the Spanish solution. The 14 stations with this setup are:

Two stations have cross-platform interchange arrangement with two island platforms, which allows extremely fast transfers between lines. Both of these stations are on Line , with cross-platform interchages at Príncipe Pío (with ) and Casa de Campo (with ). On both occasions, Line 10 uses the outside tracks, so passengers unboarding there leave through the "right" side of the train instead of the usual left side.

In addition, 10 stations are built with just one island platform instead of the usual side platforms. These stations are:

Another system is where there is one island platform with one side platform. This system is used in three stations on Lines 7, 9, and 10 where it is required for passengers to change to smaller trains to continue their journeys, normally to towns outside Madrid like Alcobendas or Coslada. This is done so the island platform can be used for passengers to change easily between trains. These stations are:

Overhead power supply system

Since 1999 Metro de Madrid has used a patented system for its installations: a solid rail hung from the ceiling of the tunnels, instead of the usual copper or aluminium wire hung from overhead gantries at regular intervals. This type of overhead catenary line is rigid, making it more robust and less prone to failures. Installations outside of tunnels are rare, as they require many more support structures compared to traditional wire based overhead lines, making them more expensive to install. This system of rigid overhead power supply is also used in other metro systems.


To-scale Madrid Metro map

The Metro network has 231 stations on 12 lines plus one branch line, totalling 282 km, of which approximately 96% of stations are underground.[6] The only surface parts are between Empalme and west of Eugenia de Montijo (); between Lago and north of Casa de Campo (); and between south of Puerta de Arganda and Arganda del Rey (), for a total of 8 aboveground stations. Additionally, some 30 km of Metro Ligero (modern tram) lines serve the various regions of the metropolitan area which have been deemed not populated enough to justify the extraordinary spending of new Metro lines. Most of the ML track length is on surface, usually running on platforms separated from normal road traffic. However, ML1 line has some underground stretches and stations.

Traditionally, the Madrid metro was restricted to the city proper, but today nearly one third of its track length runs outside the border of the Madrid municipality. Today, the Metro network is divided in six regions:[7]

At most of the borders between the regions, one has to switch trains even when staying in the same line, because the train frequency is higher in the core MetroMadrid than in the outer regions.

Madrid also has an extensive commuter train (Cercanías) network operated by Renfe, the national rail line, which is intermodal with the metro network. In fact, 22 Cercanías stations have connections to the Metro network, which is indicated on the official map by the Cercanías logo. Many of the new lines since 1999 have been built to link to or end at Cercanías stations, like the ML2 line, which ends at the Aravaca station providing a fast entry into Madrid though the C-7 or C-10 commuter lines and arriving in only one step to the bus and Metro hub Príncipe Pío ( ).

Line Termini[7] Length Number of stations[7] Average distance between stations Loading gauge Platform length Rolling stock Train configuration
Pinar de Chamartín Valdecarros 23.876 km (14.8 mi) 33 723m narrow 90 m CAF s. 2000-A M.R-M.R-R.M
Las Rosas Cuatro Caminos 14.031 km (8.7 mi) 20 701m 60 m CAF s. 3000 MRRM
Villaverde Alto Moncloa 16.424 km (10.2 mi) 18 912m 90 m CAF s. 3000 MRSSRM
Argüelles Pinar de Chamartín 16.0 km (9.9 mi) 23 695m 60 m CAF s. 3000 MRRM
Alameda de Osuna Casa de Campo 23.217 km (14.4 mi) 32 725m 90 m CAF s. 2000-B M.R-M.R-R.M
Circular 23.472 km (14.6 mi) 28 838m wide 115 m CAF s. 5000 & 8400 M.M-M.M-M.M
Hospital del Henares Estadio Olímpico Pitis 32.919 km (20.5 mi) 30 1097 m AnsaldoBreda s. 9000 MRSSRM
Nuevos Ministerios Aeropuerto T4 16.467 km (10.2 mi) 8 2057 m CAF s. 8000 MRSM
Paco de Lucía Puerta de Arganda Arganda del Rey 39.5 km (24.5 mi) 29 1410 m CAF s. 5000 & AnsaldoBreda s. 9000 M.M-M.M-M.M
Hospital Infanta Sofía Tres Olivos Puerta del Sur 36.514 km (22.7 mi) 31 1177 m AnsaldoBreda s. 7000 MRSSRM
Plaza Elíptica La Fortuna 8.5 km (5.3 mi) 7 1214 m CAF s. 8400 MRSM
MetroSur 40.96 km (25.5 mi) 28 1462m CAF s. 8000 MRM-MRM
Ramal Ópera Príncipe Pío 1.092 km (0.7 mi) 2 546 m narrow 60 m CAF s. 3000 M.R-R.M
ML1 Pinar de Chamartín Las Tablas 5.395 km (3.4 mi) 9 599 m tramway 32 m Alstom Citadis 302 MRRRM
ML2 Colonia Jardín Estación de Aravaca 8.680 km (5.4 mi) 13 667 m
ML3 Colonia Jardín Puerta de Boadilla 13.699 km (8.5 mi) 16 855 m


Rolling stock

Cuatro Caminos Depot of Madrid Metro.

Traditionally, the trains operating in the Madrid Metro have been built and supplied by the Spanish company Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles (CAF). This was particularly true under Francisco Franco's dictatorship, due to the politic of autarchy his administration initially pursued. However, despite CAF still working nowadays for the Metro, in recent years, the Italian AnsaldoBreda has also provided trains for the wide-profile lines.

Every rolling unit in the Madrid Metro has a unique ID that singles it out in the whole network. Those IDs are grouped by the rolling unit model (the "series") and thus is used to categorize the trains, as they bear no user-visible statement of the model specified by the manufacturer. An ID is made up of:

Trainsets currently in use

Narrow profile

A series 2000-B "bubble" metro train on line at Marqués de Vadillo station.

CAF series 2000: This series has two separate sub-series usually called A and B. The first batch, while reliable and practical, was extremely "box-like" in its looks. They are nicknamed 'Pandas', after a car by Seat with the same name and similar boxy design. In contrast, the B sub-series train sets can be told apart by its sleeker, rounder forms, which has granted them the nickname of "bubble" (burbuja) for their round driver cabin window. Series 2000A are currently the more numerous in the network: 530 cars[8] were built and delivered between 1985 and 1993,[9] having serviced every narrow profile line. They are also among the oldest stock in operation in the Madrid Metro. The most reliable ones are being refurbished and painted with new, lighter colors like the ones used in Series 3000, and will continue to service line for the time being. Series 2000B were delivered in lesser numbers (about 126 cars) between 1997 and 1998,[10] with the inclusion of air conditioning and station announcements through pre-recorded voice messages and LED displays. They are currently used in line , with no plans for retirement.

A series 3000 train arriving at Ventura Rodríguez station.

CAF series 3000: The newest of the narrow line trainsets, series 3000 were commissioned for the reopening of line after its complete renewal in the early 2000s. Their constituent subunits can be completely joined through crossable articulations, making it possible to go from the head to the tail without actually exiting the train. This has earned them the nickname of "boa", a term usually applied in Spain to double-length buses with such joints. They are currently servicing lines , , and . Series 3000 trains look rather like a narrowed version of series 8000, while the interior uses mainly yellow and light blue tones.

Wide profile

A series 5000 train at Plaza Eliptica station.

CAF series 5000: Currently servicing line and occasionally line , this model has had a long history: the first trainsets were delivered in 1974[11] for the newly opened, first wide-profile line , while the latest subseries, 5500, of which 24 trainsets of 6 cars each were built, entered service in 1993.[12] They were the last to use the old, square "box-like" design from CAF, which was already becoming unpopular for its exaggerate priming of effectiveness versus aesthetics. The first iteration featured a wood lookalike coating for the inner walls and a novel seat distribution in two-seat rows perpendicular to the train walls, making them look not unlike older regional trains. Subseries 5100-5200 returned to the traditional seating along the train walls, but still included another feature from the first iteration, automatic opening of all the gates in the train. The final subseries, 5500, has a distinct, darker color scheme and returns to the usual on-demand opening of train gates with a button on each one. Being the oldest rolling stock in operation in the wide profile lines, many cars were retired or sold to the Buenos Aires Underground for operation on Line B to make up for shortfalls on the line following extensions.

A CAF series 6000 train entering Concha Espina station.

CAF series 6000: This model, of which 29 trainsets were built and delivered in 1998,[13] was the first by CAF to feature a new, sleeker and rounder design. As it was to serve TFM, the stretch of line connecting Madrid to Arganda del Rey (the first extension of the Metro network outside Madrid proper), its interior resembles the regional Cercanías trains more closely than any other Metro trains: compact seats in couples set perpendicularly to the train walls, more places to grasp in case of a sudden brake/acceleration, etc. They were also the first to include luminous panels stating their destination, as the line they service was effectively split in two stretches, and travellers had to switch trains at Puerta de Arganda. Finally, they primed the "boa train" layout, but the walkable aisle only spanned two cars, while a trainset would usually carry 4 or 6. Series 6000 is currently doing occasional service for line . In 2013, 73 of the 108 cars ordered were sold to Buenos Aires for operation on Line B of the metro system; the sale totalled €32.6 million for the retirement of Japanese-built units, with a further 13 cars ordered at a later date.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20] These trains have been widely criticised in Argentina, and been called the worst purchase in the history of the Buenos Aires Underground.[21]

A series 7000 train arriving at Príncipe Pío station on line

Ansaldobreda series 7000 & 9000: The first purchase to a manufacturer other than CAF, and to a non-Spanish dealer, 37 series 7000 trainsets service the extremely busy line , while occasionally venturing out into line for rush hour support. They were the first in the network to feature a full "boa" layout, allowing commuters to traverse the whole six cars. They are extremely functional, with ample 1.3m doors and a sleek, unobtrusive design for a total capacity of 1,260 people per trainset (180 seated). This model also features two TV screens in each car, but they are left unused, both regularly or in emergencies. Series 9000 trains are similar to their previous incarnation, but include better accesses for disabled people and more safety measures, such as visual and auditive warnings for the train gates and more effective emergency brakes. Series 7000 currently service the main part of line , from Puerta del Sur to Tres Olivos; while series 9000 comprise the main fleet of line , the part of from Tres Olivos to Hospital Infanta Sofía, and are occasionally used on to cover for the sold 6000s.

A series 8000 train waiting on line at Colombia station

CAF series 8000: Originally designed for the MetroSur line , 45 trainsets were built and delivered by CAF in 2002.[22] Each one is composed of three cars joined in the "boa" layout, which service line as-is, while MetroSur service uses two such trainsets to form a MRM-MRM configuration for a maximum of 1,070 passengers (144 seated). The interior distribution is rather like that of series 7000, with a bigger clear area (i.e. without seating) in the first car for people carrying luggage to/from the airport and disabled people in wheelchairs. Like the narrower series 3000 trainsets, its bogies are insonorized and feature a hybrid rubber-pneumatic suspension system. Series 8000 primed the introduction of regenerative braking in the Madrid Metro. The system reverses the normal circuit of the electric motors when braking, thus making the deceleration return power to the network. Also, they feature the now-standard informative panels and gate activity warnings in the interior. This model has a stable population, which neither purchases nor retirements planned as of 2008, though as the most current model from CAF it remains on the table for future enlargements of the Metro network. It currently services lines and , while also providing rush hour support to lines and .

A series 8400 train on line

CAF series 8400: Derived from the recent series 8000 trains, the 8400 series are the newest train type to enter service on the Madrid Metro on line since 2010 to complement the older series 5000 serving on that line. It currently services lines and .

Light rail (named Metro Ligero)

A tram on "Metro Ligero" line at Aravaca station

Alstom Citadis 302: The vehicles serving the light rail lines are low-floor articulated trams in a five-section "boa" configuration, which allows for a maximum of about 200 passengers per tram (60 seated). They can reach a top speed of 100 km/h (65 mph), but in practice they are limited to 70 km/h (45 mph) in most track stretches, and even less in urban sprawls. The tram features a bell-like proximity warning that is activated when the train approaches a station or a level crossing with pedestrians, which has given rise to complaints from people living near the tracks because of the noise generated. Safety features also include door activity warnings for passengers and emergency brakes comparatively more effective than in any other train dedicated to Metro service, as the trams, though remaining in their own lanes separated from other traffic, can cross roads and populated areas.

Currently, Metro Ligero has four lines, and one of them is located outside of Madrid:

Historic rolling stock

Historic rolling stock of the Madrid Metro.

Until the early 1990s and the transfer of the Metro system to the Autonomous Community of Madrid, the rate of investment in the network by the central government was extremely low,[23] and thus very old trains were used way beyond their intended lifespans. Particularly loathed was the case of line , which was serviced by the nearly 40-year-old series 300 and 1000 from CAF. It was not uncommon that a child would ride to school on the same train his/her parents took decades earlier. Some renewals, along with the purchases of series 2000A and 5000, were started by the socialist regional government of Joaquín Leguina, but in 1995 the People's Party took over the government with the promise to widely extend and improve the Metro service. New lines were built and old ones refurbished: line service was disturbed for several years as some stations at a time were closed and refitted, while line was closed for two consecutive summers in order to expand its platforms to 90 m. Then, new rolling stock was also requested: 1998 saw the arrival of the first CAF series 2000B, retiring the infamous series 1000. Initially the better-preserved series 300 were refitted and painted in the new blue-white color scheme (from the old red corporate image), but they were also retired with the arrival of more series 2000B and, finally, series 3000.


The Regional Transportation Consortium sells monthly and yearly passes worth unlimited trips within the zone covered on every transportation method ascribed to it
Ticket machines used on the Madrid Metro.

The Madrid Metro network is split into the six "functional" zones mentioned above. Each one has a "single" ticket (Billete Sencillo), valid for one trip within the zone, and a 10-trip ticket for a comparatively lower price. When crossing zone boundaries, one has to buy a new ticket for the zone being entered. There is also a "combined" ticket, which provides for a single trip between any two points of the network except the Airport stations, which have an additional supplement of €3. All in all, it is possible to go from the airport to any other point of the network for up to €5.00.[24]

Also, the Consorcio Regional de Transportes (Regional Transportation Authority) has a division of its own, with geographic zones named A through C2. This body sells monthly and annual passes for unlimited trips within their zone of validity, and also a range of Tourist Passes for 1, 3, 5 or 7 days. All of them are accepted at the Metro stations within their zones, and passengers using a CRT pass do not have to pay the airport supplement.

Name Valid for Expires after Price
MetroX Sencillo MetroX zone 1 trip €1.50 - max €2.00
Metrobús MetroMadrid and EMT buses 10 trips €12.20
MetroX 10 viajes MetroX
Sencillo Combinado Whole network 1 trips €3.00
Abono Transportes Joven A - C2 (<26 y.o.) One calendar month €20
Abono Transportes Normal A - C2 €51.30 - €93.20
Abono Transportes 3ª Edad A - C2 (>65 y.o.) €11.60
Abono Transportes Annual Normal A - C2 One calendar year €523.60 - €950.40
Abono Transportes Annual 3ª Edad A - C2 (>65 y.o.) €119.90
Abono Turístico A 1 – 7 days €8.00 - €33.40
Abono Turístico T (all CRT zones) €16.00 - €66.00
TICKETS WITH ORIGIN-DESTINATION AIRPORT Single ticket + Supplement (*) €4.50 5.00 Combined Single ticket €6.00 + Supplement Airport Ticket €3.00 Supplement Airport Express bus ticket €5.00


The metro is operated by its own company, under the Department of Public Works, City Planning, and Transportation of the autonomous community of Madrid. The passage between Puerta de Arganda (Line 9) and Arganda del Rey (Line 9) is operated by Transportes Ferroviarios de Madrid (TFM). All of Madrid's rapid transit systems are members of the Consorcio Regional de Transportes, which sells monthly passes for unlimited use of the metro, bus and commuter train networks within the area covered by the pass.

See also

A train arriving at Estrella station on Line 9.


  1. 1 2 3 4 "Metro De Madrid Figures". Metro De Madrid. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  2. "Public transport in Madrid in Spain: in english". Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  3. Von Mach, Stefan (March 2008). "Madrid Light Rail: Three lines to feed the metro". Metro Report International, of Railway Gazette International (UK).
  4. Moya, Aurora. "Metro de Madrid, 1919–1989. Setenta años de historia".
  5. "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". 25 April 2009. Archived from the original on 25 April 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
  6. There are 8 out of 231 stations that are not underground, which amounts to just 4% of the total, though the aboveground route length may be longer.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "RED DE METRO Y METRO LIGERO" (PDF). Metro de Madrid. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  8. Trainset sizes vary between lines: 90m lines use six cars per train, while 60m lines use only four. Thus the actual number of trains varies between 88 and 132.
  9. CAF description for s.2000A (reversed, title says 2000B)
  10. CAF description for s.2000B (reversed, title says 2000)
  11. Andén 1 - Historia del Metro
  12. CAF description for s.5000 - sales information and photos correspond to subseries 5500
  13. "CAF - Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles". Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  14. (29 July 2013). "SBASE compra a Metro Madrid 73 coches usados CAF 6000 para la línea B". Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  15. (28 January 2014). "Metro de Madrid despacha los primeros CAF 6000". Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  16. (20 May 2013). "Planearían renovación masiva de flota en la línea B". Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  17. (24 January 2014). "Trenes Mitsubishi convivirán con los CAF 5000 y 6000 en la línea B". Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  18. Danna, Roby (29 July 2013). "Subtes: Ciudad compra más de 70 vagones Serie 6000 a Madrid - Noticias de Buenos Aires al instante". Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  20. MADRID, METRO DE. "Metro de Madrid ingresa 32,6 millones de euros con la tercera venta de trenes a Buenos Aires - Metro de Madrid". Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  21. La peor compra de material rodante de la historia del Subte - EnElSubte, 6 March 2015.
  22. "CAF - Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles". Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  23. A similar case happens as of 2008 with the Cercanías commuter network, as the Spanish government is focused in the expansion of the nationwide AVE high speed network
  24. "Tickets". Metro de Madrid. Retrieved 2016-08-18.
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