Timeline of Russian innovation

The Hall of Space Technology in the Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics, Kaluga, Russia. The exhibition includes the models and replicas of the following Russian inventions:
the first satellite, Sputnik 1 (the ball shape under the ceiling);
the first spacesuits (lower-left corner);
the first human spaceflight module, Vostok 1 (center);
the first Molniya-type satellite (upper right corner);
the first space rover, Lunokhod 1 (six-wheeled vehicle bottom-right);
the first space station, Salyut 1 (left);
the first modular space station, Mir (upper left).

Timeline of Russian Innovation encompasses key events in the history of technology in Russia, starting from the Early East Slavs and up to the Russian Federation.

The entries in this timeline fall into the following categories:

This timeline examines scientific and medical discoveries, products and technologies introduced by various peoples of Russia and its predecessor state, regardless of ethnicity, and also lists inventions by naturalized immigrant citizens. Certain innovations achieved by a national operation may also may be included in this timeline, in cases where the Russian side played a major role in such projects.

All-Russia exhibition 1896 in Nizhny Novgorod. An electric tram, an earlier invention by Fyodor Pirotsky, drives between the pavilions featuring breakthrough designs by Vladimir Shukhov: the world's first steel tensile structures, gridshells, thin-shells and the first hyperboloid steel tower. The exhibition demonstrated the first lightning detector and an early radio receiver of Alexander Popov, caterpillar tractor of Fyodor Blinov, the first Russian automobile, and other technical achievements.
The wooden churches of Kizhi, built completely without nails and featuring such traditional elements of Russian architecture as the tented roof, multiple onion domes and bochka roofs.

Early East Slavs

Baked milk / Ryazhenka

Russian Venus by Boris Kustodiev, shows a girl with birch twigs in a rural banya.


The cooking of Russian blini



A typical Russian izba





A course of shchi, prepared with meat and saffron milk caps. Scallion, parsley and smetana have been added before serving.


Kievan Rus'

10th century

Architecture of Kievan Rus' The earliest Kievan churches were built and decorated with frescoes and mosaics by Byzantine masters. The great churches of Kievan Rus', built after the adoption of Christianity in 988, were the first examples of monumental architecture in the East Slavic lands. Early Eastern Orthodox churches were mainly made of wood, while major cathedrals often featured scores of small domes. The 10th-century Church of the Tithes in Kiev was the first to be made of stone.

A Russian girl wearing kokoshnik and sarafan.


989 Kvass / Okroshka

Six-domed Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod built on place of the original 13-domed wooden church, 11th century.

989 Multidomed church

997 Kissel

11th century

A birch-bark letter with spelling lessons and drawings made by a 6-7 year old Novgorodian boy named Onfim.

Birch bark document

Koch / Icebreaker

A 17th-century koch in a museum in Krasnoyarsk
Ancient Russian Gudok.



A lubok depiction of the "Wall against Wall" (Stenka na Stenku) fist fighting.

1048 Russian fist fighting

12th century

Pernach (left) and two shestopyors.




1149 Bear spear

13th century


Preparation of pelmeni, with khokhloma handicraft seen on the background.


Onion dome

Grand Duchy of Moscow

Zvonnitsa of Transfiguration Cathedral in Vyazemy near Moscow.

14th century



Anbur script The alphabet was introduced by a Russian missionary, Stepan Khrap, also known as Saint Stephen of Perm (Степан Храп, св. Стефан Пермский) in 1372. The name Abur is derived from the names of the first two characters: An and Bur. The alphabet derived from Cyrillic and Greek, and Komi tribal signs, the latter being similar in the appearance to runes or siglas poveiras, because they were created by incisions, rather than by usual writing. The alphabet was in use until the 17th century, when it was superseded by the Cyrillic script. Abur was also used as cryptographic writing for the Russian language.

1376 Sarafan

15th century

Streltsy with muskets and bardiches.


Boyar hat



Russian oven

Typical Russian oven in a peasant izba.


Russian Vodka in various bottles and cups.

c. 1430 Russian vodka

Early 16th century

The kokoshniks of the Holy Trinity Church in Nikitinki, Moscow.

Kokoshnik (architecture)

The Church of Ascension in Kolomenskoye, Moscow, an early tented roof church. Kokoshniks are seen at the base of the tent.

1510s Tented roof masonry

1530 Middle Muscovite

Tsardom of Russia

Late 16th century

Russian abacus

1550 Streltsy

1552 Battery-tower

1561 Saint Basil's Cathedral

1566 Great Abatis Line

A view of the Tsar Cannon, showing its massive bore and cannonballs, and the Lion's head cast into the carriage.

1586 Tsar Cannon

17th century

The bochka roofs of the Transfiguration Church in Kizhi, holding onion domes above.

Bochka roof

Gorodki arranged in the pushka (cannon) pattern behind the gorod line.


Roller coaster

A typical wooden Bird of Happiness.

Bird of Happiness

Dymkovo toy

Troika pulling a sleigh.


1630 Late Muscovite Russian architecture characterized by many large cathedral-type churches with five onion-like cupolas, surrounding them with tents of bell towers and aisles.

1659 Khokhloma

Khokhloma tableware on a Soviet postage stamp.

1685 Tula gingerbread

1688 Balalaika

A Podstakannik with a glass inside



Early 18th century

A classic 14-facet Soviet table-glass.


1704 Decimal currency

1717 Metal lathe compound slide

1718 Yacht club

A view of St. Petersburg by Alexey Zubov, 1716. Shows yachts and war ships on the Neva River.

 Russian Empire


A corner of the acoustic room inside the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk, with some rebar seen.

1725 Rebar


The Leaning Tower of Nevyansk has a metallic rod on top, grounded through the rebar (some are seen below).

1732 Cast iron cupola / Lightning rod

1733 Peter and Paul Cathedral

1735 Tsar Bell

Inside the ice palace of Empress Anna of Russia.

1739 Ice palace


1741 Quick-firing gun


1754 Coaxial rotor / Model helicopter

Bronze Licorne: caliber 152mm, effective range 1278m, height 174cm, weight 707kg, cast in 1849 in the Bryansk Arsenal master Nazarov, currently displayed at the Military-Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Signal Corps, St. Petersburg.

1756 Law of Mass Conservation

1757 Licorne (Russian field gun)


1761 Atmosphere of Venus

1762 Off-axis reflecting telescope


1770 Amber Room

1770 Thunder Stone

1776 Orenburg shawl

1778 Russian samovar


1784 Orlov Trotter


Russian guitar


1793 Screw drive elevator

1795 Fedoskino miniature / Russian lacquer art

1796 Peaked cap

19th century

1802 Modern powdered milk

1802 Continuous electric arc

1805 Droshky any of various 2 or 4 wheeled, horse-drawn, public carriages (early taxicabs).


1811 Sailor cap

1812 Cable

1812 Naval mine

1814 Beehive frame


1820 Antarctica

1820s Russian Revival architecture is the generic term for a number of different movements within Russian architecture that arose in second quarter of the 19th century and was an eclectic melding of pre-Peterine Russian architecture and elements of Byzantine architecture.

1820 Monorail

1825 Zhostovo painting

1828 Electromagnetic telegraph

1829 Industrial production process of sunflower oil

1829 Three bolt diving equipment


1832 Data recording equipment

1833 Lenz's law

1835 Centrifugal fan

1838 Electrotyping

1839 Electric boat

1839 Galvanoplastic sculpture


1847 Field anesthesia

1848 Modern oil well


1850s Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire emerged in the 1850s and became an officially endorsed preferred architectural style for church construction during the reign of Alexander II of Russia (1855–1881), replacing the Russo-Byzantine style of Konstantin Thon.

1851 Struve Geodetic Arc

1851 Russian Railway Troops

1854 Modern field surgery

1854 Stereo camera

1857-1861 Theory of chemical structure

1857 Radiator

1858 Saint Isaac's Cathedral

1859 Aluminothermy


1860s Russian salad

1861 Beef Stroganoff

1864 Modern icebreaker

1868 Grow light

1869 Hectograph

1869 Periodic table of the elements



1872 Electric lamp

1872 Aldol reaction

1873 Odhner Arithmometer

1873 Armored cruiser

1874 Headlamp

1875 Railway electrification system

1876 AC transformer

1876 Yablochkov candle

1877 Torpedo boat tender

1877 Tracked wagon

1878 Cylindrical oil tank

1879 Modern oil tanker


1880s Winogradsky column

1888s Three-phase electric power

1880 Vitamins

1880 Electric tram

1881 Carbon arc welding

1883 Cathedral of Christ the Saviour

1884 Electric submarine

1888 Caterpillar farm tractor

1888 Shielded metal arc welding

1888 Solar cell (based on the outer photoelectric effect)

1889 Three-phase induction motor

1889 Three-phase transformer

1889 Mosin–Nagant rifle


1890 Matryoshka doll

1890 Powered exoskeleton

1890 Chemosynthesis

1891 Thermal chemical cracking

1891 Long-distance transmission of three-phase electric power

1891 Three-phase hydroelectric power plant

1892 Viruses

1894 Nephoscope

1895 Lightning detector / Radio receiver

1896 Thin-shell structure

1896 Tensile structure

1896 Hyperboloid structure

1897 Gridshell

1898 Polar icebreaker

1899 Radiation pressure

20th century

Mstyora miniature

1901 Classical conditioning

1901 Chromatography

1902 Fire fighting foam

1903 Theoretical foundations of spaceflight

1903 Cytoskeleton

1903 Motor ship

1904 Radio jamming

1904 Foam extinguisher

1905 Auscultatory blood pressure measurement

1905 Korotkov sounds

1905 Insubmersibility

1906 Electric seismometer

1907 Aerosani / Snowmobile

1907 Pulsejet

1907 Bayan

1907 Church of the Savior on Blood


1910 Polybutadiene

1910 Montage (filmmaking) or Kuleshov Effect (by Lev Kuleshov)

1910 Non-Aristotelian logic By Nikolai Vasilyev

1911 Knapsack parachute

1911 Television

1911 Stanislavski's system

1913 Zaum

1913 Airliner

1913 Half-track

1914 Aerobatics

1914 Gyrocar

1914 Tachanka

1914 Strategic bomber

1914 Aerial ramming

1915 Activated charcoal gas mask

1915 Vezdekhod

1915 Tsar Tank

1916 Trans-Siberian Railway

1916 Optophonic piano [95]

 Soviet Union

Late 1910s

1917 Socialist realism

1918 Air ioniser

1918 Molotov cocktail

1918 Budenovka

1918 Ushanka

1918 Jet pack (not built)

1919 Film school

1919 Theremin

1919 Constructivism (art)


1920s Constructivist architecture

1921 Aerial refueling

1923 Iconoscope

1923 Palekh miniature

1924 Flying wing

1924 Optophonic Piano

1924 Stem cells

1924 Primordial soup theory

1925 Interlaced video

1926 Graphical sound

1927 Light-emitting diode

1927 Polikarpov Po-2 biplane

1928 Gene pool

1928 Rabbage

1929 Cadaveric blood transfusion

1929 Kinescope

1929 Pobedit

1929 Teletank / Military robot


Spring-loaded camming device

Abalakov thread climbing device

Electric rocket motor

1930s Modern ship hull design

1930 Blood bank

1930 Single lift-rotor helicopter

1930 Paratrooping

1931 Pressure suit

1931 Hypergolic rocket propellants

1931 Rhythmicon / Drum machine

1931 Flame tank

1932 Postconstructivism

1932 Postal code

1932 Children's railway

1932 Terpsitone

1932 Underwater welding

1933 Human kidney transplant

1933 Sampling theorem

1933 Tandem rotor helicopter

1933 Stalinist architecture

1934 Tupolev ANT-20

1934 Cherenkov detector

1935 Kirza

1935 Moscow Metro

1935 Kremlin stars

1936 Acoustic microscopy

1936 Airborne firefighting [107]

1937 Artificial heart

1937 Modern evolutionary synthesis

1937 Superfluidity

1937 Drag chute

1937 Manned drifting ice station

1937 Welded sculpture

1937 Fire-fighting sport

1938 Deep column station

1938 Sambo

1939 Kirlian photography

1939 Vought-Sikorsky VS-300

1939 Ilyushin Il-2

1939 Self-propelled multiple rocket launcher


1940s Ballast cleaner

1940s TRIZ

1940s Sikorsky R-4

1940 T-34 tank

1941 Competitive rhythmic gymnastics

1941 Maksutov telescope

1941 Degaussing

1942 Winged tank

1942 Gramicidin S

1944 Microtron

1944 EPR spectroscopy

1945 T-54/55 tank

1945 Passive resonant cavity bug

1946 Heart-lung transplant

1947 Modern multistage rocket

1947 MiG-15

1947 AK-47

1947 Lung transplant

1947 Light beam microphone

1949 Staged combustion cycle

1949 Reactive armour


1950s Head transplant

1950s Magnetotellurics

1950 MESM

1950 Berkovich tip

1951 Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction

1951 Explosively pumped flux compression generator

1952 Masers

1952 Seven Sisters (Moscow)

1952 Carbon nanotubes

1952 Anthropometric cosmetology or Ilizarov apparatus

1954 Nuclear power plant

1955 MiG-21

1955 Ballistic missile submarine

1955 Fast-neutron reactor

1955 Leningrad Metro

1955 Tokamak

1957 ANS synthesizer

1957 Synchrophasotron

1957 Spaceport

1957 Intercontinental ballistic missile

1957 Orbital space rocket

1957 Artificial satellite

1957 Space capsule

1957 Raketa hydrofoil

1958 Modern ternary computer

1959 Nuclear icebreaker

1959 Space probe

1959 Missile boat

1959 Kleemenko cycle

1959 Staged combustion cycle


1960s Rocket boots

1960 Reentry capsule

1961 Human spaceflight

1961 RPG-7

1961 Lawrencium

1961 Anti-ballistic missile

1961 Space food

1961 Space suit

1961 Tsar Bomb

1961 Platform screen doors

1961 Ekranoplan

1961 Mil Mi-8

1962 Detonation nanodiamond

1962 AVL tree datastructure

1962 3D holography

1962 Modern stealth technology

1963 Oxygen cocktail

1964 Rutherfordium

1964 Druzhba pipeline

1964 Plasma propulsion engine

1964 Kardashyov scale

1965 Extra-vehicular activity

1965 Molniya orbit satellite

1965 Voitenko compressor

1965 Proton rocket

1965 Air-augmented rocket

1966 Nobelium

1966 Lander spacecraft

1966 Orbiter

1966 Regional jet

1966 Caspian Sea Monster

1966 Soyuz rocket

1966 Orbital module

1967 Space toilet

1967 Ostankino Tower

1967 The Motherland Calls

1967 Computer for operations with functions

1967 Automated space docking

1967 Venus lander

1968 Dubnium

1968 Mil Mi-12

1968 Supersonic transport

1969 Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko

1969 Intercontinental Submarine-launched ballistic missile


1970s Semiconductor Heterostructures

1970s Radial keratotomy

1970 Excimer laser

1970 Robotic sample return

1970 Space rover

1971 Space station

1971 Kaissa (chess program)

1972 Hall effect thruster

1972 Nuclear desalination

1973 Reflectron

1973 Skull crucible

1974 Electron cooling

1975 Underwater assault rifle

1975 Arktika class icebreaker

1975 Androgynous Peripheral Attach System

1976 Close-in weapon system

1976 Mobile ICBM

1977 Vertical launching system

1977 Kirov class battlecruiser

1978 Unmanned resupply spacecraft

1978 Active protection system

1979 Space-based radio telescope [122]


Kalina cycle

1980s EHF therapy

1980 Typhoon class submarine

1981 Quantum dot

1981 Tupolev Tu-160

1982 Helicopter ejection seat

1984 Tetris

1986 Modular space station

1987 MIR submersible

1987 RD-170 rocket engine

1988 Buran

1988 An-225

1989 Kola Superdeep Borehole

1989 Supermaneuverability

1989 Tupolev Tu-155

Early 1990s

1989-1991 BARS apparatus

1991 Thermoplan

1991 Scramjet

 Russian Federation


RD-180 Engine

1992 Znamya (space mirror)

1992 Nuclotron

1993 RAR

1997 Two-level single-vault transfer station

1998 Beriev Be-200

1998 Submarine-launched spacecraft

1999 7z

1999 Sea Launch

1999 Flerovium


2000s Magrav Technology (Russo-Iranian Technology)

2000s Heterotransistor

2000 Livermorium

2000 Abstract state machine

2001 Space tourism

2001 Mirny Mine

2001 Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector

2003 Park Pobedy metro escalators

2003 Nihonium

2003 Moscovium

2004 Graphene

2005 Orbitrap

2006 Oganesson

2007 NS 50 Let Pobedy

2007 Father of all bombs

2008 Denisovans


2010 Chatroulette

2010 Tennessine

2011 Nuclear power station barge

2011 Nord Stream

2011 Spektr-R

2012 Russky Island Bridge

2016 T-14 Armata

See also


  1. Glenn Randall Mack, Asele Surina. Food Culture In Russia And Central Asia. Greenwood Press, 2005. ISBN 0-313-32773-4. Page 22.
  2. Aaland, Mikkel (1998). The Russian Bania. History of the Great Russian Bath. Cyber-Bohemia.
  3. Russian Banya
  4. Maslenitsa, Blin! Article about and recipe for bliny and description of a related holiday.
  5. The history of gusli. (Russian)
  6. "Traditional Russian Village Structure". Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  7. Русские рубахи / Russian shirts (Russian)
  8. Lapti at the Slavyanskaya Sloboda Slavic ethnography site (Russian)
  9. Soup in the Russian cuisine. Shchi (Russian)
  10. "Cooking ingredients: Milk products". Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  11. Primeval Rus': Women's head dress and jewellery (Russian)
  12. The history of kvas at kvas.ru site (Russian)
  13. 1 2 3 Primary Cronicle (Russian)
  14. Russian Church Design by Lisa Kies.
  15. About Russian Domes and Cupolas at Sky Palace world architecture site.
  16. Kissels at supercook.ru (Russian)
  17. Online library of 956 Russian birch bark documents and modern translations (Russian)
  18. Navigation in ice conditions. Experience of Russian sailors by Nataly Marchenko at ris.npolar.no (Svalbard Science Forum)
  19. String instruments at the site Russian musical instruments. (Russian)
  20. Medovukha at the site Culinary Edem (Russian)
  21. Russian fist fighting at the site Russian Civilization (Russian)
  22. Medieval flanged maces by Shawn M. Caza.
  23. The culture and customs of Adygs at the site www.adigeya.com (Russian)
  24. "Russian Folk Instruments". www.barynya.com.
  25. Кирпичников А. Н., «Древнерусское оружие», 1971 / Kirpichnikov A.N. The Ancient Russian weapons, 1971. (Russian)
  26. The study of the history of ancient ploughs of the Novgorod land by V. Ya. Konetsky. (Russian)
  27. Pelmeni. A Tasty History by Josh Wilson at The School of Russian and Asian Studies site.
  28. The shapes of domes of ancient Russian churches by Sergey Zagraevsky at the site of RusArch.ru (Russian)
  29. No Wrong Way to Swing Bat at the site of The St. Petersburg Times.
  30. Zvonnitsa in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (Russian)
  31. Churches Under Bells at the site hramy.ru (Churches of Russia) (Russian)
  32. What Is a Traditional Russian Sarafan? at aerotranslate.com (Russian)
  33. Russian sarafan at linorusso.ru (Russian)
  34. Кирпичников А. Н., «Военное дело на Руси в XIII—XV вв.» Л., 1976 / Kirpichnikov A.N. Warfare in Russia in the 13th-15th centuries. Leningrad, 1976. (Russian)
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  36. V.F.Shperk, "The History of Fortification" (В. Ф. Шперк, История фортификации) (1957) (Russian)
  37. Ukha at kulinarnie-recepty.ru (Russian)
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  39. Russian oven at pechka.su (Russian)
  40. How to cook solyanka and rassolnik at solyanca.ru (Russian)
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  42. Kokoshnik (architecture) in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (Russian)
  43. The first stone tented roof church and the origins of the tented roof architecture by Sergey Zagraevsky at RusArch.ru (Russian)
  44. Russian Abacus at ergosolo.ru (Russian)
  45. Russian Fortresses, 1480–1682, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-916-9
  46. Brumfield, William Craft (1997). Landmarks of Russian Architecture: A Photographic Survey. Routledge. ISBN 978-90-5699-537-9.
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  50. 1 2 М.Е. Портнов. Царь-Пушка и Царь-Колокол. Московский Рабочий, Москва, 1990 / M.E.Portnov. Tsar Cannon and Tsar Bell, Moskovsky Rabochiy, Moscow 1990, ISBN 5-239-00778-0 (Russian)
  51. Bochka (architecture) at the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (Russian)
  52. The history of gorodki at gorodki.org (Russian)
  53. Roller Coasters A Thrill Seeker's Guide to the Ultimate Scream Machines pg 14 (1st Published Edition)
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  58. Jingle bells at damascus.ru (Russian)
  59. "Khokhloma Ware: Folk art for the masses". Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  60. Tula gingerbread at russia.worlds.ru (Russian)
  61. Balalaika by Dmitry Belinskiy, from the newspaper Krymskaya Pravda. (Russian)
  62. The Day of Granenyi Stakan at hronograf.narod.ru (Russian)
  63. The history of Russian ruble and copeck, part 4 (Russian)
  64. "World's Oldest". Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  65. History of yacht clubs in Russia
  66. 1 2 The office of the first Russian oligarch (Russian)
  67. Peter and Paul Cathedral at walkspb.ru (Russian)
  68. Principles of helicopter aerodynamics by J. Gordon Leishman, p. 7.
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  72. Conveyor technology: Elevator at conveyor-tech.com
  73. The Unknown Russian Monorail (Russian)
  74. Virtual Museum of Information technology (Russian)
  75. A Brief History of Diving (Russian)
  76. History of diving in Russia (Russian)
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  80. The hot boxes of San Galli (Russian)
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  83. Boris Mollo, page 137 "Uniforms of the Imperial Russian Army", ISBN 0-7137-0920-0
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  86. Hopkins, Frederick Gowland (11 December 1929). The Earlier History of Vitamin Research (Speech). Nobel Prize Award Ceremony. Stockholm. It is now generally agreed that the first clear evidence, based upon experiment, for the existence of dietary factors of the nature of vitamins came from the school of Bunge at Basel. In 1881 Lunin, one of the workers in that school, fed mice upon an artificial mixture of the separate constituents of milk; of all the constituents, that is, which were then known, namely the proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and salts. He found that upon such a mixture the animals failed to survive and was led to conclude that "a natural food such as milk must therefore contain besides these known principal ingredients small quantities of unknown substances essential to life". Such a statement, already half a century old, when allowed to stand out clear and apart from a context which tended to bury it, seems to contain the essentials of what is believed today.
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  105. В. И. Шмакова Комбинат «Искож» // Энциклопедия земли Вятской Киров: «О-Краткое», 2008. — Т. 10. Книга вторая. / V.I. Shmakova. "Iskozh" fabric // The Encyclopedia of Vyatka Land. Kirov, "О-Краткое", 2008. Vol. 10. part 2. ISBN 978-5-91402-040-5 (Russian)
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