Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger

This article is about the famous assassin of Julius Caesar. For other people with the cognomen "Brutus", see Brutus.
Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger

Marble bust of Brutus, at the Palazzo Massimo alle Terme in the National Museum of Rome
Senator of the Roman Republic
In office
58 BC  42 BC
Personal details
Born 85 BC
Rome, Roman Republic
Died 23 October 42 BC (aged 43)
Philippi, Macedonia
Nationality Roman
Occupation Politician, jurist, military commander
Known for Assassination of Julius Caesar
Religion Roman Paganism, (Cultus Deorum Romanorum)

Marcus Junius Brutus (/ˈbrtəs/; 85 BC – 23 October 42 BC), often referred to as Brutus, was a politician of the late Roman Republic. After being adopted by his uncle he used the name Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, but eventually returned to using his original name.[1] He took a leading role in the assassination of Julius Caesar.[1]

Brutus was close to General Julius Caesar, the leader of the Populares faction. However, Caesar's attempts to assume greater power for himself put him at greater odds with the Roman elite and members of the Senate. Brutus eventually came to oppose Caesar and fought with the Optimate faction, led by Pompey the Great, against Caesar's forces in Caesar's Civil War. Pompey was defeated at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 B.C., after which Brutus surrendered to Caesar, who granted him amnesty.

However, the underlying political tensions which led to the war had not been resolved. Due to Caesar's increasingly monarchial behavior, several senators, calling themselves "Liberators", plotted to assassinate him. They recruited Brutus, who took a leading role in the assassination, which was carried out successfully on March 15, 44 B.C. The Senate, at the request of Tribune Mark Antony, granted amnesty to the assassins. However, a populist uprising forced Brutus and the others to leave the City of Rome. In 43 B.C., young Consul Gaius Octavian Caesar, immediately after taking office, passed a resolution declaring the conspirators, including Brutus, murderers. This led to the Liberators' civil war, pitting the erstwhile supporters of Caesar, wishing both to gain power for themselves and avenge his death, against those who opposed him. Octavian combined his troops with those of Antony, who decisively defeated Brutus and the other Liberators at the Battle of Philippi in October 42 B.C. After the battle, Brutus committed suicide.

Early life

Marble bust of Brutus, at the Capitoline Museums in Rome.

Marcus Junius Brutus Minor (Classical Latin: [ˈmaːr.kʊs ˈjuː.ni.ʊs ˈbruː.tʊs ˈmɪ.nɔr]) was the son of Marcus Junius Brutus Maior and Servilia. His father was killed by Pompey the Great in dubious circumstances after he had taken part in the rebellion of Lepidus; his mother was the half-sister of Cato the Younger, and later Julius Caesar's mistress.[2] Some sources refer to the possibility of Caesar being his real father,[3] despite Caesar being only 15 years old when Brutus was born.

Brutus' uncle, Quintus Servilius Caepio, adopted him in about 59 BC, and Brutus was known officially for a time as Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus before he reverted to using his birth-name. Following Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, Brutus revived his adoptive name in order to illustrate his links to another famous tyrannicide, Gaius Servilius Ahala, from whom he was descended.[4][5]

Brutus held his uncle in high regard[6] and his political career started when he became an assistant to Cato, during his governorship of Cyprus.[7] During this time, he enriched himself by lending money at high rates of interest. Brutus was also active in the province of Cilicia, in the year before Cicero was proconsul there; Cicero documents how Brutus profited from money lending to the provincials in his Letters.[8] He returned to Rome a rich man, where he married Claudia Pulchra.[9] From his first appearance in the Senate, Brutus aligned with the Optimates (the conservative faction) against the First Triumvirate of Marcus Licinius Crassus, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Gaius Julius Caesar.

Senate career

When Caesar's Civil War broke out in 49 BC between Pompey and Caesar, Brutus followed his old enemy and the present leader of the Optimates, Pompey. When the Battle of Pharsalus began, Caesar ordered his officers to take Brutus prisoner if he gave himself up voluntarily, but to leave him alone and do him no harm if he persisted in fighting against capture.[10] Caesar ordered his officers to leave Brutus alone if he refused his arrest because he believed that Brutus could be his biological son. Although Caesar and Brutus' mother, Servilia, were lovers, only a few knew about their relationship. Caesar had nothing against Brutus concerning that, and they had a very close relationship. And everything he did for Brutus was out of affection of Servilia knowing that his mother was in love with him, Caesar, during their youth. Even when Brutus joined Pompey the Great to fight with Caesar and his soldiers, Caesar's main focus was Pompey, but he demanded Brutus to be captured alive.[Marcus Brutus by plutarch]/

After the disaster of the Battle of Pharsalus, Brutus wrote to Caesar with apologies and Caesar immediately forgave him. Caesar then accepted him into his inner circle and made him governor of Gaul when he left for Africa in pursuit of Cato and Metellus Scipio. In 45 BC, Caesar nominated Brutus to serve as urban praetor for the following year.

Also, in June 45 BC, Brutus divorced his wife and married his first cousin, Porcia Catonis, Cato's daughter.[11][12] According to Cicero the marriage caused a semi-scandal as Brutus failed to state a valid reason for his divorce from Claudia other than he wished to marry Porcia.[13] The marriage also caused a rift between Brutus and his mother, who was resentful of the affection Brutus had for Porcia.[14]

Assassination of Julius Caesar (March 15 44 BC)

Death of Caesar by Vincenzo Camuccini.

Around this time, many senators began to fear Caesar's growing power following his appointment as dictator in perpetuity.[15] Brutus was persuaded to join the conspiracy against Caesar by the other senators.[16] Eventually, Brutus decided to move against Caesar after Caesar's king-like behavior prompted him to take action.[17][18] His wife was the only woman privy to the plot.[19][20]

The conspirators planned to carry out their plot on the Ides of March (March 15) that same year. On that day, Caesar was delayed going to the Senate because his wife, Calpurnia, tried to convince him not to go.[21] The conspirators feared the plot had been found out.[22] Brutus persisted, however, waiting for Caesar at the Senate, and allegedly still chose to remain even when a messenger brought him news that would otherwise have caused him to leave.[23]

When Caesar finally did come to the Senate, they attacked him. Publius Servilius Casca Longus was allegedly the first to attack Caesar with a blow to the shoulder, which Caesar blocked.[24] However, upon seeing Brutus was with the conspirators, he covered his face with his toga and resigned himself to his fate.[25] The conspirators attacked in such numbers that they even wounded one another. Brutus is said to have been wounded in the hand and in the legs.[26][27]

After the assassination, the Senate passed an amnesty on the assassins. This amnesty was proposed by Caesar's friend and co-consul Mark Antony (Marcus Antonius). Nonetheless, uproar among the population caused Brutus and the conspirators to leave Rome. Brutus settled in Crete from 44 to 42 BC.

Marcus Junius Brutus.

In 43 BC, after Octavian received his consulship from the Roman Senate, one of his first actions was to have the people who had assassinated Julius Caesar declared murderers and enemies of the state.[28] Marcus Tullius Cicero, angry at Octavian, wrote a letter to Brutus explaining that the forces of Octavian and Mark Antony were divided. Antony had laid siege to the province of Gaul, where he wanted a governorship. In response to this siege, Octavian rallied his troops and fought a series of battles in which Antony was defeated.[29]

Battle of Philippi (42 BC)

Upon hearing that neither Mark Antony nor Octavian had an army large enough to defend Rome, Brutus rallied his troops, which totalled about 17 legions. When Octavian heard that Brutus was on his way to Rome, he made peace with Antony.[30] Their armies, which together totalled about 19 legions, marched to meet Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. The two sides met in two engagements known as the Battle of Philippi. The first was fought on October 3, 42 BC, in which Brutus defeated Octavian's forces, although Cassius was defeated by Antony's forces. The second engagement was fought on October 23, 42 BC and ended in Brutus' defeat.

EID MAR ("Ides of March") denarius, issued by Marcus Junius Brutus in 43/42 BC. The obverse of the coin features a portrait of Marcus Brutus. The inscription reads BRVT IMP L PLAET CEST, which means Brutus, Imperator, Lucius Plaetorius Cestianus. Lucius Plaetorius Cestianus was the moneyer who actually managed the mint workers who produced the coin. The two daggers on the reverse differ to show more than one person was involved in the slaying. The cap is a pileus (liberty cap) that in Roman times was given to slaves on the day of their emancipation – freedom from slavery. In the context of the assassination, Brutus is making it clear the killers were defending the Republic and its people from Caesar’s grasp at kingship.

After the defeat, he fled into the nearby hills with only about four legions. Knowing his army had been defeated and that he would be captured, Brutus committed suicide by running into his own sword being held by two of his own men. Among his last words were, according to Plutarch, "By all means must we fly; not with our feet, however, but with our hands." Brutus also uttered the well-known verse calling down a curse upon Antony (Plutarch repeats this from the memoirs of Publius Volumnius): Forget not, Zeus, the author of these crimes (in the Dryden translation this passage is given as Punish, great Jove, the author of these ills).[31] Plutarch wrote that, according to Volumnius, Brutus repeated two verses, but Volumnius was only able to recall the one quoted.

Mark Antony, as a show of great respect, ordered Brutus' body to be wrapped in Antony's most expensive purple mantle (this was later stolen and Antony had the thief executed). Brutus was cremated, and his ashes were sent to his mother, Servilia.[32] His wife Porcia was reported to have committed suicide upon hearing of her husband's death, although, according to Plutarch (Brutus 53 para 2), there is some dispute as to whether this is the case: Plutarch states that there was a letter in existence that was allegedly written by Brutus mourning the manner of her death.[33][33][34][35]



This was the noblest Roman of them all:
All the conspirators save only he
Did that they did in envy of great Caesar;
He only, in a general honest thought
And common good to all, made one of them.
His life was gentle, and the elements
So mix'd in him that Nature might stand up
And say to all the world "This was a man!"

William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act 5, Scene 5 (Mark Antony)



See also


  1. 1 2 Europius, translated, with notes, by Rev. John Selby Watson (1843). "Abridgement of Roman History". Retrieved 2011-01-16.
  2. Suetonius, The Deified Julius, 50
  3. Plutarch, Life of Brutus, 5.2.
  4. M. Crawford (1971) Roman Republican Coinage 502.2 shows that Brutus issued coins bearing the inscription Q. CAEPIO BRVTVS PRO [COS] (Q. Caepio Brutus, proconsul) in 42 BC
  5. "Coin bearing inscription Q. Caepio Brutus". Retrieved 2011-01-16.
  6. Plutarch, Life of Brutus, 2.1.
  7. Plutarch, Life of Brutus, 3.1.
  8. Cicero, Att. V 21
  9. Cicero. ad Fam. iii. 4.
  10. Plutarch, Life of Brutus, 5.1.
  11. Plutarch, Marcus Brutus, 13.3.
  12. Cicero. Brutus. 77, 94
  13. Cic. Att. 13. 16
  14. Cic. Att. 13. 22
  15. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 44.8.4.
  16. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 44.12.2.
  17. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 44.12.3.
  18. Cassius Dio, 44.13.1.
  19. Cassius Dio, 44.13.
  20. Plutarch, Marcus Brutus, 14.4
  21. Plutarch. Marcus Brutus. 15.1.
  22. Cassius Dio. Roman History. 44.18.1.
  23. Plutarch. Marcus Brutus. 15.5.
  24. Plutarch. Marcus Brutus. 17.5.
  25. Plutarch. Marcus Brutus. 17.6.
  26. Plutarch. Marcus Brutus. 17.7.
  27. Nicolaus. Life of Augustus. 24.
  28. Plutarch, translated by John Dryden. "Marcus Brutus". Greek Texts. p. 13. Retrieved 2011-01-16.
  29. "Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa". 2010-01-02. Retrieved 2011-01-16.
  30. "Ancient Greek Online library: Marcus Brutus by Plutarch page 13". 2005. Retrieved 2011-01-16.
  31. Plutarch, Life of Brutus, chapter 48
  32. Plutarch, Marcus Brutus, 52.1-53.4.
  33. 1 2 Valerius Maximus, De factis mem. iv.6.5.
  34. Cassius Dio, Roman History. 47.49.3.
  35. Appian, The Civil Wars, Book 5.136.
  36. "John Wilkes Booth Manuscript". Baltimore Sun. 26 April 1992. Retrieved 24 December 2013.

Further reading

External links

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