Manorama (Tamil actress)
May 26, 1937
Mannargudi, Madras Presidency, British India
10 October 2015 78) (aged|
Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
|Cause of death||Heart attack, multiple organ failure|
S. M. Ramanathan |
Gopishantha (26 May 1937 – 10 October 2015), better known by her stage name Manorama, also called as Aachi, was an Indian actress and comedian who had appeared in more than 1,500 films, 5,000 stage performances, and several television series until 2015. She entered the Guinness World Records for acting in more than 1000 number of films in 1985. By 2015, she had acted in more than 1,500 films. She was a recipient of the Kalaimamani award, Padma Shri (2002), National Film Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance in film Pudhiya Padhai (1989), and Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award – South (1995).
Early life and family
Manorama was born in a Tamil Kallar family as Gopishantha to Kasi Kilakudaiyar and Ramamirtham in Mannargudi, a town in the erstwhile Thanjavur district of Madras Presidency. Manorama's biological father was not happy that a girl was born to him and hence asked her mother to leave the house. Her mother brought her up by taking up the job of working as maid. She mentioned her indebtedness to her mother for her success: Many of the mother roles that she has played in films resemble her own mother. Her family moved to Pallathur near Karaikudi owing to poverty. While in Pallathur, her mother had started vomiting out blood, hence Manorama decided to start working as maid and dropped out of school at the age of 11. Once a drama troupe had come to Pallathur but the actress who was to play a small part suddenly dropped out due to her inability to sing and the troupe was looking for an artiste who could act and sing as well. The drama troupe decided to give her this role in the drama titled Andhaman Kadhali. Hence her acting career began at the age of twelve, acting in plays. During this time, she was rechristened Manorama by one of her dramas' director Thiruvengadam and harmonist Thiayagarajan. She continued to act in plays and performed as a playback singer as well. After watching her performance in plays, she was offered her first film named Inbavazhvu by Janakiraman which remained 40% incomplete and later Kannadasan offered her lead role in second film Unmayinkottai, which got shelved after shooting for about 40%. She lost hope of becoming a film actor when both these films remained incomplete.
Manorama fell in love with her manager in the drama troupe S. M. Ramanathan and married him in 1964; the couple had a son named Bhoopathy. However, she got divorced in late 1966 and started to live in a separate house in Chennai. She quoted in an interview in 2015, "My mom wanted me to study medicine. But it was not easy to become a doctor in those days, and I became an actress. So, if I hadn't taken up acting, I would have tried to become a doctor as my mom wished for it. But now, fortunately, my grandson is a doctor, and I am proud of it."
She acted in small roles in few Vairam Nataka Sabha dramas. Once she went to see a drama of S.S.Rajendran who was residing at Pudukkotai, in Tamil Nadu, and P.A. Kumar introduced her to Rajendran. She showed her skill in dialogue delivery and was offered a job in S.S.R Nataka Mandram company and played in hundreds of stage productions all over the district: The dramas included Manimagudam, Thenpandiveeran and Pudhuvellam. She credits her work in Manimagudam as where she was first recognised as an actress, She then took part in an unfinished film starring S.S.Rajendran and Devika.
She migrated from dramas to the silver screen with the role of a heroine in the 1958 Tamil film Maalayitta Mangai: Kavignar Kannadasan gave her the lead role this film. The first film in which she played the heroine the 1963 Konjum Kumari. Then, she concentrated more on comedy from 1960. She was given equally challenging roles alongside the well known comedian Nagesh in 50 films.
When asked in an interview as to how she got into films, she quoted, "It's all because of Kannadasan. It was he who changed my life by casting me in the film Maalayitta Mangai in 1957. It was a comical role, and he trusted me so much and said that I will be able to pull it off. I was very doubtful about it, but he told me, "If you are going to act in films only as a heroine, people here will throw you out of the industry after three or four years, but doing such roles will take you places. And you have the talent, too, to reach higher peaks." That is when I got confidence and continued doing comedy roles."
The first time Manorama stood before the camera was for a Sinhalese film, in which she played the heroine's friend. Her dance master Suryakala recommended her to the director Masthaan to play the role. She has acted predominantly in Tamil films since 1958 but also acted in Telugu, Hindi, Malayalam, Kannada movies as well. Her onscreen pair with Tangavelu was appreciated in the film Vallvanakku Vallavan in 1965. Her on-screen pair with Nagesh was very popular in 1960-69 and then with Cho in the 1970s and 80s and later with Thengai Srinivasan, Venniradai Moorthy, and Surali Rajan in the 70s and 80s. She had done playback singing for 300 songs, mostly pictured on herself, in Tamil films. The first song that she sang was in a film called Magale Un Samathu, composed by G. K. Venkatesh and this opportunity she got due to the film's producer P.A. Kumar. She has sung classical-based song with TM Sounderajan in the film Dharshinam (1970), where she was paired with Cho. Manorama sang a song with L.R. Eswari named "Thaatha thaatha pidi kudu". Her career's biggest hit song sung by herself was Vaa Vaathiyaare Uttaande composed by music director V. Kumar for the film ''Bommalattam", which was picturised on her and Cho. She also sang for M. S. Viswanathan and A. R. Rahman.
Some of her best Tamil films include "Anbe Vaa", "Thenmazhi", "Ethir Neechal", "Galatta Kalyanam", "Chittukuruvi", "Durga Devi", "Annalakshmi" and "Imayam". In Telugu, she starred in films such as "Rikshavodu", "Krishnarjuna" and "Subhodayam". When asked in an interview as to which are her memorable roles, she said "It is Nadigan, which had Sathyaraj and Khushbu in the lead. I cannot forget that role of Baby Amma in my life. Also my role in Chinna Gounder, for which I had to sport weird, artificial teeth, is something which I always think about.
Manorama was paired with Nagesh regularly in films with M.G. Ramachandran in lead like En Kadamai, Kanni Thai, Thayin Madiyil, Kadhal Vaganam, Chandrodhyam, Anbee Vaa, Padagotti, Kadhal Vagahnam, Vivasaaye, Thaikku Thalaimagan, Vettikaran, Ther Thiruvizha. Other directors casted the Nagesh-Manorama pair in films like Anubhavi Raja Anubhavi, Kungumam, Saraswathi Sabadham, Panjavarnakilli, Navarathiri, Puthiya Paravai, Patthu Matha Bandham, Anbu Karangal, Micheal Madan Kamarajan, Annamitta Kai, Gowri Kalyanam, Anbe Aaruyire, Server Sundaram, Ner Vazhai, Ninaivin Nindraval, Poojaikku Vandamalar, Deiva Thirumagal, Rakta Thilagam, Aannavin Asai, Thiruvarutchelvar, Seetha, Karunthel Kannayiram. Manorama, actress Sachu and Jayalalithaa have acted together in 2 films as a combination - Galata Kalyanam and Bommalattam. Manorama and Jayalalithaa have acted in 25 films together.
Her work was noticed even among stalwarts like Sivaji Ganesan and Natiya Peroli Padmini. Manorama shared in an interview that initially she was nervous acting in front of veterans like T. S. Balaiah, but, the director A. P. Nagarajan made her understand that the scenes in which Jil Jil Ramamani appears, she would be the center of attention. She acted alongside the well-known comedian Nagesh in 50 films and in 20 films with Cho Ramaswamy. They made an notable pair and acted in many well-received comedies. In 1974 she shared the screen space with the legendary comedian Mehmood in the Hindi movie Kunwara Baap. Cho and Manorama were paired together in 20 films which included Malligai Poo, Annaiyum Pidhavum, Dharisanam, Anbai Thedi, Nanaivin Nindraval, Nirai Kudam, Ayiram Poi, Mohammed Bin Tughlaq, Bommalattam, Delhi Mappilai, Vilayattu Pillai, Kanavan, Rojavin Raja, Suryagandhi.
The character she was given by K.Balachander in the 1989 film Unnal Mudiyum Thambi she personally considers a cornerstone as she was giving a new challenge as an actor.She related in an interview on Toronto TV that one of the most challenging characters she played was the role of the 50-year-old unmarried woman in the 1990 film Nadigan with Sathyaraj. She has acted with all of the lead comedians across five different generations which includes M. R. Radha, K. A. Thangavelu, J. P, Chandrababu, A. Karunanithi, Ennatha Kannaiya, V. K. Ramaswamy, Nagesh, Cho Ramaswamy, Thengai Seenivasan, M. R. R. Vasu, Suruli Rajan, Venniradai Moorthy, Janagaraj, Pandiarajan, Goundamani, Senthil, Vivek and Vadivelu.
She has been in films with five chief ministers. She played the female lead in the plays written, directed and acted by C. N. Annadurai, former chief minister of Tamil Nadu. She has also appeared in plays with another chief minister of Tamil Nadu, M. Karunanidhi. She has acted in films with M. G. Ramachandran and J. Jayalalithaa, who both later became chief ministers of Tamil Nadu later. She has also acted in Telugu films with Dr. N. T. Rama Rao, who became the chief minister of Andhra Pradesh. When asked which character of hers she found most hilarious to play, she specified the role of a talkative female, who is forced to act dumb in a film called ''Unakkum Vazhvu Varum''. She had played this role along with Thengai Srinivasan. She was bitten by a Bungarus fasciatus/ Kattuviriyan snake during the shooting of ''Manjal Kungumam'' and was admitted to hospital. Coincidentally, after recovery, the next scene, she had to act was in ''Aadi Viradham,'' where she had to bathe a snake statue and sing a lullaby for it, and the director asked her whether she would like to perform and she replied "Yes very much!" and she did the film.
Manorama, being a close friend of Jayalalitha and of the firm belief that Jayalalitha would never be corrupt, campaigned against actor Rajinikanth in support of Chief Minister Jayalalithaa in the 1996 elections.
In one of her last interviews, in 2015, she was asked if she had any regrets about her life. To this, she answered: "I've no regrets at all. I'm blessed in this life. Even in my next birth, I want to be born as Manorama again. I want this same life, and same people around me. Most of all, I want my mom with me again." In an interview to BBC in 2015, "If I had chosen to act only as a heroine then I would have disappeared from the scene long ago. So, I decided to take up comedienne roles, so I survived in the industry for nearly six decades".
When asked as to how she was able to do more than 1500 films, she said in her interview in September 2015, "I believe I am a blessed person. Without God's will, I couldn't have acted in so many films. It all just happened in my life, and you won't believe it, but I still have the urge to act. The one person who is the reason for all my success is my mom. She did everything for me in life, and I miss her the most now (she breaks into tears). Whatever I achieve or have achieved in life is only because of her."
She supported young talents and budding directors on her old ages. In 2013 she acted in a Tamil Short Film named Thaaye Nee Kannurangu directed by LGR Saravanan. She acted as a Cancer Patient and a mother of Mr. Srikanth."
Between 2013-15, Manorama had suffered ill-heath resulting in hospital stays. She died in Chennai at 11.20 pm on 10 October 2015 as a result of multiple organ failure. She was 78 and is survived by her son and singer-actor Bhoopathy.
Tamil Nadu reacted to Manorama's death with an outpouring of grief; numerous tributes were paid to the deceased actor across the state and on social media. Chief Minister Jayalalithaa laid wreath on the body at the actor's home in T. Nagar, Ms. Jayalalithaa said, "There had been no accomplished achiever like Manorama in the Tamil film world and there would be none in the future as well." Jayalalitha was quoted as saying, "I was shocked to hear about her death. She was an elder sister to me. I used to call her Manorama while she called me Ammu. We used to visit each other's houses whenever we didn't have shootings." The chief minister also said, "If Sivaji Ganesan was Nadigar Thilagam, Manorama was Nadigai Thilagam." Others who paid homage to the actress include Rajinikanth, Kamal Haasan, Sivakumar, Ajith Kumar, M. Karunanidhi, K. Veeramani, G. K. Vasan, Delhi Ganesh, R. Sarathkumar, Ilayaraja, Vairamuthu, Vijay, Karthik, S. Ve. Shekhar, Vijaykumar, Goundamani, K. Bhagyaraj, R. Parthiban, Raadhika Sarathkumar, Vimal, Silambarasan, Suriya, Karthi, Vikraman, S. Thanu, T. Rajender and Pandiarajan.
- National Film Award for Best Supporting Actress (1989)
- Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award – South (1995)
- Padma Shri (2002)
- Tamilnadu Cinema Kalaimandram Award - Favourite Film Star (2013)
- Kattu Pattti Charitram
- Anbulla Amma
- Tyagiyin Magal
- Aachi International
- Anbulla Snehithi
- Alli Rajyam
- Robo Raja
- Vaa Vadhyare
- Tina Mina
Selected filmography & discography
|Madrasa Sutti||May Madham||A. R. Rahman||Shahul Hameed, Swarnalatha, G.V. Prakash|
|Paarthale Theriyaatha||Sri Raghavendrar||Ilayaraja|
|Kaanaan Kuruvikku Kalyanamam (Two versions)||Vaazha Ninaiththaal Vaazhalaam||Ilayaraja|
|Theriyatho Nokku Theriyatho||Suryakanthi||M. S. Viswanathan|
|Dillikku Rajanaalum||Paatti Sollai Thattaathe||Chandrabose (composer)|
|Vaa vathiyaare||Bommalattam||V. Kumar|
|Thaatha Thaatha||Magale Un Samathu||G. K. Venkatesh||L. R. Eswari|
|Thangeiyenum||Pasa Kiligal||Vidhyasagar||Tippu (singer), Karthik (singer), Sujatha Mohan|
|Pogathey Pogathey En Kanava (parody)||Ratha Thilagam||Viswanathan Ramamoorthy|
|Thimikitta Thimikkitta||Ganga Gowri||M. S. Viswanathan|
|1959||Uthami Petra Rathinam||Tamil|
|Aadavantha Deivam (film)||Tamil||Navarasam|
|Nenjil Or Aalayam||Tamil||Manorama|
|Paar Magale Paar||Tamil||Aaraveli|
|Lava Kusha||Tamil||Washerman's wife|
|1964||Magale Un Samathu||Tamil|
|1964||Puthiya Paravai||Tamil||Alli Sanjeev|
|1965||Kanni Thaai||Tamil||Rukkumani (Rukku)|
|Kandan Karunai||Tamil||Valli's best friend|
|Yaar Nee?||Tamil||Thamarai(Maid) & C.I.D Sulokchana|
|Madras to Pondicherry||Tamil||Brahmin Couple|
|Mugaraasi||Tamil||Alangaram (Thandhaiyar Paithai)|
|1967||Ninaivil Nindraval (1967 film)||Tamil||Sarala|
|1967||Iru Malargal||Tamil||Principal's wife|
|Thillana Mohanambal||Tamil||Karuppayi / "Jil Jil" Ramamani / Roja Rani|
Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Character Artiste (Female)
|Thaer Thiruvizha||Tamil||Vel's wife|
|1969||Nirai Kudam||Tamil||Actress Girija|
|Aana Valarthiya Vanampadiyude Makan||Malayalam/Tamil|
|Engal Thangam||Tamil||Miss Pantchali|
|1971||Kankatchi||Tamil||Surulirajan and Manorama teamed up in this movie to perform nine different roles together|
|1971||Muhammd bin Tughkug||Tamil||Gandhimadhi|
|1971||Sumathi En Sundari||Tamil|
|Kanna Nalama||Tamil||K. Manorama|
|Vidharthikale Ithile Ithile||Malayalam|
|Raman Thediya Seethai||Tamil||Samoundhi|
|Thaikku Oru Pillai||Tamil|
|Annamitta Kai||Tamil||Nurse Thangame|
|Gnana Oli||Tamil||Doctor's wife|
|Kasi Yathirai||Tamil||Andal (Stage-actress)/Lalitha(Chokkalingam's lover)|
|Ponnukku Thanga Manasu||Tamil|
|1974||Gumasthavin Magal||Tamil||Guest appearance|
|Melnaattu Marumagal||Tamil||Guest appearance|
|Cinema Paithiyam||Tamil||Cameo appearance|
|Vaazhnthu Kaattugiren||Tamil||Dollak Sundari|
|Yarukkum Vetkam Illai||Tamil|
|Unmaye Un Vilai Enna||Tamil|
|Nee Oru Maharani||Tamil|
|Mogam Muppadhu Varusham||Tamil|
|Vazhvu En Pakkam||Tamil||Seetha|
|Paaloothi Valartha Kili||Tamil|
|Oru Kodiyil Iru Malargal||Tamil|
|Thunai Iruppal Meenakshi||Tamil|
|Nee Vazhva Vendum||Tamil|
|Avan Oru Sarithiram||Tamil|
|Sri Krishna Leela (1977 film)||Tamil|
|En Kelvikkenna Bathil||Tamil|
|Vaazha Ninaithal Vazhaalam||Tamil|
|1980||Billa||Tamil||Rajappa's old friend|
|Rusi Kanda Poonai||Tamil|
|Keezh Vaanam Sivakkum||Tamil||Servant|
|Simla Special||Tamil||Roja Devi|
|Thaai Mookaambikai||Tamil||Kittumani's sister|
|Pakkathu Veetu Roja||Tamil|
|Vasandhathil Or Naal||Tamil|
|Dowry Kalyanam||Tamil||Seetha Latchmi|
|Muthu Engal Sothu||Tamil|
|1984||Enakkul Oruvan||Tamil||Madan's mom|
|Oh Maane Maane||Tamil|
|Kuva Kuva Vaathugal||Tamil|
|Anbe Odi Vaa||Tamil|
|Raja Veetu Kannu Kutty||Tamil|
|Naalai Unathu Naal||Tamil|
|1985||Antha Sila naatkal||Tamil|
|Sri Raghavendrar||Tamil||Saraswathi Bhai's friend|
|Chidambara Ragasiyam||Tamil||Valayapatti Valliammai|
|Madhuvidhu Theerum Mumbe||Malayalam||Palakkattu Maami|
|Nalla Thambi||Tamil||Raju's mother|
|Oru Malarin Payanam||Tamil|
|Samsaram Adhu Minsaram||Tamil||Kannamma, the maid|
|Naan Adimai Ilai|
|Kanna Thorakkanum Saami||Tamil|
|1987||Per Sollum Pillai||Tamil||Cook|
|Naan Adimai Illai||Tamil|
|Makkal Enn Pakkam||Tamil|
|Chinna Kuyil Paaduthu||Tamil||Geetha's mother|
|1988||Guru Sishyan||Tamil||Kalyani Nallasivam|
|Paatti Sollai Thattaadhe||Tamil|
|En Jeevan Paduthu||Tamil|
|Unnal Mudiyum Thambi||Tamil||Angayarkanni|
|Idhu Namma Aalu||Tamil|
|Penmani Aval Kanmani||Tamil|
|Annanagar Mudhal Theru||Tamil|
|Ulagam Piranthathu Enakkaga||Tamil|
|Puthiya Padhai||Tamil||National Film Award for Best Supporting Actress|
|Pongi Varum Kaveri||Tamil|
|1990||Michael Madana Kama Rajan||Tamil||Ganga Bai|
|Engal Swamy Ayyappan||Tamil|
|Enkitta Mothathe||Tamil||Pandiyan's mother|
|Vedikkai En Vadikkai||Tamil|
|En Veedu En Kanavar||Tamil|
|Pondatti Sonna Kettukanum||Tamil|
|Aakasha Kottayile Sultan||Malayalam||Kumudam|
|Chinna Gounder||Tamil||Chinna Gounder's mother|
|Nattukku Oru Nallavan||Tamil|
|Nee Pathi Naan Pathi||Tamil||Vedavalli|
|Onna Irukka Kathukanum||Tamil|
|Neenga Nalla Irukkanum||Tamil|
|Periya Gounder Ponnu||Tamil|
|Idhu Namma Bhoomi||Tamil||Valiammal|
|Unnai Vaazhthi Paadugiren||Tamil||Ravi's mother|
|1993||Yejaman||Tamil||Grandmother of Vaanavarayan|
|Gentleman||Tamil||Ponnammal Kicha's mother|
|Atha Maga Rathiname||Tamil||Pappamma|
|Nattamai||Tamil||Nattamai's paternal aunt|
|Dear Son Maruthu||Tamil|
|Periya Kudumbam||Tamil||Rathnavelu's Mother|
|Naan Petha Magane||Tamil||Andal|
|Mr. Madras||Tamil||Aruna Arunachalam|
|Raja Enga Raja||Tamil|
|1998||Pooveli||Tamil||Grandmother of Mahalakshmi|
|Marumalarchi||Tamil||Jayanthi's mother in law|
|Unnaruge Naan Irundhal||Tamil||Caring maid|
|Sundari Neeyum Sundaran Naanum||Tamil|
|Vetri Kodi Kattu||Tamil||Deivane|
|Unnaruge Naan Irundhal||Tamil||Caring maid|
|2001||Krishna Krishna||Tamil||'Bullet' Pushpa|
|Bava Nachadu||Telugu||Mrs. S. Bhanupathi|
|Piriyadha Varam Vendum||Tamil||Azhagi|
|Ninu Choodaka Nenundalenu||Telugu|
|Manorama The Legend||Tamil||Herself|
|7G Rainbow Colony||Tamil||Extended cameo|
|Aadum Koothu||Tamil||Dalit woman|
|2006||Imsai Arasan 23m Pulikesi||Tamil||Rajamatha Bhavani Ammaiyar|
|A Aa E Ee||Tamil|
|Seetha Kalyanam||Malayalam||Sreeni's mother|
|Irumbukkottai Murattu Singam||Tamil||Keluthi Amma|
|2013||Singam II||Tamil||Kavya's grandmother|
|Thaaye Nee Kannurangu||Tamil||Amma|
|2016||S3 (film)||Tamil||Kavya's grandmother|
- "Actor `Aachi' Manorama dies at 78". The Times of India. 10 October 2015. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
- "The endearing `aachi'". The Hindu. 7 July 2003. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
- "It's only because of Kalai Thaai that I'm still alive: Manorama - The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015-10-12.
- "வாழ்க்கையில் எதிர்நீச்சல் போட்ட மனோரமா: 1,300 படங்களில் நடித்து 'கின்னஸ்' சாதனை". Maalai Malar. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- "5 Things to know about Tamil legend 'Aachi' Manorama - MotivateMe.in". MotivateMe.in. Retrieved 2015-10-13.
- "'Aachi' Manorama's last public speech [VIDEO]". International Business Times, India Edition. Retrieved 2015-10-13.
- "There's no stopping her". The Hindu. 2 February 2009. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- "நடிகை மனோரமா காதல் திருமணம் தோல்வியில் முடிந்தது || actress manorama cinema history". cinema.maalaimalar.com. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- "கண்ணதாசன் தயாரித்த 'மாலையிட்ட மங்கையில் மனோரமா அறிமுகம் || Manorama introduced Kannadhasan produced film malaiyitta mangai". cinema.maalaimalar.com. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- "Manorama's first film as heroine". Youtube.
- "Legendary Tamil actress Manorama no more". Business Standard. 11 October 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- "All you need to know about legendary Tamil actress Manorama". Daily News and Analysis. 11 October 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- "Veteran Tamil actress Manorama dies at 78 - The Economic Times". Economictimes.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2015-10-12.
- "'கொஞ்சும் குமரி'யில் கதாநாயகியாக நடித்தார், மனோரமா". Maalai Malar. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- K. R., Manigandan (12 October 2015). "Lesser Known Side of a Comical Genius". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- "Six decades of Manorama". The Hindu. 2015-10-11. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2015-10-13.
- "Legendary Tamil actress Manorama passes away: 13 interesting facts about Aachi to help you know her better". CatchNews.com. Retrieved 2015-10-13.
- "The Best Films of Manorama". Rediff. Retrieved 2015-10-13.
- "South Indian actress Manorama dies - BBC News". Bbc.com. Retrieved 2015-10-12.
- "Actor Manorama discharged from hospital". THE HINDU. 9 April 2014.
- "Manorama clarifies death rumours, says 'I'm hale and hearty'". The Indian Express. 18 February 2015.
- "Legendary Tamil actress Manorama no more". PTI. 11 October 2015. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015.
- "Manorama, who matched protagonists of her day, passes away". THE HINDU. 11 October 2015.
- Tamil Nadu Chief Minister J. Jayalalitha paying homage to actor Manorama at her residence
- "Manorama called me Ammu, Jayalalithaa says - The Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2015-10-12.
- "Legendary Tamil actress Manorama dies at 78". Yahoo News India. Retrieved 2015-10-12.
- "Padma Awards" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2015. Retrieved July 21, 2015.