For other uses, see Manipur (disambiguation).

Coordinates (imphal): 24°49′01″N 93°57′00″E / 24.817°N 93.95°E / 24.817; 93.95Coordinates: 24°49′01″N 93°57′00″E / 24.817°N 93.95°E / 24.817; 93.95
Country  India
Formation 21 January 1972
Capital Imphal
Districts 9
  Governor Najma Heptulla[1]
  Chief Minister Okram Ibobi Singh (INC)
  Legislature Unicameral (60 seats)
  Parliamentary constituency Rajya Sabha 1
Lok Sabha 2
  High Court Manipur High Court
  Total 22,327 km2 (8,621 sq mi)
Area rank 24th
Population (2011[2])
  Total 2,855,794
  Rank 24th
  Density 130/km2 (330/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-MN
HDI Increase 0.707 (high) I
HDI rank 5th (2005)
Literacy 79.21% (2011 Census)[2]
Official language Manipuri[3][4]
It elevated from the status of Union-Territories by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act 1971
State symbols of Manipur
Animal Sangai
Bird Nongyen
Flower Siroi lily
Tree Uningthou

Manipur (English pronunciation: i/ˌmənɪpʊr/) is a state in northeastern India, with the city of Imphal as its capital. Manipur is sometimes called alternative names such as Kangleipak or Sanaleibak.[5] It is bounded by Nagaland to the north, Mizoram to the south, and Assam to the west; Burma (Myanmar) lies to its east. The state covers an area of 22,327 square kilometres (8,621 sq mi). Its people include the Meetei, Kuki, Naga, and Pangal peoples, who speak Sino-Tibetan languages. Manipur has been at the crossroads of Asian economic and cultural exchange for more than 2,500 years.[6] It has long connected the Indian subcontinent to Southeast Asia, enabling migration of people, cultures and religions.[7]

During the British Rule, the Kingdom of Manipur was one of the princely states.[8] Between 1917 and 1939, the people of Manipur pressed for their rights against the British Rule. By the late 1930s, the princely state of Manipur negotiated with the British administration its preference to be part of India, rather than Burma.[9] These negotiations were cut short with the outbreak of World War II. On 21 September 1949, Maharaja Budhachandra signed a Treaty of Accession merging the kingdom into India. This merger is disputed by groups in Manipur as having been completed without consensus and under duress. The dispute and differing visions for the future has resulted in a 50-year insurgency in the state for independence from India, as well as in violence between ethnic groups in the state.[10] Over 2010–2013, the militant insurgency was responsible for the violent death of about 1 civilian per 100,000 people, each year.[11] The world average annual death rate from intentional violence has been 7.9 per 100,000 people.[12]

The Meetei ethnic group,[13] represents 53% of the population of Manipur state. The main language of the state is Meeteilon (Manipuri). By comparison, indigenous tribal peoples constitute 20% of the state population; they are distinguished by dialects and culture that are often village-based. Manipur's ethnic groups practice a variety of religions.[14] According to 2011 census, Hinduism is the major religion in the state closely followed by Christianity. Other religions include Islam, Sanamahism, Buddhism etc.[14][15]

Manipur has primarily an agrarian economy, with significant hydroelectric power generation potential. It is connected to other areas by daily flights through Imphal airport, the second largest in northeastern India.[16] Manipur is home to many sports, the origin of Manipuri dance,[17] and credited with introducing polo to Europeans.[18]


Manipur is mentioned in historic texts as Kangleipak or Meeteileipak which covered only the three valleys districts: Bishnupur, Thoubal and Imphal.[19] Sanamahi Laikan wrote that officials during the reign of Meidingu Pamheiba in the eighteenth century adopted Manipur's new name.

According to Sakok Lamlen, the area had different names in its history. During the Hayachak period, it was known as Mayai Koiren poirei namthak saronpung or Tilli Koktong Ahanba; in the Khunungchak period it was Meera Pongthoklam. During the Langbachak era, it became Tilli Koktong Leikoiren, and finally Muwapali in the Konnachak epoch.[20]

Neighbouring cultures each had differing names for Manipur and its people. The Shan or Pong called the area Cassay, the Burmese Kathe, and the Assamese Meklee. In the first treaty between the British East India Company and Meidingu Chingthangkhomba (Bhagyachandra) signed in 1762, the kingdom was recorded as Meckley. Bhagyachandra and his successors issued coins engraved with "Manipureshwar", or "lord of Manipur", and the British discarded the name Meckley. Later on, the work Dharani Samhita (1825–34) popularised the Sanskrit legends of the origin of Manipur's name.[21]

The term Kanglei, meaning "of Manipur/Kangleipak", is used to refer to items associated with the state where the term Manipuri is a recent given name.

Examples using the term "Kanglei" Translation
Kanglei of Kangleipak/Manipur
Kangleicha People of Kangleipak/Manipur
Kanglei foods Foods of Kangleipak/Manipur
Kanglei style Style of Kangleipak/Manipur


The Kangla Sha, the state emblem

The ancient history of Manipur is unclear and disputed. According to one tradition, the Manipuri people are the Gandharvas – musicians and dancers – in the Vedic texts,[22][23] and historic texts of Manipuri people calls the region as Gandharva-desa.[24] The ancient Sanskrit texts such as the Mahabharata epic mentions Manipur, where Arjuna meets and falls in love with Chitragada.[22][25] Shiva and Parvati are part of the legendary Khamba-Thoibi love story in Manipur tradition.[22][26]

Another tradition describes the history of Manipur to be one of a trading route between Indian subcontinent, China and southeast Asia, where it witnessed not only economic activity, but also wars,[27] along with movement of people, culture and ideas that made it a melting pot of Indo-Burman culture.[28] By the medieval period, marriage alliances between royal families of Manipuri kingdom, Ahom (Assam) and Burma had become common.[28] Medieval era Manipuri manuscripts discovered in 20th century, particularly the Puya, evidence that Hindus arrived from the Indian subcontinent with royal marriages at least by the 14th century, and in centuries thereafter, from what is now modern Assam, Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Dravidian kingdoms, and other regions.[29] Another manuscript suggests that Muslims arrived in Manipur in the 17th century, from what is now Bangladesh, during the reign of Meidingu Khagemba.[29] The socio-political turmoil and wars affected the cultural and religious demography of Manipur, particularly the persistent and devastating Manipur-Burma wars.[30]

Manipur was annexed and became a part of the British Empire, but as a princely state.[31] During the World War II, Manipur was the scene of many fierce battles between the Japanese invaders and the British Indian forces. The Japanese were beaten back before they could enter Imphal, which was one of the turning points of the war. After the war, the Manipur Constitution Act of 1947 established a democratic form of government, with the Maharaja as the executive head. In 1949, Maharaja Bodhchandra was summoned to Shillong, where he signed the instrument of accession to merge the kingdom into India. Thereafter the legislative assembly was dissolved, and Manipur became part of the Republic of India in October 1949.[32] It was made a Union Territory in 1956.[33] and a fully-fledged State in 1972.[34]

Kangla Gate, the west entrance to the Kangla Fort

A separatist movement has been active in Manipur since 1964, when United National Liberation Front was founded. Several groups have used violence toward achieving their goal of a sovereign Manipur. In addition, tribal peoples have demanded division of the present state into two or three Indian states along ethnic lines. This is considered one of India's "sensitive areas", due to its political troubles and isolated geography. Foreign travellers must gain permission from the government to enter the state.[35]

Manipur has had a long record of insurgency and inter-ethnic violence.[36][37] The first armed opposition group in Manipur, the United National Liberation Front (UNLF), was founded in 1964, which declared that it wanted to gain independence from India and form Manipur as a new country. Over time, many more groups formed in Manipur, each with different goals, and deriving support from diverse ethnic groups in Manipur. For example, in 1977 the People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK) was formed, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) was formed in 1978 which Human Rights Watch states as having received arms and training from China. In 1980, the Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP) was formed. These groups began a spree of bank robberies and attacks on police officers and government buildings. The state government appealed to the central government in New Delhi for support in combating this violence.[10]

In 1980, the central government brought the entire state of Manipur under the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 (AFSPA) because its state government claimed that the use of the Armed Forces in aid of the state and local police is necessary to prevent violent deaths and to maintain law and order.

Since 1980, the application of AFSPA has been at the heart of concerns about human rights violations in the region, such as arbitrary killings, torture, cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment and enforced disappearances. Its continued application has led to numerous protests, notably the longstanding hunger strike by Irom Sharmila Chanu.


Loktak Lake, the largest lake in the state.

The state lies at a latitude of 23°83'N – 25°68'N and a longitude of 93°03'E – 94°78'E. The total area covered by the state is 22,347 square kilometres (8,628 sq mi). The capital lies in an oval-shaped valley of approximately 700 square miles (2,000 km2) surrounded by blue mountains and is at an elevation of 790 metres (2,590 ft) above sea level.[38] The slope of the valley is from north to south. The mountain ranges create a moderated climate, preventing the cold winds from the north from reaching the valley and barring cyclonic storms originating from the Bay of Bengal.

A tree amid Manipur hills.

The state has four major river basins: the Barak River Basin (Barak Valley) to the west, the Manipur River Basin in central Manipur, the Yu River Basin in the east, and a portion of the Lanye River Basin in the north.[39] The water resources of Barak and Manipur river basins are about 1.8487 Mham. The overall water balance of the state amounts to 0.7236 Mham in the annual water budget.[40] (By comparison, India receives 400 Mham (million hectare meters) of rain annually.[41])

The Barak River, the largest of Manipur, originates in the Manipur Hills and is joined by tributaries, such as the Irang, Maku, and Tuivai. After its junction with the Tuivai, the Barak River turns north, forms the border with Assam State, and then enters the Cachar Assam just above Lakhipur. The Manipur river basin has eight major rivers: the Manipur, Imphal, Iril, Nambul, Sekmai, Chakpi, Thoubal and Khuga. All these rivers originate from the surrounding hills.

Almost all the rivers in the valley area are in the mature stage and therefore deposit their sediment load in the Loktak lake.[38] The rivers draining the Manipur Hills are comparatively young, due to the hilly terrain through which they flow. These rivers are corrosive and assume turbulent form in the rainy season. Important rivers draining the western area include the Maku, Barak, Jiri, Irang and Leimatak. Rivers draining the eastern part of the state, the Yu River Basin, include the Chamu, Khunou and other short streams.

Manipur may be characterised as two distinct physical regions: an outlying area of rugged hills and narrow valleys, and the inner area of flat plain, with all associated land forms. These two areas are distinct in physical features and are conspicuous in flora and fauna. The valley region has hills and mounds rising above the flat surface. The Loktak lake is an important feature of the central plain. The total area occupied by all the lakes is about 600 km2. The altitude ranges from 40 m at Jiribam to 2,994 m at Mt. Iso Peak near Mao Songsong.

The soil cover can be divided into two broad types, viz. the red ferruginous soil in the hill area and the alluvium in the valley. The valley soils generally contain loam, small rock fragments, sand and sandy clay, and are varied. On the plains, especially flood plains and deltas, the soil is quite thick. The top soil on the steep slopes is very thin. Soil on the steep hill slopes is subject to high erosion, resulting in gullies and barren rock slopes. The normal pH value ranges from 5.4 to 6.8.[42]


Flowers carpeting the foothills

Natural vegetation occupies an area of about 14,365 square kilometres (5,546 sq mi), nearly 64% of the total geographical area of the state, and consists of short and tall grasses, reeds and bamboos, and trees. Broadly, there are four types of forests: Tropical Semi-evergreen, Dry Temperate Forest, Sub-Tropical Pine, and Tropical Moist Deciduous.

There are forests of teak, pine, oak, uningthou, leihao, bamboo, and cane. Rubber, tea, coffee, orange, and cardamom are grown in hill areas. Rice, a staple food for Manipuris, and other cash crops make up the main vegetation cover in the valley.


The Dzuko Valley lying on the border of Manipur and Nagaland has a temperate climate.

The climate of Manipur is largely influenced by the topography of this hilly region. Lying 790 meters above sea level, Manipur is wedged among hills on all sides. This northeastern corner of India enjoys a generally amiable climate, though the winters can be a chilly. The maximum temperature in the summer months is 32 °C (90 °F). In winter the temperature often falls below 0 °C (32 °F), bringing frost. Snow sometimes falls in hilly regions due to the Western Disturbance. The coldest month is January, and the warmest July .

The state is drenched in rains from May until mid-October. It receives an average annual rainfall of 1,467.5 millimetres (57.78 in). Rain distribution varies from 933 millimetres (36.7 in) in Imphal to 2,593 millimetres (102.1 in) in Tamenglong. The precipitation ranges from light drizzle to heavy downpour. The normal rainfall of Manipur enriches the soil and helps in agriculture and irrigation. The South Westerly Monsoon picks up moisture from the Bay of Bengal and heads toward Manipur, hits the eastern Himalaya ranges and produces a massive amount of rain. The climate is salubrious with approximate average annual rainfall varying from 933 millimetres (36.7 in) at Imphal to 2,593 millimetres (102.1 in) at Tamenglong. The temperature ranges from sub0 to 36 °C (32 to 97 °F).



Manipur has a population of 2,721,756. Of this total, 58.9% live in the valley and the remaining 41.1% in the hilly regions. The hills are inhabited mainly by the Kuki, Naga, and Zomi, and smaller tribal communities and the valley mainly by the Meetei Sanamahi,Meetei Hindu,Meetei Christian, Meetei Brahmin and Meetei Pangal (Meetei Muslim).Naga and Kuki settlements are found in the valley region. Racially, Manipuri people are unique; they have features similar to Southeast Asian.[43]

The Nagas are the second largest people in population next to the Meetei. Few of them live in the plain area; most of them live in the hill area from generation to generation.

The distribution of area, population and density, and literacy rate as per the 2001 Census provisional figures are as below:

Demographics of Manipur (2001)
Total Population 2,388,634
Male Population 1,207,338
Female Population 1,181,296
Rural Population 1,818,224
Urban Population 570,410
Child Sex Ratio 978 female to 1000 male
Density (per km2) 107
Literacy 1,429,656 (68.87%)
Towns 33


The Meetei[13] constitute a majority of the state's population. According to 1891 census Meetei were recorded as a forest tribe. In 1901 Meetei were listed as main tribe of Manipur.[44] They live primarily in the state's valley region.. Meetei people are not recognized scheduled tribe by India's constitution. It has however been wrongly categorized as tribe by the ignorant outsiders. Meeteis have their own written script, Manipuri (Meeteilon) and recorded civilization dating back to 33 AD.

Kukis and Nagas are the major tribe conglomerates. The Nagas are further sub-divided into sub-tribes: Tangkhul, Maram, Poumai Naga, Sumi, Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Liangmai, Lotha, Pochury, Rongmei, Zeme, and Mao.[45]


Languages of Manipur in 2001[46][47][48]

  Manipuri (53.00%)
  Thado (7.48%)
  Tangkhul (5.86%)
  Kabui (3.68%)
  Paite (2.02%)
  Hmar (1.8%)
  Bengali (1.13%)
  Others (25.03%)

The official languages are Manipuri (Meeteilon) and English.

The term Meetei includes Meetei Sanamahi, Meetei Christians, Meetei Hindus and Meetei Brahmins (locally called "Meetei Bamons"). The language of Meetei people, Meithei (or Manipuri), is the lingua franca in Manipur and is one of the languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution. Manipur has a diverse group of ethnic groups speaking different languages and dialects, practising Hinduism, Christianity, Sanamahism, Buddhism, Islam and other folk religions.[14]

The languages spoken in Manipur are Manipuri (1,266,098), Poumai language/Poula (179,189), Thado (178,696), Tangkhul (139,979), Kabui (87,950), Paite (48,379), Hmar (43,137), Vaiphei (37,553), Liangmai (32,787), Bengali (27,100), Hindi (24,720), Maring (22,154), Anal (22,187), Zou (20,626), Kom (14,558), Gangte (13,752), Kuki (12,900), and Simte (10,028).

Languages of hill people

There are 29 dialects spoken in Manipur. The six main hill dialects recognised by Government of Manipur for the medium of instruction and examination up to class XII (12th grade) are:[49]

  1. Mizo, dialect of the Mizo people
  2. Zou, dialect of the Zou people
  3. Poula, dialect of the Poumai Naga
  4. Thadou, dialect of Thadou people, the second language in the state after Meeteilon during the Colonial Period.
  5. Vaiphei, dialect of Vaiphei people
  6. Tangkhul, dialect of Tangkhul people
  7. Paite, dialect of Paite people
  8. Tedim Pau, dialect of Tedim people
  9. Hmar, dialect of Hmar people
  10. Mao, dialect of Mao people
  11. Lianglad, dialect of Liangmai Naga People
  12. Rongmei, dialect of Rongmei people
  13. Maring, dialect of Maring Naga/Maring, Maring Khoibu, Maring Narum-saibol people
  14. Maram, dialect of Maram Naga
  15. Gangte, dialect of Gangte people
  16. Uipo, dialect spoken by Khoibu people
  17. Monsang dialect spoken by Monsang
  18. Anal dialect spoken by Anal
  19. Chothe dialect spoken by Chothe
  20. Kom dialect spoken by Kom
  21. Lamkang dialect spoken by Lamkang
  22. Thangal dialect spoken by Thangal


Religion in Manipur (2011)[14]

  Hindu (41.35%)
  Christianity (41.25%)
  Islam (8.39%)
  Sanamahism (8.18%)
  Buddhism (0.24%)
  Sikhism (0.05%)
  Jainism (0.05%)
  Not religious (2.98%)


About 41.4% of Manipuri people are Hindus. Hinduism is mostly professed by Meetei people, who are majority in the state. However, a large minority of Meetei people practices Sanamahism (traditional Meetei religion) and Christianity. Vaishnavism school of Hinduism became a dominant force in Manipur in the eighteenth century when the king, Garib Niwas (1708–48), declared it as the official State religion. This was the Vaishnavism of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, the Bhakti preacher of Bengal, which stressed Krishna Bhakti. The Hindu population is heavily concentrated in the Manipur valley among the Meetei people. The districts of Bishnupur, Thoubal, Imphal East and Imphal West are all Hindu majorities averaging 67.62% (range 62.27–74.81%) according to the 2011 census data.[50]


St. Joseph's Cathedral at Imphal

Christianity is the religion of 41.3% of the people in the state. It was brought by missionaries to Manipur in the 19th century. In the 20th century, a few Christian schools were established, which introduced Western-type education. Respected schools in Manipur are Little Flower School in Imphal, Don Bosco High School in Imphal, St. Joseph's Convent, and Nirmalabas High School, which are all run by Catholic priests and nuns. The overwhelming majority of the population in the Hill districts are Christian.[50]

Meeteism and Sanamahi

Sanamahi temple at Kangla

Folk religions are practised by about 8% of the state's people. These religions have a long history in Manipur. Sanamahism is the ancient indigenous animistic religion.[51] Sanamahi worship is concentrated around the Sun God/Sanamahi. The early Manipuri worshiped a Supreme deity, Lainingthou Soralel, and followed their ancestors. Their ancestor worship and animism was based on Umang Lai – ethnic governing deities worshiped in sacred groves. Some of the traditional deities (Lais) whom Manipuri worship are Atiya Sidaba, Pakhangba, Sanamahi, Leimaren, Oknarel, Panganba, Thangjing, Marjing, Wangbaren, and Koubru.

According to the 2011 population census the "Other religions and persuasions" category, which included minor Indian religions (other than Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism), accounted for 8.19% of the population. Like the Hindu population they are concentrated in the Manipur valley districts, where the Meetei people are dominant and account for 14% of the valley population (range 10–16% of the population).[50]


Manipuri Muslims, known locally as Meetei Pangal, constitute about 8.3% of the state population as per 2011 census. Sufi saint, Shaikh Shah Jalal d-Dīn al-Mujarrad al-Turk al Naqshbandi, came to Sylhet in 1303 AD, and Hazrat Azan Fakir Baghdadi arrived in 1690 AD in Assam. They influenced Manipuri Muslims. They belong to the Sunni group of Hanafi school of thought and there are Arab, Bangladesh, Turani, Bengali and Mughal or Chaghtai Turk sections among Manipuri Muslims.[52]

The literacy rate among Muslims is 58.6 percent (male 75 percent and female 41.6 percent) below the state's average of 70.5 percent (male 80.3 percent and female 60.5 percent). In 1995, out of 135,000 Muslims, 5,704 had matriculated from secondary school. There was a total of 1,822 who had graduated in addition to 86 technical and professional graduates. There were 51 Class I Muslim officers including three women, 101 Class II officers and 1,270 and 1,663 employees belonging to Class III and IV categories respectively.[53]



Map of the districts of Manipur

Manipur has currently nine administrative districts.

District Area
Population Headquarters Map code
Bishnupur496237,399Bishnupur BI
Churachandpur4570274,143Churachandpur CC
Chandel3313144,182Chandel CD
Imphal East709456,113Porompat EI
Imphal West519517,992Lamphelpat WI
Senapati3271193,744Senapati SE
Tamenglong4391140,651Tamenglong TA
Thoubal514422,168Thoubal TH
Ukhrul4544183,998Ukhrul UK

Security and insurgency

PREPAK insurgents are one of many groups in Manipur seeking independence from India.

The violence in Manipur extend beyond those between Indian security forces and insurgent armed groups. There is violence between the Meeteis, Nagas, Kukis and other tribal groups.[10] They have formed splinter groups who disagree with each other. Other than UNLF, PLA and PREPAK, Manipuri insurgent groups include Revolutionary Peoples Front (RPF), Manipur Liberation Front Army (MLFA), Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (KYKL), Revolutionary Joint Committee (RJC), Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP), Peoples United Liberation Front (PULF), Manipur Naga People Front (MNPF), National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN-K), National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN-I/M), United Kuki Liberation Front (UKLF), Kuki National Front (KNF), Kuki National Army (KNA), Kuki Defence Force (KDF), Kuki Democratic Movement (KDM), Kuki National Organisation (KNO), Kuki Security Force (KSF), Chin Kuki Revolutionary Front (CKRF), Kom Rem Peoples Convention (KRPC), Zomi Revolutionary Volunteers (ZRV), Zomi Revolutionary Army (ZRA), Zomi Reunification Organisation (ZRO), and Hmar Peoples Convention (HPC).[10]

The Meitei insurgent groups seek independence from India. The Kuki insurgent groups want a separate state for the Kukis to be carved out from the present state of Manipur. The Kuki insurgent groups are under two umbrella organisations: Kuki National Organisation (KNO) and United Peoples Forum.[54] The Nagas wish to annex part of Manipur and merge with a greater Nagaland or Nagalim, which is in conflict with Meetei insurgent demands for the integrity of their vision of an independent state. There were many tensions between the tribes and numerous clashes between Naga and Kukis, Meeteis and Muslims.[10]

According to SATP, there has been a dramatic decline in fatalities in Manipur since 2009. In 2009, 77 civilians died (about 3 per 100,000 people).[11] From 2010 onwards, about 25 civilians have died in militants-related violence (about 1 per 100,000 people), dropping further to 21 civilian deaths in 2013 (or 0.8 per 100,000 people). However, there were 76 explosions in 2013, compared to 107 explosions in 2012. Different groups claimed responsibility for explosions, some claiming they were targeting competing militant groups, others claiming their targets were state and central government officials.[55] The average worldwide violent unnatural death rate between 2004 and 2009 was 7.9 per 100,000 per year.[12]


Bamboo is common in Manipur, and an important contributor to its economy as well as cuisine. Above is soibum yendem eromba, a bamboo shoot cuisine of Manipur.

The 2012–2013 gross state domestic product of Manipur at market prices was about 10,188 crore (US$1.5 billion).[56] Its economy is primarily agriculture, forestry, cottage and trade driven.[57]

Manipur acts as India's "Gateway to the East" through Moreh and Tamu towns, the land route for trade between India and Burma and other Southeast Asian countries.

Manipur has the highest number of handicrafts units and the highest number of craftspersons in the northeastern region of India.[58]


Manipur produced about 0.1 gigawatt-hours (0.36 TJ) of electricity in 2010 with its infrastructure.[59] The state has hydroelectric power generation potential, estimated to be over 2 gigawatt-hours (7.2 TJ). As of 2010, if half of this potential is realised, it is estimated that this would supply 24/7 electricity to all residents, with a surplus for sale, as well as supplying the Burma power grid.[60]


Manipur's climate and soil conditions make it ideally suited for horticultural crops. Growing there are rare and exotic medicinal and aromatic plants.[58] Some cash crops suited for Manipur include litchi, cashew nuts, walnuts, orange, lemon, pineapple, papaya, passion fruit, peach, pear and plum.[57]

The state is covered with over 3,000 square kilometres (1,200 sq mi) of bamboo forests, making it one of India's largest contributor to its bamboo industry.[58]

Transportation infrastructure

Imphal airport is the second largest airport in India's northeast.

Tulihal Airport, Changangei, Imphal, the only airport of Manipur, connects directly with Delhi, Kolkata, Guwahati, and Agartala. It has been upgraded as an International airport. As India's second largest airport in the northeast, it serves as a key logistical centre for northeastern states.[16] National Highway NH-39 links Manipur with the rest of the country through the railway stations at Dimapur in Nagaland at a distance of 215 km (134 mi) from Imphal. National Highway 53 (India) connects Manipur with another railway station at Silchar in Assam, which is 269 km (167 mi) away from Imphal. The road network of Manipur, with a length of 7,170 km (4,460 mi) connects all the important towns and distant villages.

In 2010, Indian government announced that it is considering an Asian infrastructure network from Manipur to Vietnam.[61]

The proposed Trans-Asian Railway (TAR), if constructed, will pass through Manipur, connecting India to Burma, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.


The tourist season is from October to February, when it is often sunny without being hot and humid.

The culture features martial arts, dance, theatre and sculpture. Greenery accompanies a moderate climate. The seasonal Shirui Lily plant at Ukhrul (district), Dzukou valley at Senapati, Sangai (Brow antlered deer) and the floating islands at Loktak Lake are among the rarities of the area. Polo, which can be called a royal game, originated in Manipur.

Imphal (capital)

A view of Imphal City

The city is inhabited by the Meetei, who predominate, also Pangals (Manipuri Muslims) and other tribes.

The city contains the Tulihal Airport.

The district is divided into East and West. The Khuman Lampak Sports Complex was built for the 1997 National Games. The stadium is used for a sports venue. It also contains a cyclists' velodrome. Most of the imported goods are sold here at its Paona Bazaar, Gam-bir Sing Shopping Complex, Ningthibi Collections and Leima Plaza.

Shree Govindajee Temple, Andro village, and the Manipur State Museum are in the city.

Lakes and islands

Rare birds and flowers include: Nongin[62] is the state bird (top) and Siroi Lily[63] is its state flower (middle). Leimaram falls, bottom, is a local attraction.

48 km (30 mi) from Imphal, lies the largest fresh water lake in the North East India, the Loktak Lake, a miniature inland sea. There is a Tourist Bungalow atop Sendra Island. Life on the lake includes small islands that are floating weed on which live the Lake people, the blue waters of the lake, and colourful water plants. There is a Sendra Tourist Home with an attached cafeteria in the middle of the lake. Floating islands are made out of the tangle of watery weeds and other plants. The wetland is swampy and is favourable for a number of species. It is in the district of Bishnupur. The etymology of Loktak is "lok = stream / tak = the end" (End of the Streams).[38] Sendra park and resort is opening on the top of Sendra hills and attracting the tourist.

Hills and valleys

Kaina is a hillock about 921 metres (3,022 ft) above sea level. It is a sacred place for Manipuri Hindus. The legend is that, Shri Govindajee appeared in the dream of his devotee, Shri Jai Singh Maharaja, and asked the saintly king to install in a temple, an image of Shri Govindajee. It was to be carved out of a jack fruit tree, which was then growing at Kaina. It is 29 km (18 mi) from Imphal.

The Dzükou Valley is in Senapati district bordering with Kohima. There are seasonal flowers and a number of flora and fauna. Dzükou derives its meaning from the Angami/Mao word that translates to "Cold Water", referring to the cold stream that flows through the valley. It is at an altitude of 2,438 metres (7,999 ft) above sea level, behind the Japfü Peak in Nagaland. The rare Dzükou lily is found only in this valley.

Eco tourism

Sangai, the state animal, at Keibul Lamjao National Park. In the wild, it has a habit of waiting and looking back at viewers.[64]

Keibul Lamjao National Park, 48 km (30 mi) away from Imphal is an abode of the rare and endangered species of brow antlered deer. This ecosystem contains 17 rare species of mammals.[38] It is the only floating national park of the world.

Six kilometres (3.7 mi) to the west of Imphal, at the foot of the pine growing hillocks at Iroisemba on the Imphal-Kangchup Road are the Zoological Gardens. Some brow antlered deer (Sangai) are housed there.


Sadu Chiru waterfall is near Ichum Keirap village[65] 27 km (17 mi) from Imphal, in the Sadar hill area, Senapati district. This consists of three falls with the first fall about 30 metres (98 ft) high.

Agape Park is in the vicinity. It is owned and managed by Kamlun Telien of Ichum Keirap.

Natural caves

Thalon Cave (around 910 metres (2,990 ft) above sea level) is one of the historical sites of Manipur under Tamenglong district. It is around 185 kilometres (115 mi) from the state capital and around 30 kilometres (19 mi) from Tamenglong district headquarters in north side. From Thalon village, this cave is 4–5 kilometres (2.5–3.1 mi).[66]

Khangkhui Cave is a natural limestone cave in Ukhrul district. The big hall in the cave is the darbar hall of the Devil King living deep inside while the northern hall is the royal bedroom, according to local folklore. During World War II, villagers sought shelter here. This cave is an hour's trek from Khangkui village.[67]


Manipur schools are run by the state and central government or by private organisation. Instruction is mainly in English. Under the 10+2+3 plan, students may enroll in general or professional degree programs after passing the Higher Secondary Examination (the grade 12 examination). The main universities are Manipur University, Central Agricultural University.


Main article: Manipuri dance
Pena is an ancient Manipuri musical instrument, particularly popular among the Meetei people.

Secular theatre is mostly confined to themes that are not religious; it is performed in the secular or profane spheres. In these are Shumang lila and Phampak lila (stage drama). Shumang lila is very popular. Etymologically Shumang lila is the combination of "Shumang" (courtyard) and "Lila" (play or performance). It is performed in an area of 13×13 ft in the centre of any open space, in a very simple style without a raised stage, set design, or heavy props such as curtains, background scenery, and visual effects. It uses one table and two chairs, kept on one side of the performance space. Its claim as the "theatre of the masses" is underlined by the way it is performed in the middle of an audience that surrounds it, leaving one passage as entrance and exit.

The world of Phampak lila (stage drama) performed in the proscenium theatre is similar, in form, to the Western theatrical model and Indian Natyasastra model though its contents are indigenous. The so-called modern theatre descended on Manipuri theatre culture with the performance of Pravas Milan (1902) under the enthusiastic patronage of Sir Churchand Maharaj (1891–1941). The pace of theatrical movement was geared up with the institution of groups such as Manipur Dramatic Union (MDU) (1930), Arian Theatre (1935), Chitrangada Natya Mandir (1936), Society Theatre (1937), Rupmahal (1942), Cosmopolitan Dramatic Union (1968), and the Chorus Repertory Theatre of Ratan Thiyam (1976). These groups started experimenting with types of plays apart from historical and pauranic ones. Today Manipuri theatre is well respected because of excellent productions shown in India and abroad. Manipuri plays, both Shumang lila and stage lila, have been a regular feature in the annual festival of the National School of Drama, New Delhi.

The Chorus Repertory Theatre, Imphal, founded by Ratan Thiyam

Iskcon led by Bhaktisvarupa Damodara Swami started a network of schools in Northeastern India, where more than 4000 students receive education centred on Vaishnava spiritual values. In 1989 he founded "Ranganiketan Manipuri Cultural Arts Troupe", which has approximately 600 performances at over 300 venues in over 15 countries. Ranganiketan (literally "House of Colorful Arts") is a group of more than 20 dancers, musicians, singers, martial artists, choreographers and craft artisans. Some of them have received international acclaim.

Manipuri dance (Ras Lila)

Main article: Manipuri dance
The Shrine – the main theatre

Manipuri dance also known as Jagoi,[68] is one of the major Indian classical dance forms,[69] named after the state of Manipur.[70][71] It is particularly known for its Hindu Vaishnavism themes, and exquisite performances of love-inspired dance drama of Radha-Krishna called Raslila.[70][68][72] However, the dance is also performed to themes related to Shaivism, Shaktism and regional deities such as Umang Lai during Lai Haraoba.[73][74] The roots of Manipuri dance, as with all classical Indian dances, is the ancient Hindu Sanskrit text Natya Shastra, but with influences from the culture fusion between India and southeast Asia.[75]

Chorus Repertory Theatre

The auditorium of the theatre is on the outskirts of Imphal and the campus stretches for about 2 acres (8,100 m2). It has housing and working quarters to accommodate a self-sufficiency of life. The theatre association has churned out internationally acclaimed plays like Chakravyuha and Uttarpriyadashi. Its 25 years of existence in theatre had disciplined its performers to a world of excellence. Chakravyuha taken from the Mahabharat epic had won Fringe Firsts Award, 1987 at the Edinburgh International Theater Festival. Chakravyuha deals with the story of Abhimanyu (son of Arjun) of his last battle and approaching death, whereas Uttarpriyadashi is an 80-minute exposition of Emperor Ashoka's redemption.


Main article: Sports in Manipur
Traditional polo in Manipur

Manipur is home to many sports personnel. Outdoor sports include Mukna, Mukna Kangjei (or Khong kangjei), Sagol Kangjei (Polo), Yubi lakpi (Coconut Rugby), Oo-Laobi, Hiyang-Tannaba (Boat Rowing Race), and Arambai Hunba.

Mukna is a popular form of wrestling.[76] Mukna Kangjei is a game which combines the arts of mukna (wrestling hockey) and Kangjei (Cane Stick) to play the ball made of seasoned bamboo roots.[77]

Yubi lakpi is a traditional full contact game played in Manipur, India, using a coconut, which has some notable similarities to rugby.[78] Yubi lakpi literally means "coconut snatching". The coconut is greased to make it slippery. There are rules of the game, as with all Manipur sports.[79] The coconut serves the purpose of a ball and is offered to the king, the chief guest or the judges before the game begins. The aim is to run while carrying the greased coconut and physically cross over the goal line, while the other team tackles and blocks any such attempt as well as tries to grab the coconut and score on its own. In Manipur's long history, Yubi lakpi was the annual official game, attended by the king, over the Hindu festival of Shree Govindajee.[80] It is like the game of rugby,[81] or American football.[82]

Oolaobi (Woo-Laobi) is an outdoor game mainly played by females. Meitei mythology believes that UmangLai Heloi-Taret (seven deities–seven fairies) played this game on the Courtyard of the temple of Umang Lai Lairembi. The number of participants is not fixed but are divided into two groups (size as per agreement). Players are divided as into Raiders (Attackers) or Defenders (Avoiders).[78]


Captain Robert Stewart and Lieutenant Joseph Sherer[83] of the British colonial era first watched locals play a rules-based pulu or sagolkangjei (literally, horse and stick) game in 1859. They adopted its rules, calling the game polo, and playing it on their horses. The game spread among the British in Calcutta and then to England.[18][84]

Apart from these games, some outdoor children's games are fading in popularity. Some games such as Khutlokpi, Phibul Thomba, and Chaphu Thugaibi remain very popular elsewhere, such as in Cambodia. They are played especially during the Khmer New Year.[85]


The Lai Haroaba Manipur dance festival showcases the folk dances of Manipur.

The festivals of Manipur are Lui-ngai-ni Ningol Chakouba, Yaoshang, Gan-ngai, Chumpha, Cheiraoba, Kang and Heikru Hidongba, as well as the broader religious festivals Eid-Ul-Fitr, Eid-Ul-Adha and Christmas. Most of these festivals are celebrated on the basis of lunar calendar. Almost every festival celebrated in other states of India is observed here, and it makes Manipur a mini metropolis.

Ningol Chakouba

Held in November,[86] this is a social festival of the Meeteis and many communities of Manipur where married women (Ningol) are invited (Chakouba, literally calling to a meal; for dinner or lunch) to a feast at their parental house with their children. Besides the feast, gifts are given to the women/invitees and to their children. It is the festival that binds and revives the family relations between the girls married away and the parental family. Nowadays, other communities have started celebrating this kind of a family-bonding festival. It is held every year on the 2nd lunar day of Heyangei (mostly during the month of November; sometimes it falls in October).

"Ningol" can mean a family's woman or a girl child and is not necessarily married.


Held after the Harvest festival in November,[87][88] this festival predominantly celebrated by Kuki-Chin-Mizo tribes in Manipur has become one of the leading festivals of the state. Kut is not restricted to a community or tribe — the whole state populace participates in merriment. On 1 November of every year the state declared holiday for Kut celebration. The festival is marked by cultural events such as traditional dances, folk dances, songs, sports and the Miss Kut contest. It is a festival of peace and thanksgiving to the Almighty for the harvests.


Main article: Yaosang

Held in February or March,[89] Yaosang is one of the biggest festivals of Manipur.

Khuado Pawi

Khuado Pawi is the harvest festival of the Tedim people who were recognised as Sukte and Zomi in India and Myanmar respectively. The word Pawi means festival in Tedim Zomi language. It is celebrated every year in the month of September–October after harvesting.[90][90]

Cheiraoba is a celebration of the new year during the spring season. People feast (top), then climb up a hill together later in the day to signify overcoming hurdles and reaching new heights in the new year.[82]


Also known as Sajibugi Nongma Panba and held in March or April, Cheiraoba is the new year of Manipur.[82] It is observed on the first lunar day of the lunar month Sajibu (March/April) and so it is also popularly known as Sajibu Cheiraoba. People of Manipur clean and decorate their houses and make a sumptuous variety of dishes to feast upon after offering food to the deity on this day. After the feast, as a part of the rituals, people climb hill tops; in the belief that it would excel them to greater heights in their worldly life.[82]


Gaan-Ngai is the greatest festival of the Zeliangrong people. It is a five-day festival and is usually performed on the 13th day of the Meetei month of Wakching as per the Meetei calendar of the lunar year.

Media and Notable people

Mary Kom, Indian boxer from Manipur

Movie theatres were first introduced in Manipur in 1920. The first theatres in the state were established in Imphal after the First World War.

Filmmaking in Manipur was pioneered by Shree Govindajee Film Company (SGFC) founded between 1946 and 1947. Mainu Pemcha (1948) was the first locally produced film.

The first feature-length film, Matam-Gi Manipur, was screened 9 April 1972 at three Manipuri theatres.

With the establishment of the Film Society in 1966, Imphal Cine Club in 1979, and the Manipur Film Development Council (MFDC) in 1980, Manipuri cinema achieved national and international attention.

Mary Kom is a recognized boxer from Manipur.[91]

See also


  1. Iboyaima Laithangbam (30 September 2015). "Shanmuganathan sworn in as Manipur Governor". The Hindu.
  2. 1 2 "Manipur Population Sex Ratio in Manipur Literacy rate data". Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  3. "At a Glance « Official website of Manipur".
  4. Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues – 2000, Census of India, 2001
  5. Naorem Sanajaoba (1995), Manipur: Treatise & Documents, Volume 1, ISBN 978-8170993995, Introduction
  6. Naorem Sanajaoba (editor), Manipur, Past and Present: The Heritage and Ordeals of a Civilization, Volume 4, Chapter 1: NK Singh, ISBN 978-8170998532
  7. Naorem Sanajaoba (editor), Manipur, Past and Present: The Heritage and Ordeals of a Civilization, Volume 4, Chapter 4: K Murari, ISBN 978-8170998532
  8. Naorem Sanajaoba (Editor), Manipur, Past and Present: The Heritage and Ordeals of a Civilization, Volume 4, Chapter 2: NT Singh, ISBN 978-8170998532
  9. S. M. A. W. Chishti, Political Development in Manipur, 1919–1949, ISBN 978-8178354248
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 "Background: Conflict in Manipur" Human Rights Watch (2008)
  11. 1 2 State wise Indian fatalities, 1994-2013 Militancy and Terrorism Database, SATP, New Delhi
  12. 1 2 Global Burden of Armed Violence Chapter 2, Geneva Declaration, Switzerland (2011)
  13. 1 2 Khomdan Singh Lisam, Encyclopaedia Of Manipur, ISBN 978-8178358642, pp. 322–347
  14. 1 2 3 4 "Population by religion community - 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.
  16. 1 2 "Transportation of Manipur". Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  17. Reginald Massey (2004). India's Dances: Their History, Technique, and Repertoire. Abhinav. pp. 177–184. ISBN 978-81-7017-434-9.
  18. 1 2 Lieutenant (later Major General) Joseph Ford Sherer, Assistant to the Superintendent of Cachar, with his bearers, Manipur, 1861 National Army Museum, United Kingdom; Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, Volume 82, Issues 337–340, page 238
  19. Naorem Sanajaoba (1988). Manipur, Past and Present: The Heritage and Ordeals of a Civilization. Mittal Publications. pp. 31–32 with footnotes. ISBN 978-81-7099-853-2.
  20. Ningthoujongjam Khelchandra, History of Ancient Manipuri Literature, Manipuri Sahitya Parishad, 1969
  21. Gangmumei Kabui, History of Manipur, National Publishing House, Delhi, 1991.
  22. 1 2 3 Ragini Devi 1990, p. 176.
  23. Tara Boland-Crewe; David Lea (2003). The Territories and States of India. Routledge. p. 172. ISBN 978-1-135-35625-5.
  24. Reginald Massey 2004, p. 178.
  25. Bishnupada Chakravarti (2007). Penguin Companion to the Mahabharata. Penguin Books. p. 99. ISBN 978-93-5214-170-8.
  26. Reginald Massey 2004, pp. 178-181.
  27. Naorem Sanajaoba (1988). Manipur, Past and Present: The Heritage and Ordeals of a Civilization. Mittal Publications. p. 11. ISBN 978-81-7099-853-2.
  28. 1 2 Naorem Sanajaoba (1988). Manipur, Past and Present: The Heritage and Ordeals of a Civilization. Mittal Publications. pp. 3–6, 12. ISBN 978-81-7099-853-2.
  29. 1 2 Naorem Sanajaoba (1988). Manipur, Past and Present: The Heritage and Ordeals of a Civilization. Mittal Publications. pp. 12–14. ISBN 978-81-7099-853-2.
  30. Naorem Sanajaoba (1988). Manipur, Past and Present: The Heritage and Ordeals of a Civilization. Mittal Publications. pp. 15–18. ISBN 978-81-7099-853-2.
  31. N. Lokendra (1998). The Unquiet Valley: Society, Economy, and Politics of Manipur (1891-1950). Mittal Publications. pp. 36–38. ISBN 978-81-7099-696-5.
  32. "Manipur Merger Agreement, 1949". Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  33. "The Constitution (Amendment)". Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  34. Indiacode - Acts
  35. Manipur
  36. "The mayhem in Manipur" The Economist (1 March 2007)
  37. "Manipur, India - A safe house for dangerous men" The Economist (9 March 2007)
  38. 1 2 3 4 "fate of loktak lake". Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  39. Haokip, Shri Ngamthang (2007) "Basine Delineation Map of Manipur", Profile on State of Environment Report of Manipur, 2006–07, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Manipur, p. 4
  40. Government of Manipur. "Irrigation And Water Management" (PDF). Retrieved 31 October 2010.
  41. Centre for Science and Environment (India). "The Arithmetic of Water in India". Retrieved 31 October 2010.
  42. Director of Commerce and Industries, Manipur. "Soil and Climate of Manipur". Retrieved 31 October 2010.
  43. Datta, Tanya (8 August 2007). "India's 'forgotten' war". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
  44. census 1901
  45. S. R. Tohring (2010). Violence and identity in North-east India: Naga-Kuki conflict. Mittal Publications. pp. xv–xvii. ISBN 978-81-8324-344-5.
  46. "Distribution of the 22 Scheduled Languages". Census of India. Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2001. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
  47. "Census Reference Tables, A-Series - Total Population". Census of India. Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2001. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
  48. Census 2011 Non scheduled languages
  49. Mate Literature Society (MLS), the Mate Tribe Council. a Government of Manipur registered society Council, and Laibul (Mate Primer by MLS (2001), Tuibuang, Maniput (India)
  50. 1 2 3 "Census of India : C-1 Population By Religious Community". Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  51. Bertil Lintner (2015). Great Game East: India, China, and the Struggle for Asia's Most Volatile Frontier. Yale University Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-300-19567-5.
  52. "Evolution of clan system Manipuri Muslim 1". Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  53. "Muslims in Manipur: A look at their socio-economic condition". Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  54. "仏壇修理・洗浄なら石川県羽咋市の宮本仏檀店". Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  55. Manipur Assessment - Year 2014 SATP, New Delhi
  56. State wise : Population, GSDP, Per Capita Income and Growth Rate Planning Commission, Govt of India; See third table 2011-2012 fiscal year, 16th row
  57. 1 2 G. Hiamguanglung Gonmei, "Hills Economy of Manipur: A Structural Change", Journal of North East India Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1, January–June 2013, pp. 61–73
  58. 1 2 3 "Manipur Economy - Snapshot" IBEF
  59. Manipur Energy Govt of Manipur
  60. Manipur power Government of India
  61. "Rail link from Manipur to Vietnam on cards: Tharoor – Times Of India". The Times of India.
  62. State bird Nongin Government of Manipur
  63. State flower SHIRUI LILY Government of Manipur
  64. State animal Sangai Government of Manipur
  65. "Ichum Keirap". Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  66. "Thalon Cave, Tamenglong: December 2009 ~ Pictures from Manipur". Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  67. "Ukhrul District". Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  68. 1 2 Reginald Massey 2004, p. 177.
  69. Williams 2004, pp. 83-84, the other major classical Indian dances are: Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Odissi, Kathakali, Kuchipudi, Cchau, Satriya, Yaksagana and Bhagavata Mela.
  70. 1 2 James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 420–421. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8.
  71. Reginald Massey 2004, pp. 177-187.
  72. Ragini Devi 1990, pp. 175-180.
  73. Reginald Massey 2004, pp. 177-180.
  74. Saroj Nalini Parratt (1997). The pleasing of the gods: Meitei Lai Haraoba. Vikas Publishers. pp. 14–20, 42–46.
  75. Saryu Doshi 1989, pp. xv-xviii.
  76. Ved Prakash, Encyclopaedia of North-East India, Volume 4, ISBN 978-8126907069, pp 1558-1561
  77. Gurmeet Kanwal, Defenders of the Dawn, ISBN 978-8170622796, pp 48
  78. 1 2 Khomdan Singh Lisam, Encyclopaedia Of Manipur, ISBN 978-8178358642, pp 824-830
  79. Indigenous games of Manipur Govt of Manipur
  80. Khomdan Singh Lisam, Encyclopaedia Of Manipur, ISBN 978-8178358642, pp 825
  81. Mills, J. H. (2006), Manipur Rules Here - Gender, Politics, and Sport in an Asian Border Zone, Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 30(1), 62-78
  82. 1 2 3 4 Khomdan Singh Lisam, Encyclopaedia Of Manipur, ISBN 978-8178358642, pp 825-830
  83. Joseph Ford Sherer is called the Father of English Polo; see Horace A. Laffaye (2009), The Evolution of Polo, ISBN 978-0786438143, Chapter 2; National Army Museum Silver salver presented to Captain Joseph Ford Sherer United Kingdom
  84. Chris Aston "Manipur, Cradle of the Modern Game", Polo Consult
  85. Singh, Atom Sunil; Borderless Connectivity on Indigenous Games between Cambodia and Manipur, The Sangai Express, 4 June 2008.
  86. Khomdan Singh Lisam, Encyclopaedia Of Manipur, ISBN 978-8178358642, pp. 607–617
  87. Khomdan Singh Lisam, Encyclopaedia Of Manipur, ISBN 978-8178358642, pp. 950–961
  88. G. K. Ghosh, Shukla Ghosh, Women of Manipur, ISBN 978-8170248972
  89. Khomdan Singh Lisam, Encyclopaedia Of Manipur, ISBN 978-8178358642, pp. 629–632
  90. 1 2
  91. FirstPost. FirstPost Missing or empty |title= (help)


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Manipur.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/5/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.