Manûrqa (Arabic: منورقة) was the Arabicized name given to the island of Minorca by the Muslims from its annexation to the Caliphate of Cordoba by 'Isâm al-Khawlânî in 903 until the rule of the last Muslim ra'îs, Abû 'Umar ibn Sa'îd in 1287. The only urban centre of the island was Madînat al Jazîra or al Manûrqa (modern Ciutadella). Most of the population lived in small farm communities organized under a tribal structure. Once the island was captured by King Alfonso III of Aragon, most of its Muslim inhabitants were enslaved and sold in the slave markets of Ibiza, Valencia and Barcelona. Only one hundred Muslims were allowed to remain on the island.
- Moll Mercadal, B. Abû 'Uthmân Sa'îd ibn Hakam, Ra'îs de Manûrqa (631/1234-680/1289) Publicacions des Born nº5. 1999
- Burns Robert, I. Muslims in the Thirteenth Century Realms of Aragon: Interaction and Reaction, in J.M. Powell edition:Muslims under Latin Rule, 1100-1300; op cit. pp 57–102; at p. 67.
- Fernandez-Arnesto, F. Before Columbus: Exploration and Colonisation from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic 1229-1492; Mac Millan, 1987. p. 36.