This article is about the modern light rail system in Dublin. For the city's historic tram system, see Dublin tramways.
Official logo

Luas tram stop at Abbey Street
Locale Dublin
Transit type Tram (or Light rail)
Number of lines 2 (Red and Green)
Number of stations 54
Daily ridership 89,000 passengers[1]
Annual ridership 34.6 million passengers[1] (2015)
Began operation June 30, 2004 (2004-06-30)
Operator(s) Transdev
Number of vehicles 26 Citadis 301 (3000 class)
14 Citadis 401 (4000 class)
26 Citadis 402 (5000 class)
System length 36.5 kilometres (22.7 mi)[1]
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
(standard gauge)
Electrification 750 V DC overhead line
Route map as of July 2013

Luas (Irish pronunciation: [ˈl̪ˠuəsˠ]; Irish for "speed") is a tram/light rail system in Dublin, Ireland, which in 2015 carried 34.6 million passengers.[1][2]

There are two main lines: the Green Line, which began operating on 30 June 2004, and the Red Line which opened on 26 September 2004. Since then, both lines have been extended and split into different branches. The system now has fifty-four stations and 36.5 kilometres (22.7 mi) of track.[1]

Luas is operated by Transdev, under tender from the Railway Procurement Agency (RPA). It is a major part of the National Transport Authority's strategy (20002016).[3] Three extensions to the existing Luas lines have been completed. Construction of a 6 km extension to the Green line to the North city centre and Broombridge, which will link both Green and Red lines, began in June 2013.


The idea for a new tram or light rail system for the city of Dublin was first suggested in 1994, by a Dublin Transportation Initiative (DTI) report,[4] which referenced the original Dublin tramways, once running over 60 kilometres (37 mi) and reaching most parts of the city. Following this report Córas Iompair Éireann (CIÉ), the state-owned public transport operator in Ireland, was asked to study the different options. They recommended two phases for the construction of a tram system:

The Transport Act, 1996 created a legal framework for CIÉ to build a tram system and in May 1997 the company applied for a Light Railway Order to construct the first phase, as well as the Dundrum/Balally to Sandyford part of phase 2.

An inquiry started in July 1997, but was put on hold to investigate the possibility of underground sections in the city centre. In May 1998 the government decided to build two lines, amending the plans. The first was to run from Tallaght to Connolly Station, while the second would run from Sandyford Industrial Estate to Dublin Airport, through the city centre and Ballymun. Part of the second was to be underground through the city centre.

The responsibility for developing the Luas was transferred from CIÉ to the Railway Procurement Agency (RPA), a separate government agency created in December 2001.[4]

Construction work began in March 2001 on the Tallaght to Connolly line, as well as the Sandyford to St. Stephen's Green section of the second line, with Ansaldo of Italy and MVM of Australia getting the contract to build the system.[5] The St. Stephen's Green to Dublin Airport section was dropped before construction began, as it was decided to serve the area by a metro instead. The contract to maintain and operate the system was awarded to Veolia Transport Ireland (formerly known as Connex).[6]

The development of the Luas Red Line was facilitated by EU funding of €82.5 million under the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF),[6] and part of the cost of some proposed line extensions (e.g. over 50% of Line B1 to Cherrywood) is being raised though levies on development in areas close to the projected route.[7]


Sign welcoming the Luas to South Dublin in 2004

The original launch date for the Luas was to be 2003, but delays in construction saw this date pushed back by a year. An advertising campaign took place to inform the public of the development of the system, while construction was taking place. Construction finished in February 2004 and a period of testing and driver training began. 30 June 2004 was decided on as the official launch date of the Green Line. The first tram went into service for the general public at 3 p.m. Several days of free travel and a family fun weekend took place to launch the system. The Red Line opened on 26 September 2004, with six days of free travel for the general public.[4]

2004 to present

By November 2006, over 50 million journeys had been made on the system.[8] Around 90,000 Luas trips are made each day. 28.4 million journeys were made in 2007. 27.4 million journeys were made in 2008.[9] 25.4 million journeys were made in 2009.[10] To date, the busiest day on the Luas system was Friday, 21 December 2007 when 145,000 passenger journeys were recorded.

Luas operates without a state subvention. The service recorded a surplus of €985,000 (€680,000 in 2004) - an achievement well ahead of an anticipated deficit of €2.5 million.[11]

On the 8 December 2009 the Red Line C1 Connolly to Docklands extension opened.[12] There are 4 stops: George's Dock, Mayor Square, Spencer Dock (serving the new Docklands railway station, approximately 500m away) and terminating in Point Village, opposite the The O2-this extension however bypasses Connolly. Construction started at the beginning of June 2007.[13] Test runs began on the line in September 2009 before the opening.[14]

The Railway Procurement Agency noted in their annual report that passenger numbers fell for the first time in 2009. The Luas had 25.4m passengers in 2009.[15]

On Saturday 16 October 2010 the Luas B1 extension from Sandyford to Cherrywood opened.

In June 2010, plans to join the two Luas tracks were finalised.[16] On 20 May 2011 the Dublin City Council made submissions to An Bord Pleanála's Oral Hearing into Line BXD stating that the Planning Authority had a serious area of concern with the overhead conductor system in the historical city centre asking for a wire free zone.[17][18]


Dublin–Sligo line

Broombridge Iarnród Éireann

Dublin–Sligo line
Broadstone - DIT
Cathal Brugha Street


O'Connell Upper

O'Connell - GPO


Red Line
Abbey Street

River Liffey
O'Connell Bridge Rosie Hackett Bridge


↑ Opens 2017

St Stephen's Green
Grand Canal


River Dodder
Windy Arbour


Central Park

M50 Motorway
The Gallops
Leopardstown Valley
Ballyogan Wood

M50 Motorway




Wyattville Link Road
Bride’s Glen

Luas Red Line

The Point
Spencer Dock(Iarnród Éireann Docklands)
Royal Canal
Mayor Square-NCI
George's Dock
Connolly Iarnród Éireann
Busáras Bus interchange
Green Line, southbound
(Marlborough Street) – future
Abbey St
Green Line, northbound
(O'Connell Street) – future
Four Courts
River Liffey
Heuston Iarnród Éireann
Grand Canal
Suir Road
M50 Motorway
Red Cow
Citywest Campus

Stations and lines

The network currently comprises two lines:

  1. Red Line (Line A,A1,C,C1) - The Point resp. Connolly station to Saggart or Tallaght (each link end to end approx 20.7 kilometres (12.9 mi) but the total track length is longer due to the part Belgard-Tallaght and Belgard-Sagart are separate parts of the Red Line)
  2. Green Line (Line B,B1,Bx,D) - St Stephen's Green via Sandyford to Bride's Glen, 17.5 kilometres (10.9 mi)

The Red Line (Line A,A1,C,C1) runs in an east-west direction through Dublin's Northside, then crosses the River Liffey and travels southwest to the heavily populated suburb of Tallaght, and then on through the Citywest campus and then terminating at Saggart.

The Nine Arches Bridge on the Green Line at Milltown

The Green Line (Line B) is currently entirely in the south side of Dublin city. It mostly follows the route of the old Harcourt Street railway line, which was reserved for possible re-use when it closed in 1958. The Red Line and Green Line are not yet connected to each other, with a 15-minute walk between the two closest points. There are a total of 32 stops on the Red Line and 22 (plus two further unopened stations) on the Green Line.

A third line to Lucan (Line F) is planned. The line is planned to start in the city centre and travel north west to Lucan.

Track and rolling stock

The system operates on a 750 V DC overhead power supply. The international standard rail gauge of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) is used, rather than the Irish 1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in).[19]

The silver Citadis trams, manufactured in La Rochelle by French multinational Alstom, reach a top speed of 70 km/h on off-street sections, but travel at a slower speed on-street where conflicts with other vehicles and pedestrians can occur. The 26 initial Red Line '3000' class trams were 30m long Citadis 301 configurations with a capacity of 256. The 14 Green Line '4000 class' trams, each 40m Citadis 401 configurations, have a capacity of 358 including two wheelchairs.[19] Starting in 2007, all the Red line trams were upgraded to 40m by inserting two more articulated sections, with the last one converted by June 2008.[20] Both configurations of tramcars are fully compatible with both the Red and the Green Lines.

26 new 43m Citadis 402 trams, numbered as the '5000 class', were ordered for delivery in early 2009. These are 100% low-floor configuration and currently work solely on the Green Line but are capable of working on Red if required. Due to this, the 4000 class units have been cascaded to operate on the Red Line.

10 further trams will be procured for use on the new Cross City - Broombridge line.[21]

In other aspects, the two lines are identical except that the interaxis width between the tracks on the Green Line is slightly wider than on the Red Line. The construction planning for the Green Line ensures a distance of track centers at 3,400 mm including a 400 mm extra for the kinematic envelope of metro trains.[22] This does not relate to the track gauge of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in), which is identical on both lines. This will allow wider metro trains be run on the same tracks if a proposed upgrade to full metro service is implemented.[23] This is possible because the route uses an old railway line and as such has few interactions with vehicular or pedestrian traffic. The Railway Procurement Agency has stated (November 2006) that "We still envisage conversion of almost all Luas lines to light metro standard in the long-term."[7]

The main engineering structures on the Green Line at present are Milltown Viaduct, also known as The Nine Arches, a large stone viaduct dating from 1854, and the William Dargan Bridge, a large new cable-stayed suspension bridge at Taney Cross, near Dundrum town centre.

Travel on the Luas


Stillorgan Luas stop with the ticket machine and CCTV warning

Luas tickets are purple in colour and credit card sized. They bear a magnetic stripe on the back although this is not used on Luas. Uniquely among Dublin's public transport, tickets are not checked upon boarding trams and an honour system, combined with random inspections, is used.

Ticket machines operate at every Luas stop and these are the only source of single-journey and return tickets. They also sell 1-day, 7-day and 30-day tickets, valid in either some or all the fare zones, for adults, children and students. It is also possible to purchase 'Combi' tickets valid on Dublin Bus and Luas. DART and Luas 'Combi' tickets have been produced since Luas opened but despite this being a major ticket option these LUAS-DART Combis are not available at either ticket newsagents or online from either Irish Rail or Luas, nor are they available in Luas vending machines. They are available only from Irish Rail ticket offices. Transport user lobby groups like 'Rail Users Ireland' have written to both Luas and Irish Rail asking for an explanation for this and none has been forthcoming. While it is also possible to purchase Luas-DART-Dublin Bus triple combi tickets (from Irish Rail booking offices) from monthly ramblers upward, these are often more expensive than simply topping up a LEAP card to its weekly cap rate (currently €40 for Adults). Certain ticket combinations are not possible (for example a one-day student ticket), and tickets can only be valid from the stop at which they are purchased and must commence their validity within 90 minutes, valid until a specific time shown on the card. Certain tickets require the user to hold an ID card and write the number on the ticket, to prevent the ticket from being transferred to another person. Ticket machines accept card payments (by American Express, Laser, MasterCard, or Visa for transactions from €5 upwards and a weekly limit of €150 (upper limit changed from €50 per transaction to €150 per week in January 2012 after upgrading all POS terminals to have a PIN keypad).[24] Like other Irish transport operators, Luas has taken to requiring students to purchase a special Student Travelcard, not recognizing their student cards as enough to get a discount. These have recently been merged with the LEAP Cards to form a personalized blue LEAP card with new benefits such as lower daily caps.

Luas tickets are sold at newsagents and other shops, mostly in the vicinity of Luas stops. Joint Luas and Dublin Bus tickets can be purchased from Luas vending machines for immediate use, as well as from Dublin Bus ticket agents. Tickets bought at Dublin Bus agents must be validated on a bus before being valid for a tram (since Luas does not use ticket validation systems upon boarding the tram). Certain tickets are cheaper in shops than at ticket machines. Tickets cannot be purchased on board the trams.

Both lines are divided into 5 zones, the central zone being shared. Fares are calculated based on how many zones a journey is taken through. There is a stop on the border of each zone, which is considered to be in whichever zone is more beneficial to the traveller. The two lines do not connect, but it is possible to purchase tickets that are valid for a journey using both lines. It is necessary to walk or take other transport between the two lines, most commonly between St. Stephen's Green (on the green line) and Abbey Street (on the red line). Alternatives include buses (the number 145[25] links St. Stephen's Green to Heuston and the number 18 links Ranelagh to Kylemore, although these are not included on the ticket) and taxis.


Luas in Northside

In March 2005 the Luas smartcard was launched. The smartcard was phased out following launch of the integrated Leap card which is further detailed below. The final day of Luas Smartcard operations was on 30 September 2014. The Luas smartcard allowed travellers to pay for travel on the Luas network. Credit was pre-loaded onto the smartcard at ticket machines by cash, debit card or credit card, with a minimum top-up of €5 and a maximum credit on the card of €100, and the customer had to validate the card using readers on the platform before boarding the tram and then again after exiting the tram. This is still referred to as 'tag-on' and 'tag-off' on the current Leap card system.

A smartcard could be purchased at a Luas ticket agent or online.[26] The card cost €10, which included a €3 non-refundable charge for the card, €3 of credit and €4 for a fully refundable 'reserve fund' which allowed travel even if there was insufficient credit on the card for the journey. The card had to be topped up before another journey could be taken.

Smartcard fares were slightly cheaper than standard single and return fares from ticket machines. For example, a journey within a single zone cost €1.25 with the card, compared to €1.50 (€1.60 during peak time) single with a paper ticket, or €2.80 return. Daily, 7-day and 30-day tickets generally worked out cheaper, unless used only rarely. Luas smartcards were unable to store multiple-journey tickets and these tickets were issued on paper only until May 2014, since all tickets have been loaded onto the new Leap cards.

Until January 2012 there were three different smart-card systems in Dublin: The above Luas smart-card, the Dublin Bus prepaid Smartcard system for day-cards or longer[27] and the smart-card for commuter trains and the DART which is -as the Luas card- a per journey tag on/off card but not compatible with Luas cards.[28]

Over the past years the Railway Procurement Agency had been working on the design of an integrated ticketing system [29] and was many years behind schedule and is estimated to have cost €30m to complete.[30] This new card, marketed under the name Leap card has been fully operational since January 2012 and allows the purchase of single journey tickets for the Luas, DART, Commuter and Dublin Bus routes. The card carries a credit, which can be topped up, which is then used to pay fares. On Dublin Bus, passengers present the card to the driver's ticketing machine and ask for the appropriate ticket. On the Luas, passengers "tag-on" before entering the tram and "tag off" at the destination; the correct fare is then deducted. The same applies to DART and Commuter trains, but there the tagging is normally be done when passing the electronic entry/exit gates. (For stations without these gates, there are tag-on/off terminals at the platform).

The "Leap" smartcard has functionality that it caps the daily and weekly spend to ensure Leap card holders do not pay more than they would have had they bought day, weekly, or monthly tickets. This functionality had been enabled on the Luas system and DART services. The number of Leap cardusers was reported by the National Transport Authority to be 1 million as of April 2015.[31]

Pensioners and the Disabled

Old age pensioners and certain other people are allowed to travel free of charge; this is part of the national "Free Travel Pass"[32] system operated by the Department of Social Protection. In practice on the Luas this is extended to holders of pensioner travel passes from the UK. Because countries such as Canada and the U.S.A. do not have any such pass system for pensioners/seniors/disabled and only have local discounted transit tickets available to them, all such visitors to Ireland must pay full adult fare on buses, trams and trains regardless of their age or disability.

Hours of operation and frequency

Trams operate from 05:30 to 00:30 Monday to Friday. On Saturday the Green Line begins operating at 06:15, while the Red Line begins at 06:30. Both lines close at 00:30 on Saturday nights. On Sundays the Green Line runs from 06:45 to 23:30, while the Red Line runs from 07:00 to 23:30. Bank holidays are the same as Sundays, except trams run until 00:30. Services run at regular intervals, from every 4–5 minutes during peak times to every 15 minutes late at night.

During the Christmas season (from early December to the last weekend before Christmas), a night service runs on the Luas during Friday and Saturday nights (as well as on New Year's Eve), with the last trams departing the city centre at 03:30. However, fares are priced at a steep premium of €5 single (€4 on Leap cards).


Luas tram crossing the Liffey (a yellow stripe around the trams has since been added to improve visibility)

The low floors and wide spaces of the Citadis trams mean that wheelchair users can easily board. All stations have also been designed with ramps, to allow easy access. Several have lifts, such as Kilmacud and Dundrum on the Green Line, while Connolly Station has escalators that connect the Luas station to the main station building. The Luas website also has an accessibility newsletter.


Sign warning of Luas track ahead

Before the Luas was launched, a Safety Awareness Day was held in Dublin City Centre. Also thousands of reflective armbands were distributed to pedestrians and cyclists, in order to ensure their visibility for tram drivers. This policy seems to have worked as the Luas has been described as being "one of the safest transport systems in the world".[33] Both trams and stops are monitored using CCTV 24 hours a day from the central control room, located in the Red Cow Depot.[34]

Before the Luas' launch, it was feared that the tram system would lead to a high number of fatal accidents. So far, however, there have been only four fatalities. There have been many occurrences of cars striking trams, mainly caused by motorists breaking red lights. On 16 September 2009, a Luas collided with a Dublin Bus on the O'Connell Street-Abbey Street Junction. 22 people were injured in the collision, 3 seriously, including the tram driver. Early investigations suggested that the bus had the green light to move, and that the Luas must have had technical problems.[35] The Luas driver was later charged with dangerous driving causing harm and operating a tram in a manner which posed risk to others. He was subsequently acquitted of dangerous conduct by the Dublin Circuit Criminal Court.[36]


In February 2009 Veolia Transport, the company responsible for the management of the Luas system, terminated its contract with Federal Security, an Ireland-based private security firm. The contract to provide security services in and around the Luas system was won by STT Rail Security, an Ireland-based company specialising in rail/transit security.

This change was due to the increase in violence, criminal damage, breaches of by-laws and anti-social behaviour on board the trams.


The cost of building the original Red and Green Lines was €728m. It was envisaged in the original plans that the Green Line would meet the Red Line at O'Connell Street. However two separate unconnected lines were built, leaving a 15-minute walk - through O'Connell Street, Westmoreland Street, College Green and Grafton Street - between the two lines. Plans to link the lines were announced with the proposed building of the BX Line under Transport 21; this is now under construction.

Park and ride charges have also attracted criticism. The cost of parking for a full day is €4. It was described by former government TD and head of the Dáil transport Committee Eoin Ryan as "unacceptable for Luas to charge passengers for parking at their Park and Ride facilities on top of ticket fares".[37]

Notable incidents

There have been several incidents involving the Luas, often leading to its temporary closure, including four fatal incidents.


At 19.40 on 23 February 2008, A 59-year-old man was struck by a red-line tram at Cookstown Way in Tallaght, and sustained serious head injuries. He died in hospital the following day.[38][39]


At 15.00 on 16 September 2009 a red line Luas tram and a double-decker number 16 Dublin Bus collided at the crossroads of Abbey Street and O'Connell Street in Dublin city centre.[40] The front section of the tram was derailed in the incident and the driver's cabin was crushed flat against the left hand side of the bus.[41] At least 21 people were injured and three were seriously hurt, including the driver of the tram who had to be cut out from the wreckage.[42][43]


At 16:20 on 11 October 2011, a 35-year-old man, who was a Polish national, was struck and killed by a red-line tram on Steeven's Lane near Heuston Station.[44] The Luas was stopped between the Heuston and The Point stops for 3 hours, trams between Tallaght and Blackhorse remained running throughout this period. Trams began running between Heuston and The Point again at 19:20.


On 28 June 2012, a 32-year-old woman was struck by a Luas tram in Inchicore, after falling onto the tracks at Blackhorse platform as a tram pulled in. She was caught between the platform and tram, and suffered severe head and body trauma. Emergency services managed to free her from under the tram, and the area was cordoned off for a forensic examination. She was rushed to hospital, and died of her injuries on 6 July 2012.[45]


On 7 April 2014, a car collided with a Luas tram at the junction of Jervis Street and Abbey Street, which caused the car to fatally strike a 35-year-old pedestrian from Dublin, who was pronounced dead at the scene.[46]


On 28 October 2016, a tourist bus and Luas tram collided at Smithfield, injuring five people.[47]

Planned extensions and lines

Luas Cross City

Green Line extension
BroombridgeIarnród Éireann
Broadstone - D.I.T.
Dominick Street

Cathal Brugha Street

Parnell Street

O'Connell Street Upper

O'Connell Street - GPO

Marlborough Street

Red Line
Abbey Street
River Liffey
O'Connell Bridge ┃ Rosie Hackett Bridge

Westmoreland Street

Dawson Street
St Stephen's Green
Green Line to Bride's Glen

Luas Cross City

The Luas Cross city project is an extension of the Green Line which will link it with the Red Line, and continue northwards to Broombridge in North Dublin (interchange with Irish Rail station). The extension will begin at the existing St.Stephen's Green Green Line stop. Construction started in June 2013 with services expected to begin in late 2017.[48]

On 10 November 2011, the government announced in its 2012–16 Infrastructure and Capital Investment plan that the project to link the Red and Green lines, known as BXD, was to proceed. No other new lines or extensions are being funded.[51][52] Construction work for the bridge across the River Liffey (connecting Marlborough St and Hawkins St) began in April 2012, which the southbound Luas BXD track will be laid on.[53] A Railway Order was granted by ABP for the Luas BXD line on 3 August 2012. The construction project has since been branded Luas Cross City.[54]

Proposed planned future extensions

Luas Line B2

to St Stephen's Green
Bride's Glen
Old Connaught
Corke Abbey
Bray Daly Iarnród Éireann

Luas Line D2

Swords Castle
Pinnock Hill
Glasnevin North
Green Line to Broombridge
Green Line to Bride's Glen

Proposed Lines

Luas Line F

Newcastle Road
Griffeen Valley Park
Esker Meadow
Castle Road
Droim Na Coille
Ballyowen Park
Quarryvale ParkDM
LVTC South
Cherry Orchard
Ballyfermot Village
Kylemore Park

Red Line
to Tallaght/Saggart
Suir RoadLuas
Red Line
to Dublin Connolly/The Point
Meath Street
ChristchurchIarnród Éireann

TrinityLuas DM

Other Projects

With the success of the Luas system in Dublin, there is very strong support for bringing trams to other Irish cities. During the 2007 election campaign, Fianna Fáil and the Green Party both announced plans for tram systems in Cork, Limerick, Galway, Waterford and Bray. The 2007 Programme for Government between these two parties and the Progressive Democrats included a section which ensured feasibility studies would be carried out on these projects within the first two years of the government.[57] Cork and Limerick were expected to complete their studies by "mid 2009".[58] As a result of the financial crisis beginning in 2008, a moratorium was placed on future capital projects; as such, no feasibility studies have been completed as of 2016.

On-board announcements

Since 2010 all on-board Luas announcements have been voiced by Doireann Ní Bhriain, to coincide with the opening of the new Point and Bride's Glen extension.

See also


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "Frequently Asked Questions". Luas. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
  3. "A Platform for Change (Final Report) An integrated transportation strategy for the Greater Dublin Area 2000 to 2016" (PDF). Dublin Transportation Office. November 2001. Retrieved 2006-12-10.
  4. 1 2 3 "Luas background". Railway Procurement Agency. Archived from the original on 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
  5. "O'Rourke awards £196m LUAS contract". RTÉ News.
  6. 1 2 "Luas home page". Railway Procurement Agency. Archived from the original on 2008-03-12. Retrieved 2008-04-04.
  7. 1 2 "Dublin Plans For LRT Expansion". International Railway Journal. November 2006. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
  8. "50 million journeys made on Luas". RTÉ News. 8 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-10.
  9. "Almost 1m fewer Luas journeys in 2008". RTÉ News. 16 September 2009.
  10. "Luas numbers fell 8% last year". RTÉ News. 24 May 2010.
  11. "2005 Annual Report". Railway Procurement Agency. Archived from the original on 2006-10-17. Retrieved 2006-12-10.
  12. "Luas extended to Docklands". RTÉ News.
  13. "History of Luas". Railway Procurement Agency. Retrieved 2014-12-30.
  14. Breda Heffernan; Stephen O'Farrell (13 September 2009). "New Luas section is right on track as it passes its first test". Irish Independent. Retrieved 2009-09-18.
  15. Luas passenger numbers down 8%
  16. "Plans to link Luas lines finalised". The Irish Times.
  18. "Luas Broombridge – Oral Hearing (transcript)" (docx). Transport for Dublin. 20 May 2011.
  19. 1 2 "Dublin Luas Light Rail Network - Specifications". Retrieved 2008-04-05.
  20. Department of Transport (5 March 2008). "Transport 21 Annual Report 2007" (PDF). pp. 16–17. Retrieved 2008-04-04.
  21. "Urban Rail News In Brief". Railway Gazette International. April 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-18.
  22. Tim Paul. "LUAS Dublin Light Rail System" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-09-05.
  23. "Luas Line B1 - Sandyford to Cherrywood". Retrieved 2010-07-05.
  24. Information displayed on any ticketing machine. Information on FAQ on TVM is outdated. Checked: 1 March 2012
  25. "Timetable details". Dublin Bus.
  26. "Luas Smart Card".
  27. "Prepaid Smartcard". Dublin Bus. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  28. "Q9: I already have a smart card – What is going to happen?". Rail Procurement Agency. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  29. "What Is ITS?". Railway Procurement Agency. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  30. "Not very clever: €16m bill for smart card mess". Irish Independent. 4 April 2006. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  31. "Big leap in travel cards but users still overpaying". Irish Independent. Retrieved 2013-12-30.
  32. "Free Travel". Department of Social and Family Affairs.
  33. "Luas 'one world's safest transport systems'". 3 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-02.
  34. "Luas - Frequently Asked Questions". Luas. Retrieved 2013-12-30.
  35. Paul Melia (30 May 2006). "Luas safety record 'among best in EU'". Irish Independent. Retrieved 2008-05-19.
  36. "Luas driver acquitted over 2009 crash with bus". RTÉ News. 27 April 2012. Retrieved 2014-12-30.
  37. "Row over Luas plan for parking charges". 9 June 2004. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  38. "Investigations begin after Luas death". RTÉ.
  39. "Probe begins into death of man struck by Luas". Irish Independent. 26 February 2008. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  40. "RTÉ News : 21 hurt as Luas collides with bus in Dublin". Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 16 September 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
  41. Olivia Kelly; Jenny Hauser (17 September 2009). "Luas Crash – Eyewitness Reports". The Irish Times.
  42. Pamela Duncan (17 September 2009). "21 injured as Luas and bus crash in city centre". The Irish Times.
  43. "Luas driver acquitted over 2009 crash with bus". 27 April 2012. Archived from the original on 31 December 2014.
  44. Gavan Reilly (11 October 2011). "Man, 35, killed after being struck by Luas tram".
  45. "Woman in Luas fall loses fight for life".
  46. "Woman dies after collision between Luas and car in Dublin". RTÉ News. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-07.
  47. Melia, Paul; Bray, Allison (28 October 2016). "Luas Crash: Eight Injured Including Three Month Baby Girl after Tour Bus Collides with Tram". Irish Independent. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  48. "Green light given to Luas link-up, first passengers 2017". RTÉ. 3 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
  49. "Home - Transport Infrastructure Ireland -".
  50. "Status & present timeline for Metro North & West & Luas lines F & BX & interconnector (ref no:Status & present timeline for Metro North & West & Luas lines F & BX & interconnector)". Press Centre: Parliamentary Questions 2008. Department of Transport. 11 November 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-07.
  51. "Metro North, DART underground plans shelved". RTÉ News. 10 November 2011.
  52. "Infrastructure and Capital Investment 2012–16". Department of Public Expenditure and Reform. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
  53. "Do we need €15m Liffey bridge?". Evening Herald. 28 April 2012.
  54. "Varadkar to sign contracts for Luas Cross-City line". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 2013-05-27.
  55. "Luas link to airport likeliest alternative to Metro North". The Irish Times. 16 April 2015.
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