Louis X, Duke of Bavaria

Louis X of Bavaria (portrait by Christoph Amberger)

Louis X (German: Ludwig X, Herzog von Bayern), (Grünwald, 18 September 1495 22 April 1545 in Landshut) was Duke of Bavaria (1516–1545), together with his older brother William IV, Duke of Bavaria. His parents were Albert IV and Kunigunde of Austria, a daughter of Emperor Frederick III.


Though his father had determined the everlasting succession of the firstborn prince in 1506 Louis refused a spiritual career with the argument that he was born before the edict became valid. With support of his mother and the States-General, Louis forced his brother to accept him as co-regent in 1516. Louis then ruled the districts of Landshut and Straubing, in general in concord with his brother.

Like his brother he first showed sympathy for the Protestant Reformation but decided to take action against its expansion in Bavaria already in 1522. Both dukes also suppressed the uprising of farmers in South Germany in their duchies in 1525. Since Louis claimed the Bohemian crown Bavaria was in opposition to the Habsburgs until 1534 when both dukes reached an agreement with Ferdinand I in Linz.

After his visit in Italy Louis built the first Renaissance palace constructed north of the Alps, the Landshut Residence which was modelled 1537 - 1543 after the Palazzo del Te in Mantua.

Having no son Louis was succeeded by his brother William. This was finally the end of the divisions of the duchy of Bavaria. His illegitimate daughter was Anna von Leonsberg (1525–1556) who married Johann Albrecht Widmannstetter (1506–1557).


Louis X's ancestors in three generations
Louis X, Duke of Bavaria Father:
Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria
Paternal Grandfather:
Albert III, Duke of Bavaria
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Ernest, Duke of Bavaria
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Elisabetta Visconti
Paternal Grandmother:
Anna of Brunswick-Grubenhagen-Einbeck
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Adelheid of Montferrat
Kunigunde of Austria
Maternal Grandfather:
Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Ernest, Duke of Austria
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Cymburgis of Masovia
Maternal Grandmother:
Eleanor of Portugal, Holy Roman Empress
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Edward of Portugal
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Leonor of Aragon

Media related to Louis X, Duke of Bavaria at Wikimedia Commons

Louis X, Duke of Bavaria
Born: 18 September 1495 Died: 22 April 1545
Regnal titles
Preceded by
William IV
Duke of Bavaria
Succeeded by
William IV
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