List of oldest universities in continuous operation

Map of medieval universities in Europe

This article contains a list of the oldest existing universities in continuous operation in the world. Inclusion in this list is determined by the date at which the educational institute met the traditional definition of a university[Note 1] although it may have existed as a different kind of institute before that time.[1] This definition limits the term "university" to institutions with distinctive structural and legal features that developed in Europe, and which make the university form different from other institutions of higher learning in the pre-modern world. Thus, for the list below, the university must have been founded before 1500 in Europe or be the oldest university derived from the medieval European model in a country or region. It must also be still in operation, with institutional continuity retained throughout its history, and so some early universities, most notably the University of Paris, which was suspended from 1793 to 1896, are excluded.

The word university is derived from the Latin: universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which approximately means "community of teachers and scholars". The term was coined by the Italian University of Bologna, which, with a traditional founding date of 1088, is considered to be the first university.[2][3] The origin of many medieval universities can be traced back to the Christian cathedral schools or monastic schools, which appeared as early as the 6th century and were run for hundreds of years as such before their formal establishment as universities in the high medieval period.[4]

Other institutions of higher learning, such as those of ancient Greece, ancient Persia, ancient Rome, Byzantium, ancient China, ancient India and the Islamic world, are not included in this list owing to their cultural, historical, structural and juristic dissimilarities from the medieval European university from which the modern university evolved.[Note 2][Note 3][7]

Medieval origins

Main article: Medieval university

The university as an institution was historically rooted in medieval society, which it in turn influenced and shaped:[7]

The university is a European institution; indeed, it is the European institution par excellence. There are various reasons for this assertion. As a community of teachers and taught, accorded certain rights, such as administrative autonomy and the determination and realisation of curricula (courses of study) and of the objectives of research as well as the award of publicly recognised degrees, it is a creation of medieval Europe, which was the Europe of papal Christianity [...].

Modern spread

From the early modern period onwards, the university gradually spread from the medieval Latin West across the globe, eventually replacing all other higher-learning institutions and becoming the preeminent institution for higher education everywhere. This process occurred in the following chronological order:[8]

Founded before 1500

Year University Location Notes
Original Current
1088 University of Bologna Kingdom of Italy,
 Holy Roman Empire
Italy Bologna, Italy A university in the sense of a higher-learning, degree-awarding institute, the word university (Latin: universitas) having been coined at its foundation. It received, in 1158, from Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa the "Authentica habita", which settled the rules, rights and privileges of universities.[9]
1096–1167 (charter granted in 1248)[10] University of Oxford  Kingdom of England United Kingdom Oxford, United Kingdom "Claimed to be the oldest university in the English speaking world, there is no clear date of foundation of Oxford University, but teaching existed at Oxford in some form in 1096 and developed rapidly from 1167, when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris."[11] Teaching was suspended in 1209 (due to the town execution of two scholars) and in 1355 (due to the St. Scholastica Day riot), but was continuous during the English Civil War (1642–1651), when the University was Royalist. All Souls College and University College have repeatedly claimed that they own documents which prove that teaching in Oxford started in the year 825, but these documents have never seen the public light (John Speed allegedly dated his famous 1605 Oxford maps based on these documents). It was not until 1254 that Pope Innocent IV granted to Oxford a university charter by papal bull ("Querentes in agro").
1134 (charter granted in 1218) University of Salamanca Kingdom of León Spain Salamanca, Spain The oldest university in operation in Spain. Although there are records of the university granting degrees many years before (James Trager's People's Chronology sets its foundation date as 1134), it only received its royal charter of foundation as "Estudio General" in 1218,[12] making it possibly the fourth or even third oldest European university in continuous operation. It was the first European university to receive the title of "University" as such, which was granted by the King of Castile and León, Alfonso X, and the Pope in 1254. Having been excluded from the University in 1852 by the Spanish government, the Faculties of Theology and Canon Law became the Pontifical University of Salamanca in 1940.
1209 (charter granted in 1231)[13] University of Cambridge  Kingdom of England United Kingdom Cambridge, United Kingdom Founded by scholars leaving Oxford after a dispute caused by the execution of two scholars in 1209. Its royal charter was granted in 1231.[14] The University takes 1209 as its official anniversary.[15] Inspired the establishment of Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, with the first college in the United States, Harvard University named after one of Cambridge University's alumni, John Harvard.
1222 (probably older) University of Padua Lombard League Italy Padua, Italy Founded by scholars and professors after leaving Bologna.
1224 (1258) University of Naples Federico II Kingdom of Sicily Italy Naples, Italy The first public university,[16] founded by Frederick II, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. The university moved to Salerno in 1253, and its return to Naples in 1258 is sometimes considered as a refoundation.
1240 University of Siena Republic of Siena Italy Siena, Italy Originally called Studium Senese, it was founded by Commune of Siena in 1240. In 1321, the Studium was able to attract a larger number of pupils due to a mass exodus from the prestigious University of Bologna. It closed temporarily in 1808–1815 when Napoleonic forces occupied Tuscany. On November 7, 2015 the University celebrated its 775th anniversary.
1241 University of Valladolid Kingdom of Castile, Crown of Castile Spain Valladolid, Spain One hypothesis is that its foundation is the result of the transfer of Palencia General Survey between 1208 and 1241 by Alfonso VIII, king of Castile, and Bishop Tello Téllez de Meneses.
1290 University of Macerata[17] Papal States Italy Macerata, Italy The University of Macerata (Italian: Università degli Studi di Macerata) is a university located in Macerata, Marche, Italy. It was founded in 1290 and is organized into seven faculties.
1290 University of Coimbra[17] Kingdom of Portugal
Portugal Coimbra, Portugal It began its existence in Lisbon with the name Studium Generale (Estudo Geral). Scientiae thesaurus mirabilis, the royal charter announcing the institution of the University, was dated 1 March 1290, although efforts had been made since at least 1288 to create this first university in Portugal. Papal confirmation was also given in 1290 (on 9 August of that year), during the papacy of Pope Nicholas IV.
1293 University of Alcalá Crown of Castile Spain Alcalá de Henares, Spain The University of Alcalá was founded by King Sancho IV of Castile as Studium Generale in 1293 in Alcalá de Henares. It was granted a papal bull in 1499, and quickly gained international fame thanks to the patronage of Cardinal Cisneros and the production of the Complutensian Polyglot Bible in 1517, which is the basis for most current translations. The University moved to Madrid in 1836 by royal decree as Universidad Central. The Moyano Law of 1857 established Central as the sole university in Spain authorized to confer the title of Doctor on any scholar. This law remained in effect until 1969. In 1970, Universidad Central de Madrid changed its name to Universidad Complutense de Madrid, its present name. On the other side, the Universidad de Alcalá was restored in Alcalá de Henares in 1977.
1303 Sapienza University of Rome Papal States Italy Rome, Italy Founded by Pope Boniface VIII, but became a state university in 1935.
1308 University of Perugia Papal States Italy Perugia, Italy Attested by the Bull of Pope Clement V.
1321 University of Florence Republic of Florence Italy Florence, Italy The University of Florence evolved from the Studium Generale, which was established by the Florentine Republic in 1321. The Studium was recognized by Pope Clement VI in 1349.
1336 (not recognised until 1727) University of Camerino Papal States Italy Camerino, Italy The great literate and jurist Cino from Pistoia, living in Marche in the years 1319-21, and in Camerino in the spring of 1321, remembers the territory blooming with juridical schools. Camerino has been a center of learning since no later than 1200, offering degrees in civil law, canonical law, medicine, and literary studies. Gregory XI took the decision upon the request of Gentile III da Varano with the papal edict of 29 January 1377, directed to the commune and to the people, authorizing Camerino to confer (after appropriate examination) bachelor and doctoral degrees with apostolic authority. University by Papal Bull and Charter of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor in 1727.[18]
1343 University of Pisa Republic of Pisa Italy Pisa, Italy It was formally founded on September 3, 1343 by an edict of Pope Clement VI, although there had been lectures on law in Pisa since the 11th century. Nowadays is one of the most important universities in Italy.
1348 Charles University of Prague Kingdom of Bohemia Czech Republic Prague, Czech Republic Three of four faculties closed in 1419, joined with Jesuit university and renamed Charles-Ferdinand University in 1652, split into German and Czech part in 1882, Czech branch closed during Nazi occupation (1939–1945), German branch closed in 1945.[19]
1361 University of Pavia Domain of the House of Visconti Italy Pavia, Italy Closed for short periods during the Italian Wars, Napoleonic wars, and Revolutions of 1848.
1364 Jagiellonian University Kingdom of Poland Poland Kraków, Poland Founded by Casimir the Great under the name Studium Generale, and was commonly referred to as the Kraków Academy. The institution's development stalled upon the king's death in 1370; primarily due to a lack of funding. Without a permanent location; lectures were held across the city at various churches and in the Kraków Cathedral School. Further development again resumed in the 1390s, by the initiative of King Władysław Jagiełło and his wife Jadwiga of Poland; at which point the school became a fully functioning university with a permanent location. The university was forcibly shut down during the German Occupation of Poland (1939–1945). The staff was deported to Nazi concentration camps, and many of its collections were deliberately destroyed by the occupying German authorities. Within a month after the liberation of the city, the university again re-opened; with some of the original pre-war staff who survived the occupation.
1365 University of Vienna  Holy Roman Empire Austria Vienna, Austria Modelled on the University of Paris.
1386 Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg  Holy Roman Empire Germany Heidelberg, Germany Founded by Rupert I, Elector Palatine. The oldest in contemporary Germany and third oldest Germanophone university.
1391 University of Ferrara House of Este Italy Ferrara, Italy Founded by Marquis Alberto d'Este.
1404 University of Turin  Duchy of Savoy Italy Turin, Italy Founded by the prince "Louis of Piedmont" during the reign of Amadeus VIII.
1409 University of Leipzig  Holy Roman Empire Germany Leipzig, Germany Founded when German-speaking staff left Prague due to the Jan Hus crisis.
1413 University of St. Andrews  Kingdom of Scotland United Kingdom St. Andrews, United Kingdom A school of higher studies was founded in 1410 and became a full university by the issue of a Papal bull in 1413.[20]
1419 University of Rostock  Holy Roman Empire Germany Rostock, Germany During the Reformation, "the Catholic university of Rostock closed altogether and the closure was long enough to make the refounded body feel a new institution".[21]
1434 University of Catania Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Kingdom of Sicily Italy Catania, Italy The oldest in Sicily. Founded by Alfonso V of Aragon.
1450[22] University of Barcelona Crown of Aragon Spain Barcelona, Spain Founded by Alfonso V of Aragon as Estudi general de Barcelona after the unification of all university education. For forty-nine years prior to that foundation, however, the city had had a fledgling medical school founded by King Martin of Aragon, and in the 13th century Barcelona already possessed several civil and ecclesiastical schools.
1451 University of Glasgow  Kingdom of Scotland United Kingdom Glasgow, United Kingdom Founded by a Papal bull.
1456 University of Greifswald  Holy Roman Empire Germany Greifswald, Germany Teaching had started by 1436. Founded by initiative of Heinrich Rubenow, Lord Mayor of Greifswald (and first rector), with approval of Pope Callixtus III and Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, under the protection of Wartislaw IX, Duke of Pomerania. Teaching paused temporarily during the Protestant Reformation (1527–39).
1457 Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg  Holy Roman Empire Germany Freiburg, Germany Temporarily transferred to Constance in 1686–98 and 1713–15.
1460 University of Basel  Holy Roman Empire Switzerland Basel, Switzerland Founded in 1460 (Schola Basiliensis), the University of Basel is the oldest university in Switzerland.[23]
1472 Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich  Holy Roman Empire Germany Munich, Germany Founded in Ingolstadt in 1459, transferred to Landshut in 1800, moved to Munich in 1826.
1477 Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen  Holy Roman Empire Germany Tübingen, Germany
1477 Uppsala University  Kingdom of Sweden within the
 Kalmar Union
Sweden Uppsala, Sweden Uppsala's bull, which granted the university its corporate rights, was issued by Pope Sixtus IV in 1477, and established a number of provisions. Among the most important of these was that the university was officially given the same freedoms and privileges as the University of Bologna.
1479 University of Copenhagen  Kingdom of Denmark within the
 Kalmar Union
Denmark Copenhagen, Denmark The University of Copenhagen is the oldest university in Denmark, and the second oldest in Scandinavia after Uppsala University in Sweden
1481 University of Genoa  Republic of Genoa Italy Genoa, Italy Founded in 1481 (Genuense Athenaeum).
1495 University of Aberdeen  Kingdom of Scotland United Kingdom Aberdeen, United Kingdom King's College was founded by a Papal bull in 1495 and then Marischal College in 1593; they merged in 1860.
1495 University of Santiago de Compostela Galicia, Crown of Castile Spain Santiago de Compostela, Spain The university traces its roots to 1495, when a school was opened in Santiago.[24] In 1504, Pope Julius II approved the foundation of a university in Santiago, and the bull for its creation was granted by Clement VII in 1526.
1499 University of Valencia Crown of Aragon Spain Valencia, Spain

Oldest universities by country or region after 1500 still in operation

The majority of European countries had universities by 1500. After 1500, universities began to spread to other countries all over the world. The oldest entity, by date formally recognised as a university, for each continent is indicated in bold. Note that many universities were established at institutes of learning such as schools and colleges that may have been founded significantly earlier but were not classed as universities upon their foundation.




Latin America and the Caribbean

Canada and the United States


See also



  1. 'The statement that all universities are descended either directly or by migration from these three prototypes [Oxford, Paris, and Bologna] depends, of course, on one's definition of a university. And I must define a university very strictly here. A university is something more than a center of higher education and study. One must reserve the term university for—and I'm quoting Rashdall here—"a scholastic guild, whether of masters or students, engaged in higher education and study," which was later defined, after the emergence of universities, as "studium generale".'[1]
  2. "No one today would dispute the fact that universities, in the sense in which the term is now generally understood, were a creation of the Middle Ages, appearing for the first time between the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. It is no doubt true that other civilizations, prior to, or wholly alien to, the medieval West, such as the Roman Empire, Byzantium, Islam, or China, were familiar with forms of higher education which a number of historians, for the sake of convenience, have sometimes described as universities.Yet a closer look makes it plain that the institutional reality was altogether different and, no matter what has been said on the subject, there is no real link such as would justify us in associating them with medieval universities in the West. Until there is definite proof to the contrary, these latter must be regarded as the sole source of the model which gradually spread through the whole of Europe and then to the whole world. We are therefore concerned with what is indisputably an original institution, which can only be defined in terms of a historical analysis of its emergence and its mode of operation in concrete circumstances."[5]
  3. "Thus the university, as a form of social organization, was peculiar to medieval Europe. Later, it was exported to all parts of the world, including the Muslim East; and it has remained with us down to the present day. But back in the Middle Ages, outside of Europe, there was nothing anything quite like it anywhere."[6]
  4. Educational institutions were closed in China starting on June 13, 1966 due to the Cultural Revolution. They remained closed for a year, or longer in some cases. See .
  5. Note that the Court of Cassation of Belgium ruled 26 November 1846, that this new Catholic University of Louvain founded in Mechlin in 1834 does not have any links with the Old University of Louvain founded in 1425 and abolished in 1797 and can not be regarded as continuing it: "The Catholic University of Louvain can not be regarded as continuing the old University of Louvain", in, Table générale alphabétique et chronologique de la Pasicrisie Belge contenant la jurisprudence du Royaume de 1814 à 1850, Brussels, 1855, p. 585, column 1, alinea 2. See also: Bulletin Usuel des Lois et Arrêtés, 1861, p.166. To see also this rule of the Cour d'Appel of 1844: La Belgique Judiciaire, 28 july 1844 n° 69, p. 1 : "Cour d’Appel de Bruxelles. Deuxième chambre. L'université libre de Louvain ne représente pas légalement l’antique université de cette ville. Attendu que cette université (l’ancienne Université de Louvain), instituée par une bulle papale, de concert avec l'autorité souveraine, formait un corps reconnu dans l'État, ayant différentes attributions, dont plusieurs même lui étaient déléguées par le pouvoir civil; Attendu que ce corps a été supprimé par les lois de la république française; Attendu que l'université existant actuellement à Louvain ne peut être considérée comme continuant celle qui existait en 1457, ces deux établissemens ayant un caractère bien distinct, puisque l'université actuelle, non reconnue comme personne civile, n'est qu'un établissement tout-à-fait privé, résultat de la liberté d'enseignement , en dehors de toute action du pouvoir et sans autorité dans l'État...". "Court of Appeal of Brussels. Second Chamber. The Free University of Louvain is not legally representend the old university in that city. Whereas this University (formerly University of Louvain), established by a papal bull, together with the sovereign authority, formed a body recognized by the State, with different functions, many of which even he was delegated by the civil power. And whereas this body was removed by the laws of the French Republic; Whereas the currently existing university in Leuven can not be regarded as continuing that which existed in 1457, these two establishments with a distinct character, since the currently university is not recognized as legal person, and is institution is entirely private, the result of academic freedom, apart from any action without authority and power in the state."
  6. Four university institutions were founded in the second quarter of the 19th century, but only two were officially recognised as universities and listed alongside the ancient universities in contemporary reference works such as the Penny Cyclopaedia.[44] All four now claim (implicitly) to have been universities from their foundation, with three claiming to be England's third oldest university and one England's fourth oldest university.
  7. Established under the authority of the University of Durham Act 1832.[45] Recognised in the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 and the Established Church Act 1836.[46][47] Incorporated and confirmed by Royal Charter in 1837 and degrees recognised by the Attorneys and Solicitors Act 1837.[48][49] Claims to be third oldest university in England.[50][51]
  8. Established by Royal Charter as degree awarding examining body for King's College London and University College London (see below), the London medical schools, and other institutions.[52] Degrees recognised by the 1837 Attorneys and Solicitors Act.[49] Claims to be third oldest university in England.[53]
  9. Established by Deed of Settlement as an unincorporated joint stock company under the name of London University.[54] Unsuccessful in attempts to gain recognition as a University, but accepted charter of incorporation "not as a University but as a College" in 1836, and was affiliated to the University of London.[55][56] Claims to be third oldest university in England and "the first university to be founded in London".[57][58]
  10. Established by Royal Charter as a College.[59] Claims to be fourth oldest university in England.[60]
  11. Founded as a college in 1822 "to provide a liberal education to members of the clergy" and incorporated by royal charter in 1828.[63] Lost a court case in 1951 against the Ministry of Education seeking to receive recognition as a university.[64] Became a college of the University of Wales in 1971. Merged with Trinity University College to form the University of Wales, Trinity Saint David in 2010.[65] Described by newspapers as the oldest university in Wales.[66][67]
  12. First college established by the Welsh University committee and a founding college of the University of Wales in 1893.[68] Became an independent university (as Aberystwyth University) in 2007.[69] Claims to be "Wales's oldest university".[70]


  1. 1 2 Hyde, J. K. (1991). "Universities and Cities in Medieval Italy". In Bender, Thomas. The university and the city: from medieval origins to the present. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-0-19-506775-0.
  2. Hunt Janin: "The university in medieval life, 1179–1499", McFarland, 2008, ISBN 0-7864-3462-7, p. 55f.
  3. de Ridder-Symoens, Hilde: A History of the University in Europe: Volume 1, Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp. 47–55
  4. Riché, Pierre (1978). Education and Culture in the Barbarian West: From the Sixth through the Eighth Century. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. pp. 126–127, 282–298. ISBN 0-87249-376-8.
  5. Verger, Jacques: "Patterns", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-521-54113-8, pp. 35–76 (35):
  6. Makdisi, George: "Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages", Studia Islamica, No. 32 (1970), pp. 255–264 (264):
  7. 1 2 Rüegg, Walter: "Foreword. The University as a European Institution", in: A History of the University in Europe. Vol. 1: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp. XIX–XX.
  8. Rüegg, Walter (ed.): Geschichte der Universität in Europa, 3 vols., C.H. Beck, München 1993, ISBN 3-406-36956-1
  9. Nuria Sanz, Sjur Bergan: "The heritage of European universities", 2nd edition, Higher Education Series No. 7, Council of Europe, 2006, ISBN, p.136
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  11. "Introduction and history". University of Oxford. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
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  14. "Early records". A brief history of the university. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  15. "800th anniversary". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  16. "News - Dettagli Notizia". Retrieved 2013-08-15.
  17. 1 2 Times Higher Education - QS World University Rankings 2007 - World's oldest universities
  18. International Handbook of Universities. International Association of Universities. 1959.
  19. "History of CU - Charles University". Retrieved 2013-08-15.
  20. "St Andrews: the Mediaeval University" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-07-03.
  21. Quoted from: Chadwick, Owen. The Early Reformation on the Continent. Oxford University Press, 2003. Page 257.
  22. "The University of Barcelona: 599 years of history. The most important dates and events". Universitat de Barcelona. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
  23. "University of Basel - Swiss Universities Handbook - Top Universities in Switzerland". Retrieved 2013-08-15.
  24. "La Universidad de Santiago cumple 500 años". El Mundo (in Spanish). March 22, 1995.
  25. "University of Ghana | Legon". Retrieved 2013-08-15.
  26. Damtew Teferra; et al. (2003). African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook. Indiana University Press. pp. 492–499. ISBN 978-0-253-34186-0.
  27. "Fourah Bay College (1827 – )". Retrieved 3 October 2015.
  28. "University of Cape Town / About the university / Introducing UCT". Retrieved 2013-08-15.
  29. "Historical Background". University of Khartoum. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
  30. "Dhaka College, Dhaka.~ঢাকা কলেজ".
  31. Chittagong College
  32. "Rajshahi College — Quality Education".
  33. 須藤敏夫『近世日本釈奠の研究』(思文閣出版、2001年) ISBN 978-4-7842-1070-1
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  35. 深瀬泰旦著 『天然痘根絶史』 恩文閣出版、2002年9月 ISBN 4-7842-1116-0
  36. "Yangon - From stately city to crumbling symbol of isolation". Reuters. 27 November 2011.
  37. "About Us". Retrieved 2013-08-15.
  38. "Official Website of Panjab University - Panjab University, Chandigarh, India". 1989-05-19. Retrieved 2013-08-15.
  39. "Study in Romanian - Learn & Live Freely". Retrieved 2013-08-15.
  40. "Prezentarea Universităţii | Universitatea Alexandru Ioan Cuza" (in Romanian). 2013-04-23. Retrieved 2013-08-15.
  41. "A significant history". Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
  42. "University of Bucharest - EN Home Page". 1980-01-01. Retrieved 2013-08-15.
  43. "Istanbul Technical University". Retrieved 2013-08-15.
  44. "Universities". Penny Cyclopaedia. Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge: 21. 1843.
  45. Acts Relating to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners for England. 1844. p. 389.
  46. A Collection of Statutes of Practical Utility. p. 225. nothing herein contained shall affect or interfere with the rights and privileges granted by charter or Act of Parliament to the University of Durham
  47. A Collection of Statutes of Practical Utility. 1837. p. 148. that the Bishop of Durham do in future hold the castle of Durham in trust for the University of Durham
  48. "About Durham University - Royal Charter". Durham University. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  49. 1 2 The Statutes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. His Majesty's Statute and Law Printers. 1837. p. 277.
  50. Durham University Undergraduate Prospectus 2015. Durham University. p. 6. We are the third oldest university in England and one of the world's leading centres of scholarship and learning
  51. "". Retrieved 30 September 2015. Henry VIII and Oliver Cromwell's attempts to formally establish a University for the North in Durham were subsumed by politics and North-South rivalries, and it was not until 1832, as the Prince-Bishopric declined lost his powers, was Durham finally endowed with the Castle and lands and granted degree awarding powers by the king as England's third University External link in |title= (help)
  52. University of London – The Historical Record, 1836–1912. University of London. 1912. pp. 7–24.
  53. "History". University of London. Retrieved 30 September 2015. The University of London was founded by Royal Charter on 28 November 1836 and is the third oldest university in England.
  54. The deed of settlement of the University of London.
  55. "London University". Hansard. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  56. "University College London". Penny Cyclopaedia. Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge: 23–28. 1843.
  57. "Living in London". University College London. Retrieved 30 September 2015. London offers a scene and status unrivalled by any other city. UCL, England's third oldest university, is at the heart of what has been described as 'the knowledge capital of the world'.
  58. Undergraduate Prospectus 2015. University College London. p. 7.
  59. The charter and by-laws of King's College, London. 1830.
  60. "About King's". King's College London.
  61. . Queen's University Belfast Retrieved 30 September 2015. Queen's University Belfast was founded as Queen's College in 1845, before becoming a university in its own right in 1908 Missing or empty |title= (help)
  62. "About Us". University of Wales. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  63. "The University of Wales Trinity Saint David celebrates Founders Day". University of Wales Trinity Saint David. 17 November 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  64. "St David's College, Lampeter v Ministry of Education 1951" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-12-30.(PDF)
  65. "University of Wales Trinity Saint David Receives Royal Approval". 23 July 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  66. "End of an era for Lampeter, the oldest university in Wales". The Guardian. 17 April 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  67. "Fears for the future survival of Wales' oldest university". Wales Online. 7 August 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  68. "Early Days". Aberystwyth University. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  69. "College by the sea to College on the hill". Aberystwyth University. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  70. "Investing over £100m in your future". Aberystwyth University. Retrieved 30 September 2015. Together they will ensure that Wales’s oldest university will be well placed to survive the challenges of the twenty-first century – Aberystwyth’s third century of existence.
  71. Missing or empty |title= (help); External link in |website= (help);
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