List of historical capitals of Vietnam

This list of historical capitals of Vietnam includes former capital cities as well as the current capital of Vietnam which is Hanoi. Over the course of history, Vietnam's capital has repeatedly changed.

Capital Period Government Location
Ngàn Hống 2879 BC Hùng Dynasty I Hà Tĩnh
Nghĩa Lĩnh 2879 BC - ? Hùng Dynasty I, II
Phong Châu or Văn Lang Region ? - 258 BC Hùng Dynasty III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV, XVI, XVII, XVIII Phú Thọ
Cổ Loa 257 - 207 BC Thục Dynasty Hanoi's Đông Anh district[1]
939 - 967 Ngô Dynasty
Phiên Ngung 207 - 111 BC Triệu Dynasty Present-day Guangzhou, China
Mê Linh AD 40 - 43 Trưng Sisters circa 40 km to the northwest of central Hanoi
Long Biên 544 – 602 Anterior Lý Dynasty Present-day Hanoi
Hoa Lư 968 - 1010 Đinh Dynasty, Anterior Lê Dynasty, Lý Dynasty Ninh Bình
Thăng Long 1010 - 1400 Lý Dynasty, Trần Dynasty Present-day Hanoi
1428 - 1788 Lê Dynasty, Mạc Dynasty, Trịnh lords
1800 - 1802 Tây Sơn Dynasty
Tây Đô 1400 - 1407 Hồ Dynasty Thanh Hóa
Phú Xuân 1604 - 1775 Nguyễn lords Present-day Huế
1786 - 1945 Tây Sơn Dynasty, Nguyễn Dynasty
Hanoi 1945–present Democratic Republic, Socialist Republic
Saigon 1955 - 1975 Republic of Vietnam Present-day Ho Chi Minh City


  1. Ray, Nick; et al. (2010), "Co Loa Citadel", Vietnam, Lonely Planet, p. 123, ISBN 9781742203898.

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