List of empires

For list of empires by size, see list of largest empires.

This is an alphabetical list of empires. The table may be resorted by other columns if your browser supports this function.

Contents :

Empires and dynasties

Empire Origin Capital From To Duration Note
Achaemenid EmpirePersiaVarious, including Pasargadae, Ecbatana, Persepolis, Susa, Babylon 550 BC 330 BC 220 The first Persian Empire, and the largest one in Classical Antiquity, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Afsharid DynastyPersiaMashhad1736 1796 60
Akkadian EmpireSumerAkkad2300 BC 2200 BC 100
Aksumite EmpireEthiopiaAxum150 940 790Succeeded by the Ethiopian Empire.
Almohad DynastyMoroccoMarrakech, Seville1121 1269 148
Almoravid DynastyMoroccoAghmat (1040–1062), Marrakech (1062–1147)1040 1147 107
Angevin EmpireEngland, FranceNo official capital. Court was generally held at Angers and Chinon1154 1242 88
Armenian EmpireArmeniaTigranakert190 BC 428 618Tigranes the Great took the title king of kings.
Ashanti EmpireWest AfricaKumasi1670 1902 232
Austrian EmpireAustriaVienna1804 1867 63Preceded by the Holy Roman Empire.
Austro-Hungarian EmpireAustria, HungaryVienna, Budapest1867 1918 51Preceded by the Austrian Empire.
Ayyubid DynastyMiddle EastCairo, Damascus, Hama1171 1341 170Founded by Saladin, See also List of Muslim empires and dynasties.
Aztec EmpireMesoamericaTenochtitlan1428 1521 93The capital of Mexico, Mexico City, is built on the ruins of Tenochtitlan.
Babylonian EmpireMesopotamiaBabylon1900 BC 1600 BC 300See also Neo-Babylonian Empire.
BalhaeNorthern part of Korean Peninsula, ManchuriaSanggyeong698 926 228Successor of the Goguryeo.
Belgian Colonial EmpireBelgiumBrussels1901 1962 61Overseas possessions were referred to as "the colonies" rather than an empire.
Benin EmpireNigeriaBenin City1440 1897 457
Bornu EmpireNigeriaNgazargamu1387 1893 506The continuation of the Kanem Empire.
Empire of BrazilBrazilRio de Janeiro1822 1889 67Established after Pedro I of Brazil declared the independence of Brazil from Portugal.
Britannic EmpireBritainLondinium286 296 10Was a break-away state of the Roman Empire. See also Carausian Revolt.
British Colonial EmpireUnited KingdomLondon1603 1997 394The largest Empire in world history. Precursor to the modern Commonwealth of Nations.
British RajIndian SubcontinentCalcutta (1858–1912), New Delhi (1912–1947)1858 1947 89Governed by the Crown and part of the British Empire. Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India in 1876.
Bruneian EmpireBorneoNot specified, possibly Kota Batu1368 1888 520Lasted until it became a British protectorate in 1888.
First Bulgarian EmpireBalkansPliska (680–893), Preslav (893–972), Skopie (972–992), Ohrid (992–1018) 680 1018 338Founded by Khan Asparukh. Under Tsar Simeon I became the first powerful Slavic Empire. Falls to the Byzantine Empire under Emperor Basil II.
Second Bulgarian EmpireBalkansTarnovo1185 1422 237Successor of the First Bulgarian Empire. Under the Tsars Kaloyan and Ivan Asen II became the most powerful state in the Balkans.
Buyid DynastyPersiaShiraz934 1055 121
Byzantine EmpireEastern Roman Empire (Greece, Anatolia, Africa, Palestine, Syria, Italy)Constantinople330 1453 1123Term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages.
Caliphate of CórdobaIberian PeninsulaCórdoba756 1031 275See also Islamic Empire.
Carthaginian EmpireNorth AfricaCarthage650 BC 146 BC 504
Chagatai KhanateTransoxaniaAlmaliq, Qarshi1225 1687 462Division of the Mongol Empire.
Chalukya DynastyIndiaBadami543 753 210
Chera DynastySouthern IndiaVanchi Muthur300 BC 300 600A Tamil Empire.
Chola DynastySouthern IndiaVarious, including Poompuhar, Urayur, Pazhaiyaarai, Thanjavur, Gangaikonda Cholapuram350 BC 1279 1629A Tamil Empire.
Danish colonial empireDenmarkCopenhagen1350 1953 600See also List of former Danish colonies.
Delhi Sultanate Indian SubcontinentDelhi1206 1527 321
Durrani EmpireAfghanistanKandahar, Kabul1747 1823 76
Dutch EmpireNetherlandsAmsterdam1568 1975 407See also Dutch East India Company and Dutch West India Company.
Egyptian EmpireEgyptVarious, including Thebes, Akhetaten, Pi-Ramesses, Memphis3100 BC 30 BC3070See also 18th Dynasty, 19th Dynasty & 20th Dynasty.
Ethiopian EmpireEthiopiaAddis Ababa1137 1974 837
Fatimid CaliphateEgyptMahdia (909–969), Cairo (969–1171) 909 1171 262See also Islamic Empire.
First French empireFranceParis1804 1814/1815 10
Second French EmpireFranceParis1852 1870 18
French colonial empiresFranceParis1534 1980 446End of Empire was formally recognized with the end of French presence in condominium of Vanuatu (see New Hebrides).
Frankish EmpireWestern EuropeVarious, including Soissons, Paris, Reims, Orléans, Metz & Aachen250 950 700
Gallic EmpireRhineland-PalatinateColonia Agrippina260 274 14Broke off from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.
Georgian EmpireGeorgiaKutaisi, Tbilisi1008 1490 482Enstablished at 1008 as an unified kingdom. Georgian kings took title "King of Kings", which ruled over large territory consisted by Georgian, Armenian and Muslim areas, as well as numerous client states. Officially dissolved at 1490 .
German EmpireGermanyBerlin1871 1918 47See also German Colonial Empire.
Ghana EmpireMauritania, and Western MaliKoumbi Saleh790 1240 450The Empire became known in Europe and Arabia as the "Ghana Empire" by the title of its ruler (meaning "Warrior King").
Ghaznavid Dynasty AfghanistanGhazni later Lahore963 1187 224
Ghurid DynastyAfghanistanFiruzkuh1148 1215 67
GoguryeoNorthern part of Korean Peninsula, ManchuriaJolbon, Gungnae City, Pyongyang37 BC 668 705Predecessor of the Balhae.
GoryeoKorean PeninsulaGaegyeong, Ganghwa918 1392 474unification of the Korean Peninsula. State had maintain as empire between 918 and 1274.
Gorkha EmpireGreater Nepal1600 1850 250unification of Greater Nepal. State had maintain as empire between 1600 and 1840.
Göktürk KhaganateInner AsiaÖtüken552 747 195552–603 First empire, 603–658 Double empire, 658–681 Dark age, 681–747 Second empire.
Golden Horde Central AsiaSarai Batu1240 1502 260Break-away state of the Mongol Empire.
Empire of Great FuloSenegalTekrur1514 1776 262
Great Moravian EmpireCentral EuropeMikulčice-Valy833 900 67The word "Moravia" did not refer only to present-day Moravia.
Great Seljuq EmpireAral Sea, Asia Minor, PersiaNishapur and later on Rey1037 1194 157Turkish empire, Predecessor of the Sultanate of Rum.
Gurjara-Pratihara Indian SubcontinentKannauj600 1136 660.founded by great king of Gujjars
Gupta EmpireIndian SubcontinentPataliputra320 550 230founded by of Sri Gupta
Han DynastyChinaChang'an, Luoyang, Xuchang206 BC 220 426
Empire of HarshaNorthern IndiaKannauj606 647 41Founded by Harshavardhana, collapsed after his death.
Hephthalite EmpireAfghanistanKabul420 567 147
Hittite EmpireAnatoliaHattusa1460 BC 1180 BC280See also Neo-Hittite.
Holy Roman EmpireCentral Europeno capital city962 1806 844Officially known as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation from 1512 on.
Hotaki DynastyAfghanistanIsfahan1709 1738 29
Hoysala EmpireIndiaBelur, Halebidu1026 1343 317
Hunnic EmpireEurasiaNot specified370 469 99
Idrisid dynastyMorocco Fes788 974186Founders of the first Moroccan state.
IlkhanatePersiaMaragheh, Tabriz, Soltaniyeh1256 1335 79Division of the Mongol Empire.
Imperial State of IranPersiaTehran1925 1979 54Was the last Imperial dynasty of Iran.
Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyo)Andes (Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, parts of Chile, Argentina and Colombia)Cusco1438 1533 95The largest empire in pre-Columbian America.
Italian Colonial EmpireItalyRome1885 1943 58See also Imperial Italy (fascist).
Empire of JapanJapanTokyo1868 1947 79Emperor's government took control of the country in 1868. Regional hegemony in East Asia ended in 1945. The new constitution of 1947 formally abolished the empire.[1]
Jin dynasty (265–420) ChinaLuoyang (265–311), Chang'an (312–316), Jiankang (317–420)265 420 155Subdivided into two dynasties. Western Jìn Dynasty, (265–316) Eastern Jìn Dynasty (317–420).
Jin dynasty (1115–1234) Northern China, ManchuriaHuining, Zhongdu, Kaifeng1115 1234 119Also known as the Jurchens, were the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty.
Kanem EmpireChadNjimi700 1387 687
Kara-Khanid KhanateTurkistanKashgar840 1212 372First Turkic dynasty to embrace Islam.
Khazar KhaganatePontic steppe, North CaucasusBalanjar, later Atil700 1000 300Founded by Western Turks, the members of the royal family embraced Judaism.
Khmer EmpireCambodia Hariharalaya (802–889), Angkor (889–1431) 802 1431 629Succeeded from the kingdom of Chenla.
Khilji DynastyAfghanistanKabul, Delhi1290 1320 30
Khwarezmid DynastyPersiaUrgench1077 1221 144
Korean EmpireKorean PeninsulaHanseong1897 1910 13Was the last ruling Korean dynasties.
Kushan EmpireAfghanistanVarious, including Mathura, Peshawar, Begram, Taxila30 345 315
Kushite EmpireEgypt, NubiaNot specified760 BC 656 BC 104
Latin EmpireThrace, Asia MinorConstantinople1204 1261 57See also Latinokratia.
Later Lê dynastyVietnamThang Long,Hanoi1428 1789 361
Liao DynastyChinaShangjing915 1125 210
Lodi SultanateAfghanistanDelhi1451 1526 75
Macedonian EmpireMacedonian KingdomPella334 BC 323 BC 11Founded by Alexander the Great.
Majapahit EmpireMalay ArchipelagoMajapahit, Wilwatikta1293 1527 234
Mali EmpireWest AfricaNiani, later Ka-ba1235 1610 375A Mandinka empire founded by Sundiata Keita.
Mamluk SultanateEgypt, SyriaCairo1250 1517 267See also Islamic Empire.
ManchukuoManchuriaHsinking1932 1945 13Created as a Puppet state of the Japanese Empire, with Emperor Puyi (the last emperor of the Qing Dynasty) installed as nominal regent and emperor.
Maratha EmpireIndian SubcontinentRaigad, later Pune1674 1818 144Founded by Shivaji Maharaj, also known as the Maratha Confederacy.
Marinid dynastyMorocco Fes1244 1465221
Mauryan EmpireAncient IndiaPataliputra321 BC 185 BC 136Founded by Chandragupta Maurya. Ashoka the Great transformed it into the first Buddhist empire.
Median EmpirePersiaEcbatana625 BC 549 BC 76First Persian Empire, Founded by Deioces.
First Mexican EmpireMexicoMexico City1821 1823 2Preceded the Second Mexican Empire which was short lived (1864–1867). See also Mexican Imperial Orders.
Second Mexican EmpireMexicoMexico City1864 1867 3Succeeded the First Mexican Empire which was short lived (1821–1823). See also Mexican Imperial Orders.
Ming DynastyChinaNanjing (1368–1421), Beijing (1421–1644) 1368 1644 276
Mongol EmpireMongoliaKarakorum1206 1368 162Split into four empires (Yuan Dynasty, Ilkhanate, Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde). Largest contiguous land empire.
Mughal EmpireIndiaAgra, Delhi1526 1858 332Founded by Babur. "Mughal" is a Persian word for the Mongols.
Nanda EmpireIndian SubcontinentPataliputra450 BC 350 BC 100Dravidian Empire.
Neo-Assyrian EmpireMesopotamiaAssur, later Nineveh934 BC 609 BC 325See also Assyrian Empire.
Neo-Babylonian EmpireMesopotamiaBabylon626 BC 539 BC 87See also Babylonian Empire.
Nguyễn DynastyVietnamPhú Xuân1802 1945 143Was the last ruling Vietnamese Dynasty.
Norwegian EmpireNorwayTrondheim, Sarpsborg, Kungahälla, Bergen, Oslo872 1397 423See also Greater Norway.
Empire of NicaeaBithyniaNicaea1204 1261 57Successor state of the Byzantine Empire.
Northern Yuan DynastyMongoliaShangdu, Yingchang, Karakorum1368 1635 267Created after the expulsion of the Yuan Dynasty from China in 1368.
Omani EmpireOmanMuscat1698 1958 260See Oman.
Ottoman EmpireAnatoliaSöğüt, Bursa, Edirne, Constantinople 1299 1922 623Predecessor of the Republic of Turkey.
Oyo EmpireSouthwestern NigeriaOyo-Ile1400 1905 505
Pala EmpireBengal, East IndiaPataliputra750 1174 424
Palmyrene EmpireSyriaPalmyra260 273 13Broke off from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.
Pandyan EmpireSouthern IndiaMadurai . Also Tirunelveli, Korkai for few years500 BC 1350 1850A Tamil Empire.'
Parthian EmpirePersiaVarious, including Asaak, Hecatompylos, Ecbatana, Ctesiphon, Nisa247 BC 224 471Third Persian Empire, Founded by Arsaces I.
Pontic EmpirePontusAmaseia, Sinope120 BC 47 BC 73Mithridates VI had the title: King of Kings.
Portuguese EmpirePortugalLisbon, Rio de Janeiro (1815–1821)1415 1999 584Was the first global empire and the earliest and longest lived of the colonial Western European empires. See also United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
Ptolemaic EmpireEgyptAlexandria305 BC 30 BC 275See also Diadochi.
Qajar DynastyPersiaTehran1794 1925 131
Qin Dynasty ChinaXianyang221 BC 206 BC 15First dynasty of the Imperial Period.
Qing Dynasty ChinaShenyang, Beijing1644 1912 268Last dynasty of the Imperial Period.
Rashidun CaliphateSaudi ArabiaMedina, Kufa632 661 29Predecessor of the Umayyad Caliphate, See also Islamic Empire.
Rashtrakuta DynastyIndiaManyakheta753 982 229
Roman EmpireGreece, ItalyRome27 BC 476 503 Together with The Roman Republic and Byzantine Empire, direct Roman states lasted from 509 BC until 1453 AD, 1962 years.
Rouran KhaganateInner ChinaNot specified330 555 225
Russian Empire (Romanov)RussiaSaint Petersburg1721 1917 196Successor state of the Tsardom of Russia.
Saadi dynastyMorocco Marrakech1554 1659105Destroyed and colonized the Songhai Empire.
Safavid Dynasty PersiaTabriz, Qazvin, Esfahan1501 1736 235
Saffarid Dynasty AfghanistanZaranj867 1002 135
Sassanid Dynasty PersiaCtesiphon224 651 427Fourth Persian Empire.
Satavahana DynastyIndiaAmaravathi village, Guntur district Dharanikota230 BC 220 450An Andhra Dynasty which preceded the Vengi Dynasty of Andhra.
Samanid Dynasty PersiaBalkh, Bukhara819 999 180
North Sea EmpireDenmarkRibe1016 1035 19See also Viking expansion.
Seleucid EmpirePersia, Mesopotamia, SyriaSeleucia, Antioch312 BC 63 BC 249See also Diadochi.
Serbian EmpireSerbiaSkopje, Prizren1346 1371 25Founded by Stephen Uroš IV (Dušan the Mighty), fell into feudal disarray after his death.
Shu HanChinaChengdu221 263 42See also Three Kingdoms.
Siam EmpireThailandBangkok1782 1932 150
Sikh EmpirePunjab region, IndiaAmritsar1733 1849 116Preceded the British Empire in the Indian subcontinent.
Song Dynasty ChinaBianjing (960–1127), Lin'an (1127–1279) 960 1279 319
Songhai EmpireWest AfricaGao1340 1591 251Former vassal of the Mali Empire which became one of the largest African empires in history.
Spanish EmpireIberian PeninsulaMadrid1402 1975 573Was founded with the conquer of the Canary Islands. It was one of the first global empires.
Srivijaya EmpireMalay ArchipelagoPalembang, Mataram683 1293 610was a powerful ancient thalassocratic Malay empire based on the island of Sumatra, then based on Mataram (Medang Kingdom) under Sailendra's Dynasty
Sui DynastyChinaChang'an581 618 37
Shunga EmpireIndian SubcontinentPataliputra, Vidisa185 BC 73 BC 112Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India.
Swedish EmpireScandinaviaStockholm1611 1718 107See also Swedish overseas colonies.
Tahirid Dynasty PersiaNishapur821 873 52
Tang Dynasty ChinaChang'an (618–904), Luoyang (904–907) 618 907 289Founded By Li Yuan (aka. Emperor Gaozu of Tang).
Tay Son DynastyVietnamPhú Xuân1778 1802 24
Empire of ThessalonicaEpirus, Kingdom of ThessalonicaThessaloniki12241246 42Evolved from the Despotate of Epirus.
Third ReichGermanyBerlin (1933–1945), Flensburg (1945)1933 1945 12Nazi Germany signed a treaty (Tripartite Pact) with the Japanese and Italian Empires.
Tibetan EmpireTibetLhasa755 870 115
Tondo DynastyPhilippinesTondo900 1587 687
Timurid EmpirePersia and Central AsiaSamarkand, Herat1370 1526 156Persianized form of the Mongolian word kürügän, Turko-Mongol Empire.
Tlemcen AlgeriaTlemcen1235 1556321 Zayyanid dynasty
Empire of TrebizondPontusTrebizond1204 1461 257Successor state of the Byzantine Empire and client state of Kingdom of Georgia
Toltec EmpireMesoamericaTollan-Xicocotitlan496 1122 626
Tu'i Tonga EmpireTonga, Pacific OceanMu'a950 1865 915See History of Tonga.
Turgesh KhaganateTurkistanBalasagun699 766 67Founded as a successor of West Turkish empire.
Umayyad CaliphateSyriaDamascus, Córdoba (Capital-in-exile)661 750 89Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate, See also Islamic Empire.
Uyunid dynastyArabianAl-Hasa, Qatif10761253163The Uyunids, were a Sunni Arab dynasty that ruled Bahrain for 163 years, from the 11th to the 13th centuries.
Uyghur KhaganateCentral Asia Ordubaliq 742 848 106742–848 Founded as a successor of Göktürk Khaganate, 848–1036 Gansu state, 856–1209 Turfan state.
Vijayanagara EmpireSouth IndiaVijayanagara1336 1646 310The founding of the original kingdom was based on the principality of Anegondi.
Wari EmpirePeru, BoliviaHuari/Tiwanaku500 1100 600It is a matter of conflict as to whether it was a real organized state that could be called an empire. If so, it would be considered the first empire in the Americas.
Wei EmpireChinaLuoyang220 265 45See also Three Kingdoms.
Western Chalukya EmpireSouth IndiaManyakheta, Basavakalyan973 1189 216
Western Roman EmpireItalyMediolanum, Ravenna395 476 81The western half of the Roman Empire.
Eastern WuChinaWuchang, Jianye229 280 51See also Three Kingdoms.
Western Xia DynastyChinaXingqing1038 1227 189Also called the Tangut Dynasty.
Xin DynastyChinaChang'an9 23 14The Xin Dynasty had only one ruling Emperor.
Yuan DynastyChina, MongoliaDadu1271 1368 97Division of the Mongol Empire. The Yuan emperors had nominal supremacy over western khanates.
Zand DynastyPersiaShiraz1750 1794 44
Zulu EmpireSouth AfricaKwaBulawayo, Ulundi1818 1897 79

Possible and informal empires

These governments, confederations and other entities have sometimes been informally referred to as "empires". Some did not fit the modern definition of empire (e.g. the Delian League), some were self-proclaimed by their first and often last ruler, others were short-lived attempts to turn an existing government into an empire, and there are also instances of the word "empire" being used to refer to unofficial spheres of influence which do not consider themselves empires.

"Empire" Origin Capital From To Duration Note
American EmpireUnited StatesWashington, D.C.1776 Present 240 The concept of an American Empire was first popularized during the presidency of James K. Polk who led the United States into the Mexican–American War of 1846. In recent times the concept has been revived to refer to the sphere of influence of the United States by critics of the United States.
Athenian Empire (Delian League) Ancient GreeceDelos island478 BC 404 BC 74Also known as Delian League. It was an association of Greek city-states.
Second Athenian EmpireAncient GreeceAthens378 BC 355 BC 23Second Athenian Empire, headed by Athens primarily for self-defense against the growth of Sparta and the Persian Empire.
Central African EmpireCentral African RepublicBangui1976 1979 3President Jean-Bédel Bokassa declared himself Emperor Bokassa I.
Empire of ChinaChinaBeijing1915 1916 1Was a short-lived attempt by Yuan Shikai to reinstate the Imperial Monarchy.
First Empire of HaitiNorth AmericaPort-au-Prince1804 1806 2

First Haitian Empire, Jean-Jacques Dessalines declared himself Emperor Jacques I.

Second Empire of HaitiNorth AmericaPort-au-Prince1849 1859 10

Second Haitian Empire, Faustin Soulouque is proclaimed Emperor Faustin I.

Grand Duchy of LithuaniaLithuaniaVilnius1200 1569 369It was the largest state in Europe in the 15th century.
Mayan EmpireCentral AmericaNot specified 250 900 650
Norwegian EmpireNorwayTrondheim, Sarpsborg, Kungahälla, Bergen, Oslo872 1814 942See also List of possessions of Norway The empire was under Danish control from the Kalmar Union and forward, but the possessions remained Norwegian until the end of the Danish rule of Norway. See also Danish colonial empire.
Polish–Lithuanian CommonwealthPoland, LithuaniaKraków1569 1795 226 It was formed by the Union of Lublin in 1569, between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and one of the most populous countries of 16th and 17th-century Europe, with some 390,000 square miles (1,000,000 km2) and a multi-ethnic population of 11 million at its peak in the early 17th century.[2][3][4][5][6][7]
Roman RepublicItalyRome509 BC 27 BC 482 Predecessor of the Roman Empire. Technically a Republic, had imperial holdings throughout its existence.
Soviet EmpireSoviet UnionMoscow1922 1991 69A political term for the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union used by its critics.
Ur III EmpireSumerUr2100 BC 2000 BC 100The dynasty/empire is also known as the Sumerian Renaissance.
Empire of VietnamVietnamHuế1945 1945 0.45A short-lived (March 11 – August 23) puppet state of the Japanese Empire.

See also


  1. "Chronological table 5 1 December 1946 – 23 June 1947". National Diet Library. Retrieved September 30, 2010.
  2. Davies, Norman (1996). Europe: a history. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 554. ISBN 9780198201717. Poland-Lithuania was another country which experienced its 'Golden Age' during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. The realm of the last Jagiellons was absolutely the largest state in Europe.
  3. Wandycz, Piotr Stefan (2001). The price of freedom: a history of East Central Europe from the Middle Ages to the present (2nd ed.). London [u.a.]: Routledge. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-415-25491-5. The multinational character of the Habsburg monarchy was comparable to that of the Commonwealth [...]
  4. McKenna, Amy, ed. (2014). Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. Britannica guide to countries of the European Union. Chicago: Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 203. ISBN 9781615309917. Lithuania was also a powerful empire and dominated much of eastern Europe in the 14th–16th centuries in close alignment with Poland; then, from 1569, it was part of a confederation with Poland [...]
  5. Lozny, Ludomir (2005). "Poland". In Skutsch, Carl. Encyclopedia of the world's minorities. 3. New York [u.a.]: Routledge. p. 963. ISBN 9781135193881. It was indeed an Eastern European empire, a multiethnic and multicultural state with great economic strength and strong military power, controlling most of central and eastern European politics.
  6. Kupisz, Dariusz (2012). "The Polish-Lithuanian army in the reign of King Stefan Bathory (1576–1586)". In Davies, Brian L. Warfare in Eastern Europe, 1500-1800. History of warfare. 72. Boston: Brill. p. 63. ISBN 9789004221963. In terms of territorial expanse in Europe the Polish-Lithuanian state was surpassed only by Russia and the Ottoman Empire and in respect to population was behind only France, Spain, and the German Empire.
  7. Davies, Brian L. (2011). Empire and military revolution in Eastern Europe: Russia's Turkish wars in the eighteenth century. Continuum studies in military history. London [u.a.]: Continuum. p. 29. ISBN 9781441170040. Poland-Lithuania had entered the seventeenth century as one of the great powers in Eastern Europe.
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