List of defunct department stores of the United States

This is a list of defunct department stores of the United States, from small-town one-unit stores to mega-chains, which have disappeared over the past 100 years. Many closed, while others were sold or merged with other department stores.

This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries.

Department stores merged with Federated and May

Many United States department store chains and local department stores, some with long and proud histories, went out of business or lost their identities between 1990 and 2005 as the result of a complex series of corporate mergers and acquisitions that involved Federated Department Stores and The May Department Stores Company with many stores becoming units of Macy's, Inc.. The following is a list of the affected stores, including some local and regional stores that earlier had been absorbed into chains that became part of Federated, May, or Macy's.

Other department stores









District of Columbia




















New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota





Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota







West Virginia


National and regional

See also


  1. Lisicky, Michael J. & Ladd, Lincoln Filene (2012). Filene's: Boston's Great Specialty Store. Arcadia Publishing. p. 55. ISBN 9780738591582.
  2. Swant, Martin (13 June 2011). "Mazer Discount Superstore is closing, owner says". The Birmingham News. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
  3. "Thrifty Drugs Buys 40% Interest in Akron Stores". Los Angeles Times. April 10, 1976. p. C11. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  4. Rivera, Nancy (November 10, 1984). "Akron to Sell Leases to 17 of Its 20 Stores". Los Angeles Times. p. D1. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  5. Bernstein, Harry (February 6, 1985). "AFL-CIO Feels the Heat From Key Democrats: Problems at Akron". Los Angeles Times.
  6. "Blum's 20th Anniversary Sale, M. Blum & Co, The Style Center of San Jose (Ad)". San Jose Evening News. November 17, 1927.
  7. "M. Blum & Co. Not To Be Liquidated". Women's Wear Daily. 61 (53). September 13, 1940. p. 40. Link via ProQuest.
  8. Lull, Gordon F. (April 2011). "Kern County Shapers". Bakersfield Magazine. 28. Archived from the original on 2015-09-04.
  9. Wenner, Gretchen; Cox, John & Edelhart, Courtenay (March 31, 2009). "Gottschalks: Over and out starts now". Bakersfield Californian.
  10. Rinehart, Katherine J. (January 3, 2013). "Streamline-Style Building One of Petaluma's Sleekest". Sonoma County Local History & Genelogy.
  11. "New Department Store: Capwell, Sullivan & Furth Formed; E.C. Capwell Expected to Head". Wall Street Journal. May 13, 1929. p. 7. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  12. "Emporium Capwell Co.". Wall Street Journal. May 4, 1929. p. 4. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  13. "Higher Profits in Store For Emporium Capwell". Barron's. 50 (11). March 16, 1970. pp. 26, 29. Link via ProQuest.
  14. "Emporium Capwell Co. Meeting Is Adjourned Due to Merger Talks". Wall Street Journal. April 24, 1970. p. 6. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  15. "Emporium Capwell Co., Broadway-Hale Stores Agree to a Merger". Wall Street Journal. May 12, 1970. p. 16. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  16. 1 2 David, Kelly (August 15, 1995). "Retailing Mega-Merger: Broadway Stores' Convoluted History". Los Angeles Times.
  17. Faulkner, Jessie (April 18, 2008). "Daly's 'family' celebrates 20 years of gathering". Eureka Times-Standard.
  18. "They Said It Couldn't Be Done, Northpoint Pier, Warren L Simmons, California '47" (PDF). The Shield of Phi Kappa Psi. Phi Kappa Psi. Fall 1977. p. 11.
  19. "June 15 Start Slated On $2 Million Store". Eureka Humboldt Standard. May 23, 1964. pp. 1, 13. (subscription required (help)). (Page 13) Alternate Link(Page 13) via
  20. "New Disco Store Open To Crowds". Nevada State Journal. November 14, 1968. p. 12. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via
  21. Adler, Lee (February 10, 1975). "Carson Disco to close". Reno Evening Gazette. p. 1. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via
  22. "Fedway Store Leases Space in Westwood". Los Angeles Times. April 29, 1952. p. 27. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  23. "Federated Sells Division". Los Angeles Times. May 14, 1968. p. B14. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  24. "Fedway to Open Store in Westwood Monday". Los Angeles Times. August 6, 1953. p. 31. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  25. 1 2 "Fedway to Open Southwest Chain With 7 Stores Costing $20,000,000: Fedway Will Open Southwest". New York Times. May 21, 1952. p. 39. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  26. "Federated Stores Plans To Close Its Operation In Bakersfield, Calif.". Wall Street Journal. November 28, 1967. p. 6. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  27. "Former Frink Property Acquired by Data Express, Inc.". Pasadena Business, April 1960, Page 29.
  28. Chang, Andrea (April 1, 2009). "Gottschalks is going out of business: The 105-year-old regional department store chain plans to liquidate after failing to successfully reorganize its operations under Chapter 11 bankruptcy.". Los Angeles Times.
  29. Sheehan, Tim (January 15, 2011). "Gottschalks still lingers in bankruptcy". Fresno Bee.
  30. Gumz, Jondi (May 3, 2010). "Gottschalks building for sale or lease". Denver Post.
  31. "Former Gottschalks CEO Joe Levy dies at 82". Fresno Bee. February 11, 2014.
  32. "Say Grodins chain will be closed by Jan. 31". Daily News Record. November 6, 1986 via
  33. "Broadway, Hale Merger Voted". Los Angeles Times. June 16, 1950. p. 25. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  34. Getze, John (January 6, 1977). "Hawley Named Chief of Broadway Stores Parent". Los Angeles Times. p. D10. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  35. Watson, Peter (August 28, 1970). "Merger Completed, Broadway Reports Earnings Decline: Broadway". Los Angeles Times. p. C15. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  36. White, George (April 28, 1994). "Carter Hawley to Change Name to Broadway: Retail: Company will ask shareholders to approve the move to help establish a more positive identity for the firm". Los Angeles Times.
  37. "Hamburger Store Sold: Millions Paid In Store Deal Hamburger's". Los Angeles Times. April 1, 1923. p. I1. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  38. "Sale Marks Birthday Of Store Here: May Company Celebrates Founding Forty-six". Los Angeles Times. July 21, 1927. p. A20. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  39. "Store Will Celebrate Tomorrow: May Company's Ninth Anniversary Here to Be Marked". Los Angeles Times. March 25, 1932. p. A5. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  40. "David Hamburger, Civic Leader, Passes at 86: Long Illness Fatal to ...". Los Angeles Times. September 5, 1944. p. A1. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  41. "Daughter of Hamburger Dies in Beverly Hills: Mrs. Jennie Marx, 87". Los Angeles Times. May 22, 1953. p. A1. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  42. "Wilbur May, Son of Store Founder, Dies". Los Angeles Times. January 22, 1982. p. B20. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  43. Herhold, Scott (December 21, 2011). "Herhold: Remembering old downtown San Jose's signature department store". Mercury News.
  44. "Other News". Los Angeles Times. June 4, 1992.
  45. Kelleher, Kathleen (July 12, 1992). "Henshey's, the Westside's First Department Store, Falls Victim to the Economy After 67 Years.: All Sales Final". Los Angeles Times.
  46. "Hilson's". Martinez Historical Society: Walking Tour of Martinez. Archived from the original on 2010-12-29.
  47. Markel, Wendy P. (2009). Berkeley. Arcadia Publishing. p. 41. ISBN 9780738569420. OCLC 299713761.
  48. White, George (June 27, 1992). "Hinshaw's final sale brought out the crowds . . . : . . . that weren't there a week ago. : Departed Stores : Hinshaw's in Arcadia Is Latest Retailer to Be Squeezed Out". Los Angeles Times.
  49. "New Department Stores Chain". Wall Street Journal. March 14, 1925. p. 11. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  50. "Chain Acquires Tacoma Store; B.F. Schlesinger & Sons Buy Department Firm; Rhodes Bros. Inc., Operated for Thirty Years Local Bankers Will Effect New Financing". Los Angeles Times. July 21, 1925. p. 11. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  51. "Store Chain Reorganized: Schlesinger Units In West to Operate Separately". New York Times. August 19, 1933. p. 16. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  52. Hayes, Elinor (August 17, 1960). "Kahn's Department Stores Changing Name to Rhodes". Oakland Tribune. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via
  53. Allen, Annalee & Clausen, Edmund (2005). Oakland. Arcadia Publishing. p. 42. ISBN 9780738530147. OCLC 62146939.
  54. Kern, James E. (2004). Vallejo. Arcadia Publishing. p. 121. ISBN 9780738529097. OCLC 56829052.
  55. "H. Liebes, Subsidiary Of Beck Industries, To Cease Its Business: Firm, Protected From Creditors By Bankruptcy Act, Couldn't Arrange Additional Financing". Wall Street Journal. November 18, 1970. p. 4. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  56. Bormash, Isadore (August 29, 1970). "Liebes In A Move To Pay Its Debts: San Francisco Store Chain Files Under Chapter XI of Bankruptcy Act". New York Times. p. 45. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  57. Martin, Glen (January 31, 1995). "A Struggle for Downtown Petaluma / Stores closing as shoppers turn to malls". San Francisco Chronicle.
  58. Burke, Kathy (March 11, 1976). "$1.5 Million Fire Destroys Landmark Pasadena Store". Los Angeles Times. p. 3. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  59. Burke, Kathy (March 10, 1976). "100 Flee Flames in Pasadena Department Store". Los Angeles Times. p. A1. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  60. "Nash's Store to Mark 75th Birthday Monday". Los Angeles Times. October 4, 1964. p. J16. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  61. "Services Slated For Pasadena Merchant". Los Angeles Times. January 16, 1967. p. B8. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  62. Erdman, Ann (2010-03-04). "Mystery History - Solved". Pasadena PIO. City of Pasadena. Retrieved 2010-11-25.
  63. "Macy Gets Store In San Francisco: Arranges to Acquire O'Connor, Moffatt & Co. Through an Exchange of Stock; Expansion Also Planned; Land Adjoining the West Coast Establishment Is Bought or Leased as Part of Deal More Land Acquired Deal Based on Long Study". New York Times. July 6, 1945. p. 17. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  64. "Becomes Macy's, San Francisco". New York Times. October 17, 1947. p. 36. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  65. 1 2 Kelley, Tim (June 30, 2011). "Historical Context Statement, Mid-Market Historical Survey, Conducted for The San Francisco Redevelopment Agency" (PDF). Tim Kelley Consulting.
  66. "The Sensation of San Francisco! Prager's Retirement Sale", (advertisement)". San Francisco Call. 23 January 1921.
  67. LeBaron, Gaye (March 13, 2005). "Lamenting the loss of the independent department store". The Press Democrat.
  68. "Vornado Inc., Food Giant Inc. OK Merger". Schenectady Gazette. September 30, 1967. p. 19.
  69. "Vornado Realty Trust History". Funding Universe.
  70. "Walker's Store To Slice Cake Today". Los Angeles Times. October 7, 1926. p. A10. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  71. "Silver Jubilee On At Walker's: Fifth-Street Store Observes Twenty-Fifth Anniversary". Los Angeles Times. October 5, 1930. p. A3. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  72. "R. M. Walker Funeral Set: Company's Stores To Close Tuesday When Rites Will Be Conducted". Los Angeles Times. August 30, 1935. p. 12. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  73. "Walker's Store Sold: Owners of Building Pay $1,400,000 for Mercantile House". Los Angeles Times. September 1, 1937. p. A1. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  74. "Fifth St. Store Shares Offered". Los Angeles Times. October 18, 1944. p. 10. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  75. "Walker's Start Building East Long Beach Store". Los Angeles Times. July 25, 1954. p. A6. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  76. "$4,000,000 Store Opens, In Long Beach Center". Los Angeles Times. October 23, 1955. p. E26. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  77. "H. F. Conrad Buys Long Beach Store". Los Angeles Times. June 2, 1953. p. 28. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  78. "Succumbs: R. M. Walker Dies In East; Merchant Identified With Growth of Los Angeles for Thirty-five Years; R. M. Walker Dies In East; Store Owner, Clubman and Philanthropist Stricken on Buying Trip". Los Angeles Times. August 29, 1935. p. 1. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  79. "Handsome Department Store.: New Steele-Faris-Walker Emporium Of Dry Goods Opened--Inspected by a Large Crowd". Los Angeles Times. October 3, 1905. p. II6. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  80. "New Head And Expansion.: Former Chicago Business Man Becomes President Of Fifth-Street Store". Los Angeles Times. February 7, 1909. p. II8. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  81. "Fifth Street Store To Start Building.: Big Broadway Project Will Represent Investment of Over Million and a Half Dollars. Fine Structure to Rise at Fifth and Broadway". Los Angeles Times. August 14, 1921. p. V1. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  82. "Walker's Store in Change of Management". Los Angeles Times. April 13, 1957. p. 13. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  83. "Butler Bros. Unit Acquires L.B. Store". Los Angeles Times. May 8, 1960. p. G6. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  84. "City Products Buys Big Store In California". Chicago Daily Tribune. May 7, 1960. p. A5. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  85. "Walker's To Open In San Diego: Los Angeles Concern Leases Large Building for New Department Store". Los Angeles Times. June 21, 1935. p. A5. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  86. O'Reiley, Tim (September 2, 1985). "Walker-Scott Purchase Part of Ratner Expansion". San Diego Business Journal. 6 (6). p. 5. Link via ProQuest.
  87. "Walker Scott Closing Stores in Downtown, La Jolla in February". Los Angeles Times. July 28, 1984. p. SD_A1. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  88. Ritter, Bill (November 8, 1986). "Walker-Scott to Close All 6 of Its San Diego Stores". Los Angeles Times.
  89. Weinstein Company reports, 1938-1968. OCLC 174263692.
  90. "Weinstein's Closes Its Big Store". San Francisco Chronicle. May 25, 1966.
  91. Kahn, Ava Fran, ed. (2002). "The One-Price Store of David Lubin and Harris Weinstock". Jewish Voices of the California Gold Rush: A Documentary History, 1849-1880. Wayne State University Press. pp. 375–378. ISBN 9780814328590. OCLC 44926858.
  92. Kassis, Annette (2012). Weinstock's: Sacramento's Finest Department Store. The History Press. ISBN 9781609494445. OCLC 798058249.
  93. "White House Department Store Closes". Los Angeles Times. February 1, 1965. p. B6. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  94. Emert, Carol (November 11, 1998). "Whole Earth Closing Last 3 Stores". San Francisco Chronicle.
  95. "Liquidation sale held by Block's". WWD. 151 (112). June 10, 1986. p. 8. Block's, a chain of stores based here [Pocatello] for over 70 years, will close by June 21. The company, owned by Sy Block, president, is undergoing a liquidation sale and five of the 11 units are already closed. The chain's stores are in Idaho and Utah. At its peak, the chain had 14 stores. Link via ProQuest.
  96. "Interco Strides Toward Third Successive Peak". Barron's. April 17, 1967. p. 29. Interco made its first diversification move in 1964, when it bought for 337,679 shares P.N. Hirsch & Co., a chain of junior department stores. At the time, Hirsch had 105 stores. At the 1966 year-end, the division ran 210 stores, located in 16 states in the Midwest, Northwest and South. Last year eight stores were opened in the Midwest. The Hirsch division is also busily expanding in other ways. In January 1966, it purchased four department stores in northern California from W.R. Carithers & Sons, Inc., and in February, the unit acquired all the capital stock of Idaho Department Store Co., Caldwell, Idaho, a chain of 25 stores. In September, Interco acquired Central Hardware Co. and its subsidiary, Witte Hardware Co. Central operates a six-store chain of supermarket-type hardware stores located in Greater St. Louis Link via ProQuest.
  97. "Owners close Twin Falls store". Times-News (Idaho). April 18, 1984. p. B6. Idaho Department Store Co. is taking over the operations of an allied chain, P.N. Hirsch Co., after the sale of 275 Hirsch's 351 stores.
  98. Papajohn, George (October 12, 1987). "McDade & Co. Going Out Of Business". Chicago Tribune.
  99. "Hartmarx sells deJong's". Daily News Record. December 4, 1990 via HighBeam Research. (subscription required (help)).
  100. Erler, Susan (November 16, 2007). "Fetla's Valpo store to close; Inventory not sold will go to store in Knox". The Times of Northwest Indiana.
  101. Kasarda, Bob (November 17, 2007). "Fetla's falls to larger competitors; Store closing doors after more than 90 years". The Times of Northwest Indiana.
  102. Bailey, Jim (September 5, 2009). "Jim Bailey: Giant Store, Kmart were earliest discount stores". Anderson Herald Bulletin.
  103. Lane, James B. (1978). City of the Century: A History of Gary, Indiana. Indiana University Press. p. 202. ISBN 9780253111876. OCLC 3516434.
  104. Hamilton, Tom (September 30, 2009). "K & S Department Store". Kokomo Herald.
  105. King, Susan E. (2005). Richmond. Arcadia Publishing. p. 51. ISBN 9780738539942. OCLC 62470806.
  106. Hagan, Marylee (December 18, 2011). "Historical Treasure: Many memories of the downtown Meis Store". Terre Haute Tribune-Star.
  107. "Meis plans opening in October". Kokomo Tribune. August 9, 1987. p. 4. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via
  108. Podmolik, Mary ellen (November 21, 1986). "Meis chain to be mall tenant". Kokomo Tribune. p. 1. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via
  109. "Signs mark switch to Elder-Beerman". Kokomo Tribune. November 24, 1989. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via
  110. "No big changes planned at Meis". Kokomo Tribune. May 2, 1989. p. 2. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via
  111. Holecek, Andrea (January 22, 2010). "Former Minas employees, customers invited to be a part of history; Grandson of founder of defunct region landmark invites region residents to reminisce for his book". Times of Northwest Indiana.
  112. "The Root Store". Wabash Valley Profile. August 16, 2001. PDF
  113. "Dillard's agrees to sell 26 stores acquired in Mercantile purchase". Deseret News. August 3, 1998.
  114. Fasig, Lisa Biank (August 4, 1998). "Dillard's sells Mercantile stores to May, Proffitt's". Cincinnati Enquirer.
  115. Oljace, Beth (November 27, 2011). "History: Downtown Anderson was the place to shop". Anderson Herald Bulletin.
  116. Hall, Forest M. (1922). "W.W. Wicks Enlisted When Sent On An Errand - Never Returned to Job - Came To Bloomington After War". Historic treasures: true tales of deeds with interesting data in the life of Bloomington, Indiana University and Monroe County--written in simple language and about real people, with other important things and illustrations. Indiana University Press. p. 141. OCLC 4699467.
  117. "Courthouse Square". The City of Bloomington.
  118. Barron, Jim & Barron, Kathie (2011). Wolf and Dessauer: Where Fort Wayne Shopped. The History Press. ISBN 9781609493349. OCLC 767725218.
  119. "Ziesels reunion". Elkhart Truth. September 16, 2009.
  120. Lowe, Joe (May 16, 2012). "Calling All Former S.W. Andersons Employees". WOMI.
  121. Connelley, William Elsey & Coulter, Ellis Merton (1922). "Samuel Walter Anderson". In Kerr, Charles. History of Kentucky. 3. American Historical Society. p. 298. OCLC 680482713.
  122. S. W. Anderson Co. v. Glenn, 43 F.Supp. 334 (W.D. Ky. February 24, 1942).
  123. Boyd, Terry (June 8, 1998). "Dillard's says Bacons name will go". Louisville Business First.
  124. Kleber, John E., ed. (2001). "Ben Snyder's Department Store". The Encyclopedia of Louisville. p. 86. ISBN 9780813121000. OCLC 42726130.
  125. "Ben Synder Buys Mall Space". Bowling Green Daily News. November 30, 1978. p. 1A.
  126. Ribar, Richard (12 September 1979). "New mall opens its doors for business". Bowling Green Daily News. pp. 1A, 16A.
  127. Poole, Shelia M. (June 11, 1987). "Snyder's To Buy 5 Ayres Stores In Kentucky". Lexington Herald-Leader. p. B4. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via NewsBank.
  128. Poole, Shelia M. (July 13, 1987). "Snyder's Takes A Leap Forward Acquisition Of Ayres Stores A Key To Company's Plans". Lexington Herald-Leader. p. D1. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via NewsBank.
  129. "Pennsylvania-based Hess's buys Snyder's store chain". Bowling Green Daily News. 25 September 1987. p. 5-A.
  130. Cooper, Ron (October 5, 1987). "Sale Was Just One Tough Option Snyder's Faced". Business First. 4 (9). p. 1. Link via ProQuest.
  131. Jordan, Jim (December 25, 1987). "Snyder's To Be Renamed Hess's Department Stores". Lexington Herald-Leader. p. E8. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via NewsBank.
  132. Simmons, Amy (February 15, 1988). "Hess's Will Steer Middle-of-the-Road Course". Business First. 4 (28). p. 1. Link via ProQuest.
  133. Koier, Eve (December 26, 1988). "Hess's to Close Dixie Manor Store". Business First. 5 (21). p. 1. Link via ProQuest.
  134. Miller, Kenneth L. (2001). "H.P. Selman and Company". In Kleber, John E. The Encyclopedia of Louisville. p. 408. ISBN 9780813128900.
  135. "Stewart's, Ayres' announce Merger". Bowling Green Daily News. November 3, 1985. p. 4C.
  136. Miller, Kenneth L. (2001). "Stewart's Dry Goods Company". In Kleber, John E. The Encyclopedia of Louisville. pp. 851–852. ISBN 9780813121000. OCLC 42726130.
  137. "Landmark Lexington department store closes". Kentucky New Era. April 6, 1992. p. 1B.
  138. "Aaron Selber". Shreveport Times. August 14, 2013. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
  139. Dresser, Michael (June 19, 1992). "Moves put Hamburgers' future in doubt Chain discusses selling its leases". Baltimore Sun.
  140. 1 2 3 Thornton, Kurt (2014). Battle Creek. Arcadia Publishing. p. 17. ISBN 9781439642849.
  141. Flinn, Gary (November 29, 2008). "Remember when crowds flocked to downtown Flint for holiday shopping". Flint Journal.
  142. 1 2 "Interstate's Chapter XI is tops in shops: Interstate Chapter XI is retailing's biggest". Women's Wear Daily. 128 (102). May 23, 1974. pp. 1, 14. So far 41 Topps discount stores have been closed, 11 are expected to be closed by July 1974 and the remaining nine will also be closed. Of its operating units, 25 are department stores, 43 are discount stores and 48 are toy supermarkets. Link via ProQuest.
  143. "Stanley J. Winkelman, Department Store Executive, 76". The New York Times. 25 August 1999. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
  144. "Equitable of Iowa Unit To Buy J.L. Brandeis For Up to $35 Million". Wall Street Journal (Eastern ed.). December 26, 1986. p. 1. (subscription required (help)). Younkers Inc., a unit of Equitable of Iowa Cos., said it agreed to buy J.L. Brandeis & Sons Inc. Brandeis, owned by Alan Baer of Omaha, Neb., operates 11 department stores in Nebraska and Iowa. Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  145. "Younkers To Buy 11 Brandeis Units". WWD. 152 (125). December 30, 1986. p. 2. Link via ProQuest.
  146. "Brandeis Buys Gold; Gird to Battle Chains: Brandeis Buys Gold; Gird to Battle Chains". Women's Wear Daily. 108 (21). January 30, 1964. pp. 1, 44. J.L. Brandeis & Sons, Inc. has purchase Gold & Co. of Lincoln for an undisclosed amount of cash. The two largest family-owned independent department stores in Nebraska have joined, ostensibly to combat the inroads being made by chain competition. Brndeis, Nebraska's largest department store has six locations, all in Omaha. Gold's has a downtown store covering nearly a square block, plus a warehouse operation, It includes a supermarket and automotive service center. Brandeis owns the local Metropolitan Drug Co. Gold's was founded in 1902 by William Gold, grandfather of its president. Brandeis started business in 1880 by Jonas Brandeis, grandfather of it president. Link via ProQuest.
  147. 1 2 McKee, Jim (November 17, 2013). "The rise and demise of Lincoln-owned department stores". Lincoln Journal Star. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  148. "Gold & Co. Buys Rudge & Guenzel: Deal For Lincoln, Neb., Unit Of Allied Stores Said To Have Involved About $500,000—Closed For Inventory.". Women's Wear Daily. 63 (110). December 4, 1941. p. 1. The Rudge & Guenzel has operated in Lincoln for 54 years. While official confirmation was not forthcoming at press time, it was reported that Gold & Co., Inc. have purchased only the stock and will not continue the operation of the store. Link via ProQuest.
  149. "Store Closings Set By Federal's Chain". New York Times. December 27, 1972. p. 68. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  150. Rolfes, Steven J. (2012). Cincinnati Landmarks. Arcadia Publishing. p. 27. ISBN 9780738593951. OCLC 794708039.
  151. Collins, Glenn (October 8, 1996). "Best Products to Shut 81 Stores and Let 4,500 Workers Go". New York Times.
  152. "Retailer opened Bargain City". Toledo Blade. July 8, 2004.
  153. 1 2 Grabowski, John J., ed. (July 16, 1997). "Gray Drug Stores, Inc.". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University.
  154. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Grabowski, John J., ed. (June 25, 1997). "Cook United, Inc.". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University.
  155. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cuff, Daniel F. (October 2, 1984). "Cook United Files Under Chapter 11". New York Times.
  156. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Brickey, Homer (October 2, 1984). "Cook United Stores Declare Bankruptcy". Toledo Blade. p. 23.
  157. Grabowski, John J., ed. (July 21, 1997). "Bailey Co.". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University.
  158. Albury, Chuck (October 30, 1979). "Cook's Discount Store Is Open". St. Petersburg Times. p. 3.
  159. "Retailing Passes Donenfeld's By - Family Couldn't Find Buyer". Dayton Daily News. December 1, 1991. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via NewsBank.
  160. Gleaves, Rebekah (August 29, 2002). "Wild, Wild West: Once convicted of fraud and in debt to the IRS for a cool million, Steven West is some kind of businessman". New Times Broward-Palm Beach.
  161. "Operation of New Stores To Aid Davidson Brothers". Barron's. 35 (2). January 10, 1955. p. 31. Link via ProQuest.
  162. Grabowski, John J., ed. (July 23, 1997). "BUSINESS, RETAIL". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University.
  163. Barmash, Isadore (September 8, 1988). "Kimco Buys Campeau's Gold Circle". New York Times.
  164. "Goldman's store founder eulogized". Dayton Daily News. August 25, 2010.
  165. Larson, Emily A. (November 25, 2012). "Carroll's was the place to shop". Newark Advocate.
  166. "Davidson Bros., Detroit, Buy Kobacker Stores". Toledo Blade. January 28, 1961. p. 15.
  167. "4 Stores Bought By Davidson Bros.: Michigan Suburban Units of Sams, Inc., Acquired". New York Times. September 20, 1961. p. 41. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  168. "Davidson Bros. Buys Two Companies, Adding 14 Retail Units to Chain". Wall Street Journal. January 30, 1961. p. 13. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  169. Speck, William D. (2003). Toledo: A History in Architecture : 1914 to Century's End. Arcadia Publishing. p. 57. ISBN 9780738532042. OCLC 53886976.
  170. "Lima Store Is Sold To Dayton Chain: Leader Was Last Of Home-Owned Outlet In City". Toledo Blade. February 14, 1974. p. 1.
  171. 1 2 "The May Department Stores Company Announces Robinsons And May Company To Become Robinsons-May; Kaufmann's And May Company To Become Kaufmann's". PRNewswire (Press release). October 16, 1992 via The Free Library.
  172. 1 2 "Earnings Decline At Allied Stores: Sales Off With Closing Of 4 Units In April 30 Quarter". New York Times. May 26, 1969. p. 67. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  173. "Born In A Barn". Sandusky Register. June 28, 1967. p. 12. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via
  174. "Mr Wiggs' Payroll Has Grown To 470 At All Locations". Sandusky Register. June 29, 1967. p. 14. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via
  175. "Mr. Wiggs Plans Department Store Here". Park City Daily News. August 30, 1970. p. 1.
  176. "Mr. Wiggs has new Manager". Piqua Daily Call. April 17, 1975. p. 9. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via
  177. "Revco Sets Purchase of Stores". Athens Messenger. February 2, 1971. p. 2. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via
  178. "Mr. Wiggs Expands Present Site To 100,000 Sq. Feet". Sandusky Register. September 14, 1977. p. 11. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via
  179. "Bargain Fair Takes Over Building". Sandusky Register. March 1, 1963. p. 16. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via
  180. "2 Stores In Ohio Bought By Allied: Halle Sells Units In Canton For $1,250,000; Size Of One Will Be Doubled Companies Plan Sales, Mergers". New York Times. September 14, 1955. p. 49. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  181. "Allied Stores to Shed Polsky's Unit in Ohio, Sell Akron Properties". Wall Street Journal. November 2, 1978. p. 16. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  182. "Mr. Rattenberg is Progressive". Newark Advocate. January 22, 1910. p. 3. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via
  183. "Rink Store Chain Bought By Gray Drug". St. Petersburg Evening Independent. June 22, 1964. p. 2. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via
  184. Goodman, Rebecca (January 5, 2007). "Fun-loving Hyman Ullner founded Rink's, did TV ads". Cincinnati Enquirer.
  185. "Lining up for a bargain at Rink's". Lima News. August 23, 2013. Archived from the original on May 7, 2015.
  186. Perry, D. (1969). Vas you ever in Zinzinnati?. Garden City, N.Y: Doubleday. p. 118. OCLC 412693.
  187. Albaugh, Patti R. "Main Street Merchant: Dedicated to the Customers and Employees of Dowd's-Rudin's and Rudin's".
  188. Grabowski, John J., ed. (March 27, 1998). "Sterling-Lindner Co.". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University.
  189. Orth, Samuel Peter (1910). A History of Cleveland, Ohio: Biographical. S.J. Clarke Publishing Company. pp. 939–940. OCLC 732890.
  190. Faircloth, Christopher (2009). Cleveland's Department Stores. Arcadia Publishing. p. 17. ISBN 9780738560762. OCLC 299713633.
  191. "Allied Stores Unit in Ohio Sold to Real Estate Firm". Wall Street Journal. July 9, 1968. p. 17. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  192. "Another Store in Cleveland Purchased by Allied Stores". Wall Street Journal. March 12, 1949. p. 2. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  193. Kenney, Kimberly A. (2003). Canton: A Journey Through Time. Arcadia Pub. pp. 49–50, 140–141, 154. ISBN 9780738524511. OCLC 53947073.
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  195. 1 2 Brandt, Steve (December 23, 1996). "Cincinnati retail: A whole lotta shakin' going on". Cincinnati Business Courier. 13 (33). p. 9B. Link via ProQuest.
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  197. Peale, Cliff (December 7, 1995). "Swallen's shuts doors". Cincinnati Post. p. 1A. Link via NewsBank.
  198. "Columbus, Ohio, Store Plans To Merge Into Allied Stores". Wall Street Journal. August 14, 1948. p. 3. (subscription required (help)). Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  199. Grabowski, John J., ed. (July 23, 1997). "William Taylor Son & Co.". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University.
  200. Ryan, Carl (June 24, 2010). "Store-chain owner had over 1,000 employees". Toledo Blade.
  201. "Uhlmans Opens New Bowling Green Store". Bryan Times. January 22, 1965. p. 8.
  202. Michaels, Dave (July 21, 2012). "Romney firm scored big in Texas with Stage Stores but exited years before its bankruptcy". Dallas News.
  203. Winski, Joseph (March 8, 1980). "Fields agrees to buy six 'The Union' stores in Ohio". Chicago Tribune. p. N_B7. Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  204. Dunham, Tom (2012). Springfield, Ohio: A Summary of Two Centuries. Author House. ISBN 9781477261934. OCLC 857903032.
  205. Humphrys, Mark. "Wren's Department Store, Springfield, Ohio". The genealogy site of Mark Humphrys.
  206. Rockel, William Mahlon (1908). 20th century history of Springfield, and Clark County, Ohio, and representative citizens. Chicago: Biographical Publishing Co. OCLC 798059681.
  207. "Charles E. Ziegler: Owned Ziegler's Department Store in Medina". Cleveland Plain Dealer. November 25, 2008.
  208. Rutberg, Sidney (August 4, 1986). "Can John Wanamaker be turned into big money maker? (column)". Daily News Record. Retrieved 2009-02-12 via HighBeam Research.
  209. 1 2 Sigafoos, R.A. (1979). Cotton Row to Beale Street: A business history of Memphis. Memphis State University Press. ISBN 9780878700684. OCLC 5336899.
  210. "Fedway Stores' Largest Unit Will Be in Corpus Christi". Wall Street Journal. December 11, 1951. p. 9. Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  211. "Fedway Tribute Hailed In Texas: Lazarus Cites Population Movement to Smaller Cities, Warm Climates". New York Times. October 5, 1952. p. F12. Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  212. Springfield Plaza in the '70s
  213. "Korvettes Closes Its Last 17 Stores". New York Times. December 30, 1980. p. D3. (subscription required (help)). Korvettes Inc. has closed its 17 remaining department stores, a company spokesman said. The chain, which operated 50 stores a year ago and which pared its staff to less than 3,000 from 11,000, shut down its remaining outlet on Christmas Eve. Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  214. Koch, Nora (February 16, 1997). "Leggett has run up its last sale Shopping: After 32 years, the Leggett stores, including the one at Cranberry Mall, have become Belk stores". Baltimore Sun.
  215. "Amazing Savings Makes Cash Bid For Odd Job Stores". New York Times. June 5, 2003.
  216. "Odd Job Stores, Inc. Announces Completion of Business Combination with Amazing Savings Holding LLC". Business Wire (Press release). November 14, 2003.
  217. Weber, Lauren (January 12, 2005). "Amazing Savings files bankruptcy". Newsday.
  218. "Big Shoe Producer Buys P.N. Hirsch; The International Shoe Company of St. Louis, acquired the P.N. Hirsch & Co. yesterday through exchange of stock valued at about $9.5 million.". New York Times. April 14, 1964. Alternate Link
  219. "Dollar General Buys P.N. Hirsch Stores". Cape Girardeau Bulletin Journal. October 20, 1983. p. D1.
  220. "Dollar General To Buy Local P.N. Hirsch Store". Kentucky New Era. October 19, 1983. p. 6C.

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