List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names

The following is a partial list of adjectival forms of place names in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these places.

Note: Demonyms are given in plural forms. Singular forms simply remove the final 's' or, in the case of -ese endings, are the same as the plural forms. The ending -men has feminine equivalent -women (e.g. an Irishman and a Scotswoman). The French terminations -ois / ais serve as both the singular and plural masculine; adding 'e' (-oise / aise) makes them singular feminine; 'es' (-oises / aises) makes them plural feminine. The Spanish termination "-o" usually denotes the masculine and is normally changed to feminine by replacing the "-o" with "-a". The plural forms are usually "-os" and "-as" respectively.

Adjectives ending -ish can be used as collective demonyms (e.g. the English, the Cornish). So can those ending in -ch / -tch (e.g. the French, the Dutch) provided they are pronounced with a 'ch' sound (e.g., the adjective Czech does not qualify).

Where an adjective is a link, the link is to the language or dialect of the same name. (Reference: Ethnologue, Languages of the World)

Many place-name adjectives and many demonyms refer also to various other things, sometimes with and sometimes without one or more additional words. (Sometimes, the use of one or more additional words is optional.) Notable examples are cheeses, cat breeds, dog breeds, and horse breeds. (See List of words derived from toponyms.)



Entries in italics are continental regions.

Name Adjective Demonym
Africa African Africans
Afro-Eurasia Afro-Eurasian Afro-Eurasians
Antarctica Antarctic Antarctican
Americas Americana Americansa
Asia Asian Asians
Middle East Middle Eastern Middle Easterners
Australasia Australasian Australasians
Australia Australianb Australiansb
Eurasia Eurasian Eurasians
Europe European Europeans
North America North American North Americans
Central America Central American Central Americans
Oceania Oceanian Oceanians
South America South American South Americans

aUsually used to identify specifically the United States of America or its people.
bUsually used to identify specifically the Commonwealth of Australia or its people.

Subcontinental regions

Countries and nations

States, Provinces, Regions and Territories

Australian states and territories

State/territory Adjective Demonym
Australian Capital Territory Canberran Canberrans  
New South Wales New South Welsh New South Welshmen "Waratahs", "Cockroaches", "Blues"
Northern Territory Northern Territory Territorians "Top Enders"
Queensland Queensland Queenslanders "Banana Benders", "Cane Toads", "Maroons"
South Australia South Australian South Australians "Crow Eaters"
Tasmania Tasmanian Tasmanians "Apple Eaters", "Taswegians", "Tazzies"
Victoria Victorian Victorians "Vics", "Mexicans"
Western Australia Western Australian Western Australians "Sandgropers", "Westralians"

Canadian provinces and territories

Province Adjective Demonym
Alberta Albertan Albertans
British Columbia British Columbian  ("B.C.") British Columbians "B.C.ers"
Manitoba Manitoban Manitobans
New Brunswick New Brunswick New Brunswickers
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundlanders, Labradorians "Newfies"
Northwest Territories Northwest Territorian   ("N.W.T.")Northwest Territorians "N.W.T.ers"
Nunavut Nunavut Nunavummiut (sing. Nunavummiuq)
Nova Scotia Nova Scotian Nova Scotians "Bluenosers"
Ontario Ontario Ontarians
Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island, P.E.I., Island Islanders
Quebec Quebec
French: Québécois (masc.), Québécoise (fem.)
Quebeckers, Quebecers
French: Québécois
Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Saskatchewanians "Flat-Landers"
Yukon Yukon Yukoners "Sourdoughs"

Federated states and other territories of Germany

State/territory Adjective Demonym
Baden-Wuerttemberg (federated state)  
Bavaria (federated state) Bavarian Bavarians
Berlin (federated state) Berliners
Brandenburg (federated state) Brandenburgish Brandenburgers
Franconia Franconian Franconians
Free Hanseatic City of Bremen
Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg Hamburgish Hamburgers
Hannover (ancient German state) Hanoverian Hanoverians
Hesse (federated state) Hessian Hessians
Lower Saxony (federated state) Lower Saxon Lower Saxons
Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (federated state)
North Rhine - Westphalia (federated state) North Rhine - Westphalian North Rhine - Westphalians
Pomerania (ancient German territory) Pomeranian Pomeranians
Prussia (ancient German state) Prussian Prussians
Rhineland (area) Rhenish Rhinelanders
Rhineland-Palatinate (federated state)
Saarland (federated state) Saarlanders
Saxony (federated state) Saxon Saxons
Saxony-Anhalt (federated state)
Silesia (ancient German territory) Silesian Silesians
Schleswig-Holstein (federated state)
Swabia (South German area and ancient territory) Swabian Swabians
Thuringia (federated state) Thuringian Thuringians

Indian states and territories

State or territory Adjective Demonym
Andaman and Nicobar Islands [1] Andamanese[1]
Andhra Pradesh Andhraite Andhraites Teluguvaaru
Arunachal Pradesh Arunachali Arunachalis
Assam Assamese[1] Assamese
Bihar Bihari[1] Biharis
Chandigarh Chandigarhi Chandigarhis
Chhattisgarh Chhattisgarhi Chhattisgarhis
Dadra and Nagar Haveli Dadran
Nagar Havelian
Nagar Havelians
Daman and Diu Damanese
Delhi Delhiite, Delhian Delhiites, Delhians
Goa Goan,[1] Goenkar, Goanese[1] Goans, Goenkars, Goanese
Gujarat Gujarati[1] Gujaratis
Haryana Haryanvi Haryanvis _
Himachal Pradesh Himachali Himachalis
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu
Jharkhand Bihari Biharis
Karnataka Karnatakan, Canarese[1] [1] Karnatakans, Canarese, Kannadiga Carnatic
Kerala Keralite Keralites Malayalis
Lakshadweep (Laccadives) Laccadivian Laccadivians
Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradeshi Madhya Pradeshis
Maharashtra Maharashtrian[1] Maharashtrians Marathi
Manipur Manipuri[1] Manipuris
Meghalaya Meghalayan Meghalayans
Mizoram Mizo[1] Mizos
Nagaland Naga,[1] Nagalandese Nagas
Odisha Odia[1] (Odia) [of the people]
Odishan (Orissan) [of the state]
Odissi (Orissi)[1]
Odias (Odias)
Odishans (Orissans)
Puducherry (formerly Pondicherry) Pondicherrian Pondicherrians _
Punjab Punjabi[1] Punjabis
Rajasthan Rajasthani[1] Rajasthanis
Sikkim Sikkimese[1] Sikkimese
Tamil Nadu Tamil,[1] Tamilian Tamils, Tamilians
Telangana Telanganite Telanganites
Tripura Tripuri, Tripuran Tripuris, Tripurans
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradeshi Uttar Pradeshis
Uttarakhand Uttarakhandi Uttarakhandis
West Bengal (West) Bengali,[1] (West) Bengalese,[1] Bangla[1] (West) Bengalis, (West) Bengalese, Banglas

Malaysian states and territories

State / Territory Adjective Demonym
Johor Johorean Johoreans Southerners
Kedah Kedahan Kedahans
Kelantan Kelantanese Kelantanese East Coasters
Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpurian Kuala Lumpurians Federal Territorians, KL-ites
Labuan Labuanese Labuanese Federal Territorians
Malacca Malaccan Malaccans
Negeri Sembilan Negeri Sembilanese Negeri Sembilanese Negrians
Pahang Pahangite Pahangites
Penang Penangite Penangites Penang Islanders
Perak Perakian Perakians
Perlis Perlisian Perlisians
Putrajaya Putrajayan Putrajayans Federal Territorians
Sabah Sabahan Sabahans Borneoans
Sarawak Sarawakian Sarawakians Borneoans
Selangor Selangorean Selangoreans
Terengganu Terengganuan Terengganuans East Coasters
Peninsular (West) Malaysia Peninsular, West Malaysian Peninsularians, West Malaysians
East Malaysia East Malaysian East Malaysians Borneoans

States of Mexico

Main article: States of Mexico
Federal entity Adjective Demonym
Aguascalientes Hidrocálido/-a
Baja California Lower Californian Bajacaliforniano/-a
Baja California Sur South Lower Californian Sudcaliforniano/-a
Campeche Campechan Campechano/-a
Chiapas Chiapan Chiapaneco/-a
Chihuahua Chihuahuan Chihuahuense
Colima Colimense
Coahuila Coahuilan Coahuilense
Distrito Federal Defeño/-a "Chilango"
Durango Durangoan Duranguense
Guerrero Guerreran Guerrerense
Guanajuato Guanajuatense
Hidalgo Hidalguense
Jalisco Jaliscan Jalisciense
Michoacán Michoacano/-a
Morelos Morelense
Mexico Mexican Mexiquense
Nayarit Nayarita
Nuevo León Neoleonés
Oaxaca Oaxacan Oaxaqueño/-a
Puebla Pueblan/Poblano Poblano/-a
Quintana Roo Quintanaroan Quintanarroense
Querétaro Queretan Queretano/-a
Sinaloa Sinaloan Sinaloense
San Luis Potosí Potosino/-a
Sonora Sonoran Sonorense
Tabasco Tabasqueño/-a
Tlaxcala Tlaxcalteco/ -a
Tamaulipas Tamaulipan Tamaulipeco/-a
Veracruz Veracruzano/-a
Yucatán Yucateco/-a
Zacatecas Zacatecan Zacatecano/-a
  1. Capitalino is often used to refer to people from Mexico City; however, capitalino can be used to refer to people from any state capital. "Defeño" and "Chilango" are listed by the Royal Spanish Academy

New Zealand regions

Region/Island Adjective Demonym
Auckland Region Auckland Aucklanders "Jafas"
Bay of Plenty Region Bay of Plenty Bay of Plentiers "BOPians"
Canterbury Region Canterbury Cantabrians "Cantabs"
Gisborne Region East Coast, Gisborne East Coasters, Gisbornians
Hawke's Bay Region Hawke's Bay Hawke's Bayers
Manawatu-Wanganui Region Manawatu, Wanganui Manawatuans, Wanganuians
Marlborough Region Marlborough Marlburians
Nelson Region Nelsonian Nelsonians
Northland Region Northland Northlanders
Otago Region Otago Otagoites
Southland Region Southland Southlanders
Taranaki Region Taranaki Taranakians
Tasman Region Tasman Tasmanites
Waikato region Waikato Waikatoans "Mooloos"
Wellington Region Wellington, Wellingtonian Wellingtonians
West Coast Region West Coast West Coasters "Coasters"
North Island North Island North Islanders
South Island South Island / Mainland South Islanders "Mainlanders"
Stewart Island Stewart Island Stewart Islanders
Chatham Islands Chatham Chatham Islanders

Philippine provinces

U.S. states

Regions in Greco-Roman antiquity

Regions tracing their origins (or otherwise referenced) in Greco-Roman antiquity [in cases where ancient regions are extant, this table is limited to cases where the present-day regional names retain their original/ancient form].

(References: Herodotus' "Histories"; Thucydides' "Peloponnesian War"; Pausanias' "Description of Greece"; Lemprière's Bibliotheca Classica; Leverett's 1838 edition of the "Lexicon of the Latin Language"; Freeman's "The History of Sicily..."; et al.)

Name Adjective Demonym
Acarnania Acarnanian Acarnanians
Achaea Achaean Achaeans
Aegina Aeginetan Aeginetans
Aethaea Aethaean Aethaeans
Aetolia Aetolian Aetolians
Andalusia Andalusian Andalusians
Apulia Apulian Apulians
Aquitania Aquitanian Aquitanians
Arcadia Arcadian Arcadians
Argos Argive Argives
Arretium Arretine Arretines
Athens Athenian Athenians
Bactria, Bactriana Bactrian Bactrians
Bavaria Bavarian Bavarians
Boeotia Boeotian, Beotian Boeotians, Beotians
Boiohaemum Boius Boii
Bosporus, Bosphorus Bosporan, Bosphoran Bosporans, Bosphorans
Bruttium (Bruttus ?), Bruttian Brutti, Bruttians
Byzantium Byzantine Byzantines
Calabria Calabrian Calabrians
Campania Campanian Campanians
Cantabria Cantabrian Cantabrians
Caria Carian Carians
Carthage Carthaginian Carthaginians
Carystus Carystian Carystians
Catalonia Catalan, Catalonian Catalans, Catalonians
Cephalonia Cephalonian Cephalonians
Chalcis Chalcidian Chalcidians
Chios Chiot Chiots
Colchis Colchian Colchians
Colossae Colossian Colossians
Consentia Consentian Consentians
Corcyra Corcyrean Corcyreans
Corsica Corsican Corsicans
Crete Cretan Cretans
Croton Crotonian Crotonians
Cyclades Cycladian Cycladians
Cyprus Cypriot, Cypriote Cypriots, Cypriotes
Cyrenaica Cyrenaic Cyrenaics
Cyrene Cyrenian Cyrenians
Dacia Dacian Dacians
Dalmatia Dalmatian Dalmatians
Delos Delian Delians
Dodecanese Dodecanesian Dodecanesians
Edonia Edonian Edonians
Egesta Egestan Egestans
Eleusina or Eleusis Eleusian, Eleusinian Eleusians, Eleusinians
Elis or Eleia Elian Elians
Ephesus Ephesian Ephesians
Epidamnus or Epidamnos Epidamnian Epidamnians
Epidaurus Epidaurian Epidaurians
Epirus Epirote Epirotes
Eretria Eretrian Eretrians
Etruria Etruscan Etruscans
Euboea Euboean Euboeans
Galatia Galatian Galatians
Gallaecia Gallaecus Gallaeci
Gallia or Gaul Gaulish Gauls
Germania Germanic, Germanus Germanic, Germani
Iberia Iberian Iberians
Illyria Illyrian Illyrians
Ionia Ionian Ionians
Kalymnos Kalymnian Kalymnians
Kaulonia Kaulonian Kaulonians
Knossos Knossian Knossians
Lakedaimon/ia or Lakedaemon/ia Lakedaimonian or Lakedaemonian Lakedaimonians or Lakedaemonians
Larissa Larissan Larissans
Latium Latin Latins
Leontini, Leontium Leontinian Leontinians
Lesbos Lesbian Lesbians
Locris Locrian Locrians
Lucania Lucanian Lucanians
Lydia Lydian Lydians
Macedonia Macedonian Macedonians
Maeonia Maeonian Maeonians
Mantineia Mantinean Mantineans
Marathon Marathonian Marathonians
Media Median Medes, Medians
Megara Megarian Megarians
Melite Melitian Melitians
Melos Melian Melians
Mesopotamia Mesopotamian Mesopotamians
Messenia Messenian Messenians
Miletus Milesian Milesians
Mithymna or Methymna Methymnian Methymnians
Moravia Moravian Moravians
Mycenae Mycenaean Mycenaeans
Mytilene Mytilenean Mytileneans
Naupactus or Nafpaktos Naupactian Naupactians
Naxos Naxian Naxians
Nisyros Nisyrian Nisyrians
Oea Oean Oeans
Olympia Olympian Olympians
Oiniades, Oiniadai Oiniadan Oiniadans
Orkney Islands Orcadian Orcadians
Paeonia or Paionia Paeonian Paeonians
Pamphylia Pamphylian Pamphylians
Paros Parian Parians
Patmos Patmian Patmians
Peloponnese Peloponnesian Peloponnesians
Pergamum Pergamian Pergamians
Persia Persian Persians
Philippi Philippian Philippians
Phlius Phliasian Phliasians
Phocis Phocian Phocians
Phoenicia Phoenician Phoenicians
Phrygia Phrygian Phrygians
Pisidia Pisidian Pisidians
Pontus Pontian Pontians
Pylos Pylosian Pylosians
Rhegion Rhegian, Rhegine Rhegians, Rhegines
Rhodes Rhodian Rhodians
Rhithymna, Rhithymnia, Rithymna Rhithymnian Rhithymnians
Rome Roman Romans
Sabinium Sabine Sabines
Salamis Salaminian Salaminians
Samnium Samnite Samnites
Samos Samian Samians
Sardinia Sardinian, Sardi Sardinians, Sardi
Sardis Sardianus, Sardian Sardiani, Sardians
Sarmatia Sarmatian, Sarmata, or Sauromata Sarmatians, Sarmatae, or Sauromatae
Scythia Scytha, Scythian Scythae, Scythians
Serrae, Serrhae Serrean Serreans
Serica Sere Seres
Sicily Sicilian Sicilians
Sicyon Sicyonian Sicyonian
Sidon, or Saïda Sidonian Sidonians
Silesia Silesian Silesians
Skopelos Skopelitan Skopelitans
Sparta Spartan Spartans
Suebia Suebius Suebi
Symi Symian Symians
Syracuse Syracusan Syracusans
Taras, Tarentum Tarentine, Tarentumian Tarentines, Tarentumians
Tegea Tegean Tegeans
Tenedos Tenedian Tenedians
Tenedos Tenedian Tenedians
Thasos Thasian Thasians
Thebes Theban Thebans
Thespis Thespian Thespians
Thessaly Thessalian Thessalians
Thrace Thracian Thracians
Thria Thriasian Thriasians
Thuria Thuriat Thuriats
Thurii Thurian Thurians
Thynia Thynian Thynians
Trichonos Trichonian Trichonians
Troezen Troezenian Troezenians
Troy Trojan Trojans
Umbria Umbrian Umbrians
Xanthi Xanthian Xanthians
Zakynthos Zakynthian Zakynthians

Other former nations and regions

Ancient civilizations, former colonies, renamed countries and regions, annexations, secessions, etc. (other than Greco-Roman, which see above).

Fictional regions

Name Adjective Demonym
Atlantis Atlantean, Atlantine Atlanteans, Atlantans
Aloria Alorn Alorns
Andor Andorian Andorians
Attilan Inhumans
Blefuscu Blefuscudian Blefuscudians
Brobdingnag Brobdingnagian Brobdingnagians
Laputa Laputian Laputans
Lilliput Lilliputian Lilliputians
Cardassia Prime Cardassian Cardassians
Bajor Bajoran Bajorans, Bajora
Ferenginar Ferengi Ferengi
Gallifrey Gallifreyan Gallifreyans
Genosha Genoshan Genoshans
Latveria Latverian Latverians
Luggnagg Struldbrugs
Narnia Narnian Narnian
Oz Ozian Ozite[2]
Qo'noS Klingon Klingons
Remus Reman Remans
Rohan Rohirric Rohirrim
Romulus Romulan Romulans
Skaro Skaroene, Skarosian Skarosians
Sontar Sontaran Sontarans
Utopia Utopian Utopians
Wakanda Wakandan Wakandans
Vulcan Vulcan, Vulcanian Vulcans


See also


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.
  2. Baum, L. Frank (1908). Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz. United States: Reilly & Britton. p. 272.

External links

Look up demonym or gentilic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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