List of Turkic dynasties and countries

The following is a list of dynasties, states or empires which are Turkic-speaking, of Turkic origins, or both. There are currently five recognized Turkic sovereign states. Additionally, there are six federal subjects of Russia in which a Turkic language is a majority, and three where Turkic languages are the minority, and also Crimea, a disputed territory between Ukraine and Russia where Turkic languages are the minority. There have been numerous Turkic confederations, dynasties, and empires throughout history across the Eurasian continent.

World map with present-day independent recognized Turkic countries highlighted in red
The maximum extent of the Safavid Empire under Shah Abbas I.
The Seljuk Empire, highlighted in orange, at its greatest extent in 1092 AD
The Ottoman Empire at its greatest extent.
The Turkic Khaganate at its greatest extent, in 576 AD under Ishbara Qaghan, before the Göktürk civil war
Flag of the Turkic Council

Contemporary entities with at least one Turkic language recognized as official

Republic Day

Name Years
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan May 28, 1918
Turkey Turkey October 29, 1923
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan October 14, 1924
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan October 27, 1924
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan June 19, 1925
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan August 22, 1991

Current independent states

Name Years
Turkey Turkey 1923 85% Turkish, 15% Others.
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 1991 91.6% Azerbaijanis, 0.29% Tatars.[1]
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 1991 63.1% Kazakhs, 2.9% Uzbeks, 1.4% Uyghurs, 1.3% Tatars, 0.6% Turkish, 0.5% Azerbaijanis, 0.1% Kyrgyz.[2]
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 1991 70.9% Kyrgyz, 14.3% Uzbeks, 0.9% Uyghurs, 0.7% Turkish, 0.6% Kazakhs, 0.6% Tatars, 0.3% Azerbaijanis.[3]
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 1991 75.6% Turkmens, 9.2% Uzbeks, 2.0% Kazakhs, 1.1% Turkish 0.7% Tatars[4]
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 1991 71.4% Uzbeks, 4.1% Kazakhs, 2.4% Tatars, 2.1% Karakalpaks, 1% Crimean Tatars, 0.8% Kyrgyz, 0.6% Turkmens, 0.5% Turkish, 0.2% Azerbaijanis, 0.2% Uyghurs, 0.2% Bashkirs.[5]

De-facto state

Recognized only by Turkey and by the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.

Name Years
Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus[6] 1983 67.54% Turkish Cypriots, 32.45% Turkish

Federal subjects of Russia

Turkic nations where Turkic peoples are a majority
 Bashkortostan 2010 – 29.5% Bashkirs, 25.4% Tatars, 2.7% Chuvash
 Chuvashia 2010 – 67.7% Chuvash, 2.8% Tatars
 Karachay-Cherkessia 2010 – 41.0% Karachays, 3.3% Nogais
 Tatarstan 2010 – 53.2% Tatars, 3.1% Chuvash
 Tuva 2010 – 82% Tuvans, 0.4% Khakas
Sakha Republic Sakha Republic 2010 – 49.9% Yakuts, 0.2% Dolgans, 0.9% Tatars
Turkic nations where Turkic peoples are a minority
 Altai Republic 2010 – 34.5% Altais, 6.2% Kazakhs
 Kabardino-Balkaria 2010 – 12.7% Balkars
 Crimea 2010 – 12.6% Crimean Tatars
 Khakassia 2010 – 12.1% Khakas

Autonomous regions

GagauziaGagauzia in Moldova 2004 – 82.1% Gagauz.[7]
Xinjiang in China 2000 – 45.21% Uyghurs, 6.74% Kazakhs, 0.86% Kyrgyz, 0.066% Uzbeks, 0.024% Chinese Tatars
KarakalpakstanKarakalpakstan in Uzbekistan 36% Uzbeks, 32% Karakalpaks, 25% Kazakhs
Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic in Azerbaijan 99% Azerbaijanis[8]
Xunhua Salar Autonomous County in China 2000 – 61.14% Salars

Historical Turkic confederations, dynasties, and states

Tribal confederations

Tiele people Dingling Yenisei Kirghiz (The Yenisei Kirghiz Khagans claimed to be of agnatic Chinese descent from Li Ling)[9][10] Yueban
Onogurs Ashina Toquz Oghuz
Karluks Chigils Yagma Basmyl
Oghuz Sabir people Bulgars Shatuo Kankalis Kipchaks Cumans

Turkic dynasties and states

Name Notes Years Capital map
Turkic Khaganate 552–ca. 580
Ordu Baliq
Western Turkic Khaganate 593–659 Suyab
Eastern Turkic Khaganate 581–630 Ordu Baliq
Xueyantuo 628–646
Kangar union 659–750 located in Ulutau mountains
Türgesh 699–766 Balasagun
Kimeks 743–1220 Khagan-Kimek Imekia
Uyghur Khaganate 744–848 Ordu Baliq
Oghuz Yabgu State 750–1055 Yangikent
Karluk Yabgu State 756–940 Suyab later Balasagun
Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212 Balasagun, Kashgar, Samarkand
Gansu Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036 Zhangye
Kingdom of Qocho 856–1335 Gaochang, Beshbalik
Pechenegs 860–1091
Cumania[11][12] 900–1220
Anatolian Beyliks 11th–16th century Many such as Karaman, Sinop, Adana, Alanya, Kahramanmaraş. 90px
Ahmadilis 1122–1209 Maragha
Eldiguzids ca.1135–1225 Nakhchivan (city) and Hamadan
Salghurids 1148–1282 Fars Province
Ottoman Empire Also known as the Turkish Empire, Ottoman Turkey or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia 1299–1923 Söğüt 1299–1335, Bursa 1335–1413, Adrianople 1413–1453, Constantinople 1453–1922
Sufids 1361–1379
Safavid Empire Originally of Turkic Oghuz descent.[13][14][15][16] 1501–1736 Tabriz 1501–1555

Qazvin 1555–1598

Isfahan 1598–1736


Name Notes Years Capital Map
Khazar Empire Originally, the Khazars were pagan Tengrist worshippers. 6th–11th century Balanjar 650–720 ca., Samandar (city) 720s–750, Atil 750-ca.965–969
Avar Khaganate Established in the Pannonian Basin region in 567. 567–804 Szeged
Great Bulgaria 632–668 Phanagoria 632–665
First Bulgarian Empire Tengrist Turkic pre-Christianization;[17] became Slavic post-Christianization 681–1018 Pliska 681–893, Preslav 893–972, Skopje 972–992, Ohrid 992–1018
Volga Bulgaria 7th century–1240s Bolghar, Bilär

Middle East

Name Notes Years Capital Map
Tulunids 868–905 al-Qatta'i
Ikhshidid Dynasty 935–969
Burid Dynasty 1104–1154 Damascus
Zengid Dynasty 1127–1250 Aleppo
Rasulids 1228–1455
Bahri dynasty 1250–1389
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) The first half of the Mamluk Sultanate was dominated by the Kipchak Turkic Bahri dynasty, after the Mongol conquest of the Kipchak steppes, the second half of the Mamluk Sultanate was the Burji dynasty dominated by non-Turkic Circassians. 1250–1517 Cairo

North African region

Name Notes Years Capital Map
Husainid Dynasty The Husainid dynasty is the former ruling dynasty of Tunisia originally of Cretan Turkish origin. They came to power under al-Husayn I ibn Ali in 1705 replacing the Muradid dynasty. His father was a Cretan Turk and his mother was a Tunisian.[18][19][20] 15 July 1705 – 25 July 1957 Tunis
Tunisia (dark blue)

Indian subcontinent

Name Notes Years Capital Map
Mamluk Dynasty 1206–1290 Delhi
Qarlughid Dynasty 1224–1266 Ghazna, Binban
Khilji Dynasty 1290–1320 Delhi
Tughlaq Dynasty 1320–1414 Delhi
Ilyas Shahi dynasty 1342–1487 Sonargaon
Bahmani Sultanate 1347–1527 Gulbarga (1347–1425)
Bidar (1425–1527)
Malwa Sultanate 1392–1562 Dhar and Mandu
Bidar Sultanate 1489–1619
Adil Shahi dynasty 1490–1686 Bijapur
Qutb Shahi Dynasty 1518–1687 Golconda / Hyderabad
Tarkhan Dynasty 1554–1591 Sindh
Asaf Jahi Dynasty 1724–1948 Hyderabad

Sinicized Turkic dynasties

The Shatuo Turks founded several sinicized dynasties in northern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The official language of these dynasties was Chinese and they used Chinese titles and names.

Name Notes Years Capital Map
Later Tang 923–936 Daming County 923, Luoyang 923–936
Later Jin[21] The Later Jin founder, Shi Jingtang, claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry. 936–947 Taiyuan 936, Luoyang 937, Kaifeng 937–947
Later Han Sources conflict as to the origin of the Later Han and Northern Han Emperors; some indicate Shatuo ancestry while another claims that the Emperors claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry.[22] 947–951 Kaifeng
Northern Han Same family as Later Han. Sources conflict as to the origin of the Later Han and Northern Han Emperors; some indicate Shatuo ancestry while another claims that the Emperors claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry.[22] 951–979 Taiyuan

Turko-Persian states

The Turko-Persian tradition was an Islamic tradition of the interpretation of literary forms, practiced and patronized by Turkic rulers and speakers. Many Turko-Persian states were founded in modern-day Eastern Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.[23]

Name Years Capital Map
Ghaznavid Empire Ruled by a thoroughly Persianized family of Turkic mamluk origin[24][25] 962–1186 Ghazna 977–1163, Lahore 1163–1186
Seljuk Empire Ruled by a clan[26] of originally Oghuz Turkic descent.[24][27][28][29] 1037–1194 Nishapur 1037–1043, Rey, Iran 1043–1051, Isfahan 1051–1118, Hamadan Western capital 1118–1194, Merv Eastern capital (1118–1153)
Sultanate of Rûm 1077–1307 İznik, Iconium (Konya)
Khwarazmian dynasty Ruled by a family of Turkic mamluk origin.[30] 1077–1231/1256 Gurganj 1077–1212, Samarkand 1212–1220, Ghazna 1220–1221, Tabriz 1225–1231
Kara Koyunlu 1375–1468 Tabriz
Ak Koyunlu 1378–1501 Diyarbakır : 1453 – 1471, Tabriz :1468 – January 6, 1478

Turco-Mongol states

Turco-Mongol is a term describing the synthesis of Mongol and Turkic cultures by several states of Mongol origin throughout Eurasia. These states adopted Turkic languages, either among the populace or among the elite, and converted to Islam, but retained Mongol political and legal institutions. Two of these states founded by the Timurid dynasty, specifically the Timurid Empire and Mughal Empire, were influenced by the Persian and Indian cultures.

Name Years Capital Notes Map
Kerait khanate 11th century-13th century
Naiman Khanate −1204
Chagatai Khanate 1225–1340s Almaliq, Qarshi
Golden Horde 1240s–1502 Sarai Batu Founded as an appanage of the Mongol Empire, the Golden Horde gradually became Turkicized after the Empire's fragmentation
Timurid Empire 1370–1506 Samarkand 1370–1505, Herat 1505–1507 Persianate dynasty of Turco-Mongol lineage
Shaybanid Khanate 1428–1599
Kazan Khanate 1438–1552 Kazan
Crimean Khanate 1441–1783 Bakhchisaray
Nogai Khanate 1440s–1634 Saray-Jük
Kazakh Khanate 1456–1847 Turkistan
Moghulistan 1462–1591
Great Horde 1466–1502 Sarai
Astrakhan Khanate 1466–1556 Xacitarxan
Siberia Khanate 1490–1598 Tyumen until 1493, Qashliq from 1493
Khanate of Bukhara 1500–1785 Bukhara
Khanate of Khiva 1511–1920 Khiva
Yarkent Khanate 1514–1705 Yarkent
Arghun dynasty 1520–1554 Bukkur
Mughal Empire 1526–1857 Agra 1526–1571, Fatehpur Sikri 1571–1585, Lahore 1585–1598, Agra 1598–1648, Shahjahanabad/Delhi 1648–1857 Founded by Turco-Mongol ruler Babur, adopted the Persian language in later periods.[31][32][33][34]
Khanate of Kokand 1709–1876 Kokand
Emirate of Bukhara 1785–1920 Bukhara

Turco-Iranian dynasties

The following list is of Iranian dynasties of Turkic origin.

Name Notes Years Capital Map
Afsharid Dynasty Originally of Turkic descent and origin.[35] 1736–1796 Mashhad
Qajar Dynasty[36] Originally of Turkic Oghuz descent.[37] 1785–1925 Tehran

Former Republics

Name NotesYears Map Capital
Provisional Government of Western Thrace later Independent Government of Western Thrace Republic of Western Thrace was a small, short-lived partially recognized republic established in Western Thrace from August 31 to October 25, 1913. It encompassed the area surrounded by the rivers Maritsa (Evros) in the east, Mesta (Nestos) in the west, the Rhodope Mountains in the north and the Aegean Sea in the south. Its total territory was c. 8.600 km².[38] 1913 Komotini
Crimean People's Republic 1917–1918 Bakhchysarai
Idel-Ural State 1917–1918
Alash Orda 1917–1920 Semey
Republic of Aras 1918–1919 Nakhchivan (city)
Republic of Kars Also known as the Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus. 1918–1919 Kars
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic 1918–1920 Ganja, Azerbaijan until Sep 1918, Baku
Azadistan Azadistan was a short-lived state in the Iranian provinces of Azarbaijan that lasted from the early 1920 until September 1920. It was established by Mohammad Khiabani, representative to the parliament and a prominent dissident against foreign colonialism.[29] 1920 Tabriz
Government of the Grand National Assembly Based in the region of Anatolia. 1920–1923 Ankara
People's Republic of Tannu Tuva 1921–1944 Kyzyl
First East Turkestan Republic First East Turkestan Republic was a short-lived breakaway would-be Islamic republic founded in 1933. It was centered on the city of Kashgar in what is today the People's Republic of China-administered Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. 1933–1934 Kashgar
Republic of Hatay Also known informally as the Republic of Hatay as Hatay State. 1938–1939 Antakya
East Turkistan Republic 1944–1949 Ghulja
Azerbaijan People's Government 1945–1946 Tabriz
Turkish Federated State of Cyprus 1975–1983 Nicosia

Soviet Republics

Name NotesYears Map Capital
Khorezm People's Soviet Republic 1920–1924 Khiva
Bukhara People's Soviet Republic 1920–1924 Bukhara
Azerbaijan SSR 1920–1991 Baku
Uzbek SSR 1924–1991 Samarkand 1924–1930, Tashkent 1930–1991
Turkmen SSR 1924–1991 Ashgabat
Kazakh SSR 1936–1991 Almaty
Kyrgyz SSR 1936–1991 Bishkek

Autonomous Soviet Republics

Name NotesYears Map Capital
Turkestan ASSR 1918–1924 Tashkent
Bashkir ASSR 1919–1990 Ufa
Kirghiz Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic 1920–1925 Orenburg
Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1920–1990 Kazan
Yakut ASSR 1922–1991 Yakutsk
Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1921–1924 Vladikavkaz
Nakhchyvan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1921–1990 Nakhchivan (city)
Kazak Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic 1925–1936 Almaty
Chuvash ASSR 1925–1992 Cheboksary
Karakalpak ASSR 1932–1992 Nukus
Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1936–1991 Nalchik
Kabardin Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1944–1957
Crimean ASSR 1945–1991 Simferopol
Tuvan ASSR 1961–1992
Gorno-Altai Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1990–1992 Gorno-Altaysk

Autonomous oblasts of the Soviet Union

Name NotesYears Map Capital
Chuvash Autonomous Oblast 1920–1925 Cheboksary
Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Oblast 1921–1936 Nalchik
Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast 1922–1926
Gorno-Altai Autonomous Oblast 1922–1991
Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast 1924–1936 Bishkek
Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast 1925–1932 To‘rtko‘l
Karachay Autonomous Oblast 1926–1957
Khakassian Autonomous Oblast 1930–1992
Tuvan Autonomous Oblast 1944–1961

See also


  1. Demographics of Azerbaijan.
  2. Demographics of Kazakhstan.
  3. Demographics of Kyrgyzstan
  4. Demographics of Turkmenistan
  5. Demographics of Uzbekistan
  6. Recognized only by Turkey and the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, see Cyprus dispute.
  7. Gagauzia
  9. Veronika Veit, ed. (2007). The role of women in the Altaic world: Permanent International Altaistic Conference, 44th meeting, Walberberg, 26–31 August 2001. Volume 152 of Asiatische Forschungen (illustrated ed.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 61. ISBN 3447055375. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
  10. Michael Robert Drompp (2005). Tang China and the collapse of the Uighur Empire: a documentary history. Volume 13 of Brill's Inner Asian library (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 126. ISBN 9004141294. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
  11. Encyclopedia of European peoples, Vol.1, Ed. Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason, (Infobase Publishing Inc., 2006), 475; "The Kipchaks were a loose tribal confederation of Turkics...".
  12. Vásáry, István, Cumans and Tatars: Oriental military in the pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 6; "..two Turkic confederacies, the Kipchaks and the Cumans, had merged by the twelfth century.".
  13. Stanford Jay Shaw. History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. 1977, p. 77.
  14. Helen Chapin Metz. Iran, a Country study. 1989. University of Michigan, p. 313.
  15. Emory C. Bogle. Islam: Origin and Belief. University of Texas Press. 1989, p. 145.
  16. Andrew J. Newman, Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire, IB Tauris (March 30, 2006).
  17. Peter Sarris (2011). Empires of Faith: The Fall of Rome to the Rise of Islam, 500–700. p. 308.
  18. Brown 2015, pp. 29-30.
  19. ed. Abun-Nasr 1987, p. 173.
  20. Johnston 2011, p. 21.
  21. Wudai Shi, ch. 75. Considering the father was originally called Nieliji without a surname, the fact that his patrilineal ancestors all had Chinese names here indicates that these names were probably all created posthumously after Shi Jingtang became a "Chinese" emperor. Shi Jingtang actually claimed to be a descendant of Chinese historical figures Shi Que and Shi Fen, and insisted that his ancestors went westwards towards non-Han Chinese area during the political chaos at the end of the Han Dynasty in early 3rd century.
  22. 1 2 According to Old History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 99, and New History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 10. Liu Zhiyuan was of Shatuo origin. According to Wudai Huiyao, vol. 1 Liu Zhiyuan's great-great-grandfather Liu Tuan (劉湍) (titled as Emperor Mingyuan posthumously, granted the temple name of Wenzu) descended from Liu Bing (劉昞), Prince of Huaiyang, a son of Emperor Ming of Han
  23. Lewis, Bernard. "Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire", p29. Published 1963, University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1060-0.
  24. 1 2 M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  25. Muhammad Qāsim Hindū Šāh Astarābādī Firištah, "History Of The Mohamedan Power In India", Chapter I, "Sultān Mahmūd-e Ghaznavī", p.27: "... "Sabuktegin, the son of Jūkān, the son of Kuzil-Hukum, the son of Kuzil-Arslan, the son of Fīrūz, the son of Yezdijird, king of Persia. ..."
  26. Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24
  27. K.A. Luther, "Alp Arslān" in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... Saljuq activity must always be viewed both in terms of the wishes of the sultan and his Khorasanian, Sunni advisors, especially Nezām-al-molk ..."
  28. Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
  29. 1 2 O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK)
  30. M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey, with a foreword by Professor Clifford Edmund Bosworth, member of the British Academy, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, ISBN 9971-77-488-7.
  31. Thackston 1996
  32. Findley 2005
  33. Saunders 1970, p.177
  34. "The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Tamarind Empire)". Retrieved 2011-07-06.; "The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire)". Retrieved 2011-07-06.
  36. Abbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I.B.Tauris, pp 2–3
  37. Richard N. Frye and Lewis V. Thomas. The United States and Turkey and Iran, Harvard University Press, 1951, p. 217
  38. "Panayotis D. Cangelaris - The Western Thrace Autonomous Government "Muhtariyet" Issue (1913) Philatelic Exhibit". Retrieved 2016-09-25.

Further reading

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