List of Peruvian football champions
The Peruvian football champions are the winners of the highest league in Peruvian football, which is currently named as Torneo Descentralizado and organized by the Sports Association of Professional Football. The Liga Peruana de Football was established in 1912. It was an amateur league that lasted until 1921 due to scheduling and organizing conflicts. In this league only teams from Lima participated. In 1926, the Peruvian Football Federation took control of organizing the tournament and continued the Peruvian Primera División with the introduction of teams from Callao. In 1951, the Primera División turned professional and in 1966, the Torneo Descentralizado was founded in which the first non-capital teams were invited to play the first national championship. Between 1996 and 2008, the Apertura and Clausura format was adopted.
In its early stages the first division was dominated by Universitario and Alianza Lima. Other notable teams were Atlético Chalaco, Sport Boys and Municipal. The professional era saw Sporting Cristal rise to challenge the dominance of Universitario and Alianza Lima. These three teams account for nearly a third of the titles won. Melgar and Juan Aurich are the only teams outside of the Lima Region to have won a national title. As of 2010, the league title has been won by over 19 clubs but Universitario, Alianza Lima, and Sporting Cristal share a total of 62 titles of the 94 contested. Universitario and Alianza Lima alone account for half of the titles won.
Amateur league (1912–1950)
Peruvian football had amateur status since its foundation until 1950. In the course of this era, Alianza Lima, Atlético Chalaco, Municipal, Sport Boys, and Universitario de Deportes shared the most titles. The first run from 1912 to 1921 featured clubs only from Lima under the Liga Peruana de Football. In 1926 and 1927 two unofficial tournaments were played. In 1928 the first championship official expanded to Callao under the Peruvian Football Federation. In 1936 no tournament took place, however an unofficial tournament were played, where Universitario and Alianza Lima were champion and runner-up respectively.
Professional league (1951–present)
In 1951 the league obtained professional status and in 1966 expanded the league to the entire nation, beginning the Descentralizado.
Throughout the history of Peruvian football, tournaments have been divided into a few stages or have employed filler tournaments played alongside the Descentralizado due to the Peru national football team's compromises, be it FIFA World Cup qualification, FIFA World Cup participation, or Copa América.
These were the filler tournaments played parallel to or in between the national championship. Some of these tournaments awarded the winning clubs with a qualification to an international tournament or guaranteed a spot in a further round whilst two of these filler tournaments did not award anything to its winner. The purpose of these tournaments was so that the national team could participate in its compromises without affecting the national championship when calling domestic players.
|1919||Copa de Campeones||Alianza Lima||Jorge Chávez||None|
|N/A||Advanced to end-of-season Liguilla|
|1978||Interzonal||Unión Huaral||Coronel Bolognesi||None|
|1981||Regional||Municipal||Universitario||Advanced to Copa Libertadores second berth play-off|
|1989||Plácido Galindo||Defensor Lima||Universitario||Advanced to Regional II end-of-season pre-Liguilla|
|1993||Intermedio||Municipal||Sipesa||Qualified for 1994 Copa CONMEBOL|
|1994||Apertura||Sporting Cristal||Ciclista Lima||Qualified for 1995 Copa CONMEBOL|
|2011||Intermedio||José Gálvez||Sport Áncash||Qualified for 2012 Copa Federación|
|2012||Copa Federación||José Gálvez||Juan Aurich||None|
|2014||Torneo del Inca||Alianza Lima||Universidad San Martín||Qualified for 2015 Copa Libertadores|
|2015||Torneo del Inca||Universidad César Vallejo||Alianza Lima||Qualified for 2015 Torneo Descentralizado Semifinals|
The first regional seasons began in 1984 where teams were divided into regional groups and would advance to the Descentralizado or descend to the Torneo Intermedia for a promotion/relegation tournament against second division teams. Only the 1984 regional did not crown a champion. Starting in 1989, the Descentralizado was temporarily replaced by two regional tournaments, each crowning a champion and contesting a national season final.
|1984||No champion; only a qualification tournament|
|1985||Universitario||Colegio Nacional Iquitos||N/A|
|1986||San Agustín||Alianza Lima||N/A|
|1987||Universitario||Unión Huaral||San Agustín|
|1988||Universitario||Unión Huaral||Alianza Atlético|
|1989–I||Sporting Cristal||Alianza Atlético||Aurora|
|1989–II||Unión Huaral||Universitario||Mina San Vicente|
|1990–I||Sport Boys||Universitario||Unión Huaral|
|1990–II||Universitario||Alianza Lima||Sport Boys|
|1991–I||Sporting Cristal||Sport Boys||Universitario|
|1991–II||Sporting Cristal||Universitario||Sport Boys|
Apertura and Clausura seasons
In 1997, the first Apertura and Clausura half-year tournaments were introduced and had its champions face each other in a season final as in the regional tournaments between 1989 and 1991. They were abolished at the end of 2008 season.
Several matches to define champions have been played over the course of Peruvian football history. The earliest title-defining matches were played between teams that tied for first place at the end of the season or tournament phase and forced an extra match to determine the champion. Eventually, finals were organized to be played at the end of the season after set conditions were fulfilled or tournament winners. The first of these finals started in the eighties when winners of each regional tournament played each other to determine the season champion; if the same team won both tournaments, they were champions by default. In the late nineties the Apertura and Clausura tournaments were hosted so that the winners of each tournament would also face each other in the final. If the same team won both tournaments, they were champions by default.
In 2001, Alianza Lima won the Apertura tournament, but their performance in the Clausura tournament suffered and placed a shocking 10th place—which led to a rule change. A tournament-winning team had to place above a set place in order to be able to play the final. In the cases of the seasons of 2002, 2007 and 2008, one or both of the tournament winners failed to place above a set position therefore no final was played and the season champion was determined by the aggregate table or by the tournament winner that had satisfied the set conditions.
|Match went to extra time †|
|Match decided by a penalty shootout after extra time *|
List of finals
These matches were played when teams were tied for first in the general league or in a specific tournament.
Universitario and Alianza Lima have a clear advantage of titles won over the other clubs in Peru. Since 2010, they have won a combined total of 47 Primera División championships of the 94 seasons contested, 25 and 22 respectively. Sporting Cristal trails behind with 15 professional era titles since their debut in 1956 and further behind is the traditional Sport Boys having conquered 6 league titles. Newcomer Universidad de San Martín de Porres has begun to challenge the dominance of the Big Three with back-to-back titles in 2007 and 2008 and a third i 2010. In addition, Melgar and Unión Huaral are the only clubs outside the metropolitan area of Lima to have won a national championship. Other noteworthy clubs to have won championships include 4-time winner Municipal.
Universitario is the club with the longest spell in the Primera División, playing since 1928 when they debuted in the Primera División. They are followed by archrivals Alianza Lima who competed in the first edition of the Primera División but were relegated in 1938 and returning a year later for an uninterrupted spell since 1940. Melgar is the team with the longest run in the Primera División outside of Lima, competing since 1971.
The oldest clubs currently participating in the Primera División are Alianza Lima and Cienciano which were founded at the beginning of the turn of the century in 1901. The newest clubs active in the Primera División include Inti Gas, Sport Huancayo, Real Garcilaso and Universidad de San Martín. The current Juan Aurich participating in the Descentralizado is not the same club that competed in previous seasons. Inti Gas Deportes was previously known under several different names but the entity first played in the top flight as Inti Gas Deportes with their promotion after finishing second in the 2008 Segunda División.
As of 2012, Universitario, Alianza Lima and Sporting Cristal have won 25, 22 and 16 official league titles respectively. They are regarded as the Big Three of Peru. However, other teams have risen to new heights. In particular, a team from Cusco, Cienciano, has been the only Peruvian team to win international tournaments || Copa Sudamericana 2003 and Recopa Sudamericana 2004 ||, though it has yet to win the domestic league title. Other notable teams include Melgar and Unión Huaral, which are the only non-capital teams to have won a national championship.
Titles by club
Lima & Callao
|Professional era (1951–present)|
| Lima & Callao|
|Universidad San Martín||3||—||—||—||3|
|José Galvez (L)[F]||2||2||0||—||—|
Titles by club
Titles by region
|Region||Nº of titles||Clubs|
|Lima||89||Universitario (26), Alianza Lima (22), Sporting Cristal (17), Municipal (4), Universidad San Martín (3), José Galvez (L) (2), Lima Cricket (2), Mariscal Sucre (2), Sport Progreso (2), Unión Huaral (2), Centro Iqueño (1), San Agustín (1), Defensor Lima (1), Jorge Chávez (1), Sport Inca (1), Juan Bielovucic (1)|
|Callao||8||Sport Boys (6), Atlético Chalaco (2)|
|Lambayeque||1||Juan Aurich (1)|
- A. ^ Melgar is recognized as the third-placed team for 1992 regular season. Ovación Sipesa received the berth for the 1993 Copa CONMEBOL as Liguilla runner-up, however they did not participate in the 1992 regular season.
- C. ^ Includes titles as "Federación Universitaria" (until 1932).
- D. ^ Includes titles as "Sport Alianza" (Liga).
- E. ^ Formerly "Sporting Tabaco" (until 1955), although no titles were won under that name.
- F. ^ Liga team from Lima, not to be confused with José Gálvez from Chimbote.
- "Historia" [History] (in Spanish). FPF. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- "Torneos: Campeones del Fútbol Peruano Primera División" [Tournaments: Champions of Peruvian Football First Division] (in Spanish). FPF. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- Luis Sánchez (31 January 2008). "Campeonatos Nacionales" (in Spanish). retrofutbolas.com. Archived from the original on July 15, 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
- Sportive Association of Professional Football (Perú), Memorial Book of Gold 1912-2012, ADFP, Azagraphic Perú SAC, Lima, 2012, p. 21.
- "Ficha de Juan Flores" (in Spanish). bdfa.com.ar. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- Behr, Raúl (14 February 2009). "Interzonales, Intermedios y otros demonios: ¿Cuentan o no?" (in Spanish). DeChalaca.com. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
- Behr, Raúl. "Méritos y rachas: los mejores y peores" [Merits and streaks: the best and worst] (in Spanish). DeChalaca. Retrieved 27 August 2009.
Unión Huaral y FBC Melgar son los dos únicos equipos del interior que se han logrado consagrar campeones nacionales.