| Leontopodium alpinum|
Leontopodium alpinum, commonly called edelweiss (English pronunciation i/ˈeɪdəlvaɪs/), is a well-known mountain flower, belonging to the Asteraceae (the daisy or sunflower family).
The plant prefers rocky limestone places at about 1,800–3,000 metres (5,900–9,800 ft) altitude. It is non-toxic, and has been used traditionally in folk medicine as a remedy against abdominal and respiratory diseases. The dense hair appears to be an adaptation to high altitudes, protecting the plant from cold, aridity and ultraviolet radiation. As a scarce, short-lived flower found in remote mountain areas, the plant has been used as a symbol for alpinism, for rugged beauty and purity associated with the Alps and Carpathians, and as a national symbol especially of Austria, Switzerland, Bulgaria and Romania. According to folk tradition, giving this flower to a loved one is a promise of dedication.
The common name is from the German word "Edelweiß" as a compound of edel "noble" and weiß "white."
Edelweiß was one of several regional names for the plant, and entered wide usage during the first half of the 19th century, in the context of early Alpine tourism. Alternative names include Chatzen-Talpen ("cat's paws"), and the older Wullbluomen ("wool flower," attested in the 16th century).
The scientific name is a latinisation of the Greek leontopódion, "lion's paw."
The first scientific name for Leontopodium alpinum which was validly published according to the current binomial nomenclature is Gnaphalium alpinum in the first edition (1753) of Linnaeus's Species Plantarum.
Since 1822 (Cassini) Leontopodium has no longer been considered part of the Gnaphalium genus, but classified alongside it as a distinct genus within the Gnaphalieae tribe. In 2003, Leontopodium alpinum was re-classified as a subspecies of Leontopodium nivale. Thus, the alpine edelweiss is currently recognized as being divided into two subspecies, Leontopodium nivale subsp. alpinum (Cass.) Greuter and Leontopodium nivale subsp. nivale.
Leaves and flowers are covered with white hairs and appear woolly (tomentose). Flowering stalks of edelweiss can grow to a size of 3–20 centimetres (1–8 in) in the wild, or, up to 40 cm (16 in) in cultivation. Each bloom consists of five to six small yellow clustered spikelet-florets (5 mm, 3⁄16 in) surrounded by fuzzy white "petals" (technically, bracts) in a double-star formation. The flowers bloom between July and September.
- Early-season version with central floret-pods not yet fully developed. Specimen found in Slovakia's Tatra Mountains.
- Typical mid-season appearance. Specimen found in Italy's Bergamo Alps.
- Late season version with "fat" appearance from flowered-out central floret-pods and from longer petal-"fuzz". Specimen found in the Stubai Alps.
- Botanic illustration.
Leontopodium sp. is a protected plant in many countries, including Mongolia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Switzerland (since 1878), France, Norway, Iran, India (Zanskar region), Italy, Serbia, Malaysia (In Genting and Cameron Highlands), Indonesia (In Semeru Mountain), Germany, Spain (Ordesa National Park), Poland and Slovakia (Tatra National Park), Slovenia (in Gorizia and Gradisca since 1896, in Carniola since 1898), Austria (since 1886) and Romania (since 1933).
Leontopodium alpinum is grown in gardens for its interesting inflorescence and silver foliage. The plants are short lived and can be grown from seed.
In the 19th century, the edelweiss became a symbol of the rugged purity of the Alpine region and of its native inhabitants.
Berthold Auerbach published a novel entitled Edelweiss in 1861, where the difficulty for an alpinist to acquire an edelweiss flower was exaggerated to the point of claiming that "the possession of one is a proof of unusual daring." This idea at the time was becoming part of the popular mythology of early alpinism. Auerbach's novel appeared in English translation in 1869, prefaced with a quote attributed to Ralph Waldo Emerson,
- "There is a flower known to botanists, one of the same genus with our summer plant called 'Life-Everlasting', a Gnaphalium like that, which grows on the most inaccessible cliffs of the Tyrolese mountains, where the chamois dare hardly venture, and which the hunter, tempted by its beauty and by his love (for it is immensely valued by the Swiss maidens), climbs the cliffs to gather, and is sometimes found dead at the foot, with the flower in his hand. It is called by botanists the Gnaphalium leontopodium, but by the Swiss EDELWEISS, which signifies NOBLE PURITY."
- Before 1914
- in the Swiss army, the highest ranks (brigadier general and higher) have badges in the form of edelweiss flowers, where other militaries would have stars
- The edelweiss was established in 1907 as the sign of the Austrian-Hungarian alpine troops by Emperor Franz Joseph I. These original 3 Regiments wore their edelweiss on the collar of their uniform. During World War I (1915) the edelweiss was granted to the German alpine troops, for their bravery. Today it is still the insignia of the Austrian, Polish, Romanian, and German alpine troops
- World Wars era
- The song Es War Ein Edelweiss was written by Herms Niel for soldiers during World War II
- The edelweiss was a badge of the Edelweiss Pirates: the anti-Nazi youth groups in the Third Reich. It was worn on the clothes (e.g. a blouse or a suit)
- The edelweiss flower was the symbol of Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS Gebirgsjäger, or mountain rangers, worn as a metal pin on the left side of the mountain cap, on the band of the service dress cap, and as a patch on the right sleeve. It is still the symbol of the mountain brigade in the German army today
- The World War II Luftwaffe unit, Kampfgeschwader 51 (51st Bomber Wing) was known as the Edelweiss Wing
- The edelweiss is represented as the favorite flower of Adolf Hitler, in the 1934 recording "Adolf Hitlers Lieblingsblume ist das schlichte Edelweiß", sung by Harry Steier
- After 1945
- The edelweiss flower is a common symbol worn by today's United States Army's 1st Battalion 10th Special Forces Group Airborne Soldiers. The 1-10th SFG(A) Soldiers adopted the symbol under the command of (Ret.) Col. Aaron Banks after they occupied the former Waffen SS officer school (Junkerschule) at Flint Kaserne
- A song entitled "Edelweiss" was written for Rodgers and Hammerstein's musical The Sound of Music (1959)
- Since 2002, the Austrian two cent coin has depicted an edelweiss
- From 1959 to 2001, the one schilling coin depicted a bunch of three flowers
- It is the symbol of the Bulgarian Tourist Union and the Bulgarian Mountain Control and Lifeguard Service
- It is also the symbol of the Swiss national tourism organisation
- It is shown the Romanian fifty lei note
- An Austrian brand of beer is named Edelweiß
- The edelweiss is used in the logotypes of several alpine clubs such as the Deutscher Alpenverein (German Alpine Club) or the Österreichischer Alpenverein (Austrian Alpine Club). The edelweiss is also used in the logotype of the Union of International Mountain Leader Associations (UIMLA).
- In Asterix in Switzerland (1970), the plot is driven by a quest to find edelweiss in the Swiss mountains and bring a bloom back to Gaul to cure a poisoned Roman quaestor
- Edelweiss Air, an international airline based in Switzerland, is named after the flower, which also appears in its logo
- "Bring me Edelweiss" is the best-known song of the music group Edelweiss
- Polish professional ice hockey team MMKS Podhale Nowy Targ use an edelweiss as their emblem
- Edelweiss Lodge and Resort is a military resort located in Garmisch, Germany
Symbolic use, image gallery
- On the Austrian two cent coin.
- World War One-era nail-fundraiser monument: the Iron Edelweiss of Enns, Austria.
- 1963 German mountain sport pin.
- German Alpine Club logo pin.
- On a Romanian fifty lei note.
- Logo of the Union of International Mountain Leader Associations.
- Logo of Croatian Mountain Rescue Service
- Nazi-era nose art on a bomber from the "Edelweiss Wing" (KG 51).
- Nazi-era photo with KG 51 insignia on a Ju 88 bomber.
- 1939 Nazi-era aircraft nose art.
- French mountain troops school emblem.
- Logo of German sports association RMSV.
- Rank insignia in the Swiss postal service.
- German Federal Police rank insignia patch.
- Kyrgyz postage stamp from 1994.
- West German postage stamp from 1975.
- On 2004 Swiss coin.
- On 1925 gold 100 Swiss francs coin.
- On 1983 Austrian schilling.
- Kazakhstan 500 tenge coin.
- Four-"Star" rank insignia of the top Swiss general.
- Austrian army JgB 23 emblem.
- West/German military "Allgäu" fighter/bomber group 1958-2003.
- West/German military 23rd mountain rifles troops emblem.
- Insignia of the Polish Army Podhale Rifles.
- Insignia of the Polish Army 21st Podhale Rifles Brigade.
- Russian military 17 ОСН "Edelweiss" emblem.
- Austrian army JgB 6 emblem.
- Arms of Vaujany, France.
- Arms of Au, Austria.
- Arms of the county of Brașov, Romania.
- Arms of Dramsha, Bulgaria.
- Arms of Bonnefamille, France.
- Arms of Chamonix-Mont-Blanc, France.
- Arms of Carroz d'Arâches, France.
- Arms of Eisenärzt, Germany.
- Logo of Edelweiss Beer.
- General's "star" on the saddle of World War I-era Swiss commander Ulrich Wille.
- On the hat and collar circa 1933 of Austria's Engelbert Dollfuss.
- Imperial Roman tombstone of Austrian soldier Marius son of Ructinus.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Edelweiss in art.|
- ↑ Randall J. Bayer; Christopher F. Puttock; Scot A. Kelchner (2000). "Phylogeny of South African Gnaphalieae (Asteraceae) based on two noncoding chloroplast sequences". American Journal of Botany. 87 (2): 259–272. doi:10.2307/2656914. JSTOR 2656914. PMID 10675314.
- ↑ Vigneron, Jean Pol; Marie Rassart; Zofia Vértesy; Krisztián Kertész; Michaël Sarrazin; László P. Biró; Damien Ertz; Virginie Lousse (January 2005). "Optical structure and function of the white filamentary hair covering the edelweiss bracts". Physical Review E. American Physical Society. 71. arXiv:0710.2695. doi:10.1103/physreve.71.011906.
- ↑ William Shepard Walsh (1909). Handy-book of literary curiosities. J.B. Lippincott Co. pp. 268–. Retrieved 19 August 2010.
- ↑ Edelweiss reported as common name alongside Alpen-Ruhrkraut in Kittel, Taschenbuch der Flora Deutschlands zum bequemen Gebrauch auf botanischen Excursionen (1837), p. 383.
- ↑ Aretius, Stocc-Hornii et Nessi [...] descriptio [...], a Benedicto Aretio [...] dictata., published with Valerii Cordi Simesusii Annotationes in Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei de medica materia libros V, Basel (1561), ed. Bratschi (1992) in Niesen und Stockhorn. Berg-Besteigungen im 16. Jahrhunder.
- ↑ Schweizerisches Idiotikon 16.1997.
- ↑ λέων, πόδιον, πούς. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
- ↑ NOTE: Sometimes mistaken for a different species (reference only).
- ↑ NOTE: Image courtesy of Bernd Haynold (reference only).
- ↑ Mineo, Baldassare (1999). Rock garden plants: a color encyclopedia. Portland, Or.: Timber Press. p. 150. ISBN 0-88192-432-6.
- ↑ McVicar, Jekka. Seeds: The Ultimate Guide to Growing Successfully from Seed. The Lyons Press. p. 22. ISBN 1-58574-874-9.
- ↑ Auerbach (1869), p. 77
- ↑ c.f. "chamois hunting" in New monthly magazine and universal register (1853) p. 166
- ↑ http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?p=1180704#p1180704
- ↑ NOTE: DAV on this pin means Deutscher Alpenverein not Disabled American Veterans for which such pins may be confused (reference only).
- ↑ NOTE: CIECM meaning Centre d' Instruction et d' Entraînement au Combat en Montagne (reference only).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to |