|Coordinates: 38°45′13″N 48°51′04″E / 38.75361°N 48.85111°E|
|• Total||1,539.4 km2 (594.4 sq mi)|
|Time zone||AZT (UTC+4)|
|• Summer (DST)||AZT (UTC+5)|
|Area code(s)||+994 025 25|
Lankaran (Azerbaijani: Lənkəran, Ләнкәран, لنکران) is a city in Azerbaijan, on the coast of the Caspian Sea, near the southern border with Iran. It has a population of 223,100 (2016 census). It is next to but independent of Lankaran rayon. The city forms a distinct first-order division of Azerbaijan.
The old form of the name was "Langarkanan" that in Persian means "the place of pulling up the anchor(s)" : "Langar" (Persian: لنگر, anchor) + "kan" (Persian: کن, to pull) + "an"(Persian: آن, suffix of places). However, some sources state that Lankaran is said to come from the Talish words for 'Cane house', which sounds as 'Lan Karan'. Alternatively, from Median *Lan(a)karan-, where *karan- means 'border, region, land' and Lan is probably a name of a Caspian tribe.
The city was built on a swamp along the northern bank of the river bearing the city's name. There are remains of human settlements in the area dating back to the Neolithic period as well as ruins of fortified villages from the Bronze and Iron Ages.
Lankaran's history is rather recent, dating from the 16th century. With the death of Nader Shah and his disintegrating empire, the Talysh Khanate was founded by a certain Seyyid Abbas, whose ancestors were members of the Iranian Safavid dynasty, and had moved into the Talish region during the 1720s during a turbulent period in Iranian history. From the founding of the khanate, until 1828, it was ruled by subsequently by the Iranian Zand and Qajar empires. Following the Russo-Persian War of 1722-1723, Lankaran fell in Russian hands, but in 1732 it was ceded back to Iran per the Treaty of Resht. Following about another century of being back in Iranian hands, during the Russo-Persian War of 1804-1813, General Kotlyarevsky heading the southernmost Russian contingent during the war, stormed and captured Lankaran's fortress. Following the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813, it was returned and still remained part of Qajar Iran. However, per the outcoming Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828 that followed through the next and final war, the Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828, Qajar Iran was now forced to irrevocably cede the city to Russia.
Once absorbed into the Russian empire, it became a part of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic after the Russian revolution in 1917, and the short time as part of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. In 1991, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, it became a part of independent Azerbaijan.
There are sandy beaches near Lankaran. Thermal sulphide, chloride, sodium-calcium waters of Andjin (Upper and Lower) mineral springs are situated 12 km west of the town. Also to the west are the ruins of Ballabur castle, near the village with the same name.
The region has a vast area of national parks, where a variety of fauna and flora are preserved. Gizil-Agach State Reserve hosts over 250 kinds of plants, 30 species of fish and more than 220 kinds of birds. Lankaran is also known for Parrotia persica, or ironwood. It is naturally grown in the region and could be seen in Hirkan National Park. Local myth has it that it is the only wood that sinks in water, hence the name (ironwood). Historically it has been used for heating, since it burns for a long time and is not easily extinguished. The Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) subspecies of the leopard, lives in the national park as well. In 1937, members of the Opilio lepidus species of harvestman were sited in the area.
Lankaran has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), which borderlines the Mediterranean climate. Lankaran has cool, wet winters and very warm, dry/highly humid summers. The maximum annual precipitation of 1,600 to 1,800 mm, and is the highest precipitation in Azerbaijan.
|Climate data for Lenkaran|
|Average high °C (°F)|| 7.2
|Average low °C (°F)|| 0.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)|| 91
|Average precipitation days||10||10||11||8||8||3||2||4||7||13||12||9||97|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||105.4||98.9||124.0||171.0||226.3||282.0||306.9||254.2||189.0||127.1||99.0||108.5||2,092.3|
|Source #1: World Meteorological Organization (UN)|
|Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory(sun only)|
Dominating spheres in Lankaran economy are vegetable-growing, tea-growing, paddy cultivating, cattle-breeding, citrus plants, beekeeping, fishing, and grain farming. Favourable humid subtropical climate, availability of good arable land, water and sufficient labour resources of city provides a good basis for agricultural activities as well as development of agro-processing enterprises. The city is also home of Azerbaijan's first tea plant, built in 1937.
Lankaran is home to Azerbaijan's largest Talysh community.
The religion with the largest community of followers is Islam. The majority of the Muslims are Shia Muslims, and the Republic of Azerbaijan has the second highest Shia population percentage in the world after Iran. The city's notable mosques include Kichik Bazar Mosque and Boyuk Bazar Mosque.
Lankaran's cuisine has largely been affected by its multicultural history, hence the large variety of food originating during Talysh Khanate. Lankaran's signature cuisine includes lavangi, Lankaran kulcha, marji plov, white plov, pumpkin plov and turshu kebab.
Music and media
Lankaran is home to several national folk performers, including the Bacılar (The Sisters) national Talysh folk and dance collective.
The city has one professional football team competing in the top-flight of Azerbaijani football - Khazar Lankaran, currently playing in the Azerbaijan Premier League. Sporting venues in the city include the Lankaran City Stadium and Lankaran Olympic Sports Complex. The stadium was one of the venues for the group stages of the 2012 FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup.
Lankaran has a large urban transport system, mostly managed by the Ministry of Transportation.
The Lankaran International Airport is well served with connections to domestic and international destinations. The airport's international terminal was opened in September 2008 and the airport is set on its way for becoming one of the busiest hubs in Azerbaijan.
The following universities are located in Lankaran:
- Lankaran State University - Founded in 1991, Lankaran State University is Lankaran's first university to start courses.
Some of the city's many prestigious residents include: Major-General of the Soviet armoured troops during World War II Hazi Aslanov, General of the Artillery in the Imperial Russian Army Samad bey Mehmandarov, folk singer and theatre actress Jahan Talyshinskaya, social activist Maryam Bayramalibeyova, pop singer Ilhama Gasimova, weightlifter Turan Mirzayev, singer Hagigat Rzayeva and footballer Dmitriy Kramarenko.
- Maryam Bayramalibeyova, was social activist.
Twin towns — Sister cities
Lankaran is twinned with various cities.
- The central street of Lankaran
- Statistic: Azerbaijan – Statistics Archived June 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- lənkəran on ozaramizdi.org (Azerbaijani)
- Lənkəran haqqında tarixi coqrafi məlumat (Azerbaijani)
- А. Периханян (1982), Этимологические заметки // Историко-филологический журнал. Ереван. № 1, pp. 55-62
- History of Lankaran
- Timothy C. Dowling Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond pp 728-730 ABC-CLIO, 2 dec. 2014 ISBN 978-1598849486
- Nataly Y. Snegovaya (2007). "Two New Harvestman Species from Lenkoran, Azerbaijan (Arachnida: Opiliones: Phalangiidae)" (PDF). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society. 14 (2): 88–92.
- "World Weather Information Service – Lenkaran". United Nations. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- "Climatological Information for Lankaran, Azerbaijan". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- Business opportunities of the region
- Tea culture in Azerbaijan
- Juan Eduardo Campo,Encyclopedia of Islam, p.625
- "Culture in Lankaran" (in Azerbaijani). Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Azerbaijan to join Earth Hour". www.news.az. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- "IDEA campaign to hold Earth Hour action". en.trend.az. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- Azerbaijani Cuisine: Şirniyyat (Azerbaijani)
- Cuisine of Lankaran
- Azərbaycanın subtropik zonası (Azerbaijani)
- "Bacılar" talış folklor mahnı və rəqs kollektivi (Azerbaijani)
- "Radio-TV yayımı" (in Azerbaijani). Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Lankaran Olympic Sport Complex". www.noc-aze.org. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- "France end Asian domination". fifa.com. FIFA. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "Weightlifting Masters". Official Website of European Masters Weightlifting 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- Lənkəranda çay plantasiyalarının sahəsi genişləndirilir (Azerbaijani)
- History of Lankaran:Economy
- Turizm müəssisələri (Azerbaijani)
- (Azerbaijani) The Voice of Happiness and Optimism: Jahan Talyshinskaya by Afruz Mammadova. Musigi-dunya.az
- Асланов Ази Ахад оглы (in Russian). Heroes of the country.
- "We are heirs of victory" campaign started in Baku
- Города США и Азербайджана стали побратимами (in Russian). Retrieved 13 November 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lankaran.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Lankaran.|
- Official city webpage - (English version)
- Lankaran State University
- Soviet topographic map 1:100,000 (published in 1991)
- Satellite photo via Google Maps
- Lankaran (as Lənkəran) at GEOnet Names Server