This article is about the party founded in 2009. For the original party founded in 1991, see Lakas–CMD (1991).
Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats
Leader Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
President Ferdinand Martin Romualdez
Chairman Bong Revilla, Jr.
Secretary-General Jose Aquino II
Founded 1991 (historical)
2008 (modern)
Merger of Lakas–CMD and KAMPI
Ideology Christian democracy
Islamic democracy
Political position Centre-right
Colors                Blue, Gold, Green
Seats in the Senate
0 / 24
Seats in the House of Representatives
5 / 292
Provincial governorships
1 / 81
Provincial vice governorships
3 / 81
Provincial board members
18 / 1,006

Lakas–CMD (Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats) is a centre-right political party in the Philippines. Its ideology is heavily influenced by Christian and Islamic democracy. The current party originated in 2009 with the merger of the original Lakas–CMD party with the Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino (KAMPI); it was known as Lakas Kampi CMD until 2012. The party produced one president, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, who was president when the two parties merged in 2009.

With Arroyo unable to run for a new term due to term limits, the party lost the 2010 presidential election with Gilberto Teodoro as its presidential nominee. The party retained its two senators, both incumbents, in the Senate election and became a part of the Liberal Party-led majority coalition; in the House of Representatives election, it won 47% of the seats contested in the district election, but most of its members were split into three groups, with many defecting to the Liberal Party, some formed the National Unity Party, and the remaining members were split into the majority and minority blocs, with its members heading the minority. On May 11, 2012, the party decided to revert to its original name and drop Arroyo's KAMPI from the coalition.[1] Lakas–CMD is currently one of the parties in opposition. In 2013, Sen. Bong Revilla assumed the new chairman of Lakas party. He is supposed to be the standard bearer of the party in the 2016 Presidential Election prior to his detainment at PNP custodial center at Camp Crame due to pork barrel allegations.[2][3]


Lakas-CMD has always focused on economic growth and development, stronger ties with the United States, creation of jobs, and strong cooperation between the executive and legislative branches of government. It is known for its advocacy of a shift from the present presidential system to a parliamentary form of government through constitutional amendments and through establishing peace talks with Muslim separatists and communist rebels. The party democracy is distinct in its ecumenical inclusion of Muslim leaders in its political alliance.


Ramos administration

President Fidel V. Ramos, co-founder of Lakas NUCD.

Lakas ng Tao was formed in December 1991 for the 1992 elections as retired General, then-Defense Secretary, Fidel V. Ramos and former Cebu Governor Emilio Mario "Lito" R. Osmeña were running for president and vice-president respectively. It was also formed when Ramos bolted from the Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (LDP; Struggle of Democratic Filipinos), after he had lost in the bid for the presidency under that said banner to Speaker Ramon Mitra.

The party was formed out of two parties: Ramos's Partido Lakas ng Tao (People Power Party) and the National Union of Christian Democrats (NUCD) of Raul Manglapus. As they coalesced, the party became known as Lakas ng Tao-National Union of Christian Democrats, with Lakas ng Tao usually just shortened to "Lakas" and abbreviated as Lakas-NUCD.

In 1994, it formed a coalition government with the LDP for the 1995 legislative elections. This coalition, dubbed the "Lakas-Laban Coalition", won a majority in both Houses of Congress. In the 1997 Lakas National Convention, the party nominated House Speaker Jose de Venecia, Jr. of Pangasinan after a close nominal fight with then Defense Secretary Renato de Villa as its nominee to the presidency against the opposition's Vice President Joseph Estrada in the 1998 elections. By this time, it was joined by the Union of Muslim Democrats of the Philippines (UMDP) of former ambassasor to Egypt and Oman Sanchez A. Ali to form Lakas ng EDSA-National Union of Christian Democrats-United Muslim Democrats of the Philippines (Lakas-NUCD-UMDP).

Secretary de Villa eventually bolted the party and formed Partido ng Demokratikong Reporma (Democratic Reform Party) for the 1998 elections. Lakas also nominated then-Senator Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo of Pampanga as its candidate as vice president. Arroyo had originally intended to run for president under her party, Kabalikat ng Mamamayang Pilipino (KAMPI). De Venecia lost to Vice President Estrada by a significant plurality, while Arroyo won the vice presidency in the same manner while her KAMPI party was in hiatus.

Arroyo administration

In the 2004 elections, the name changed again to the current Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats, or Lakas-CMD. However, the meaning of Lakas in the party name is usually now referred to as "Lakas ng EDSA" which means "The Strength of EDSA" than the original Lakas ng Tao which means "The Strength of the People" or "People Power." This is also the name that it used when it ran in 2004 elections under the K-4 coalition. President Arroyo, who succeeded the deposed President Joseph Estrada, was the K-4 Coalition candidate for president in the 2004 election, eventually winning over her opponents primarily Fernando Poe, Jr. and Senator Panfilo Lacson.

At the onset of 2006, Lakas-CMD was torn by factional rivalry between supporters of President Arroyo and supporters of former President Fidel V. Ramos. Issues include transitory provisions in a proposed Constitution to scrap mid-term elections (or "no-el") set for 2007 and calls for her to step down in time for the elections, which is related to the "no-el" controversy. The party held its Annual Party Directorate Meeting on January 14, 2006 to discuss these matters.

There are no official results available of the 2007 elections released by the party but according to the Philippine House of Representatives, the party holds 79 out of 235 seats.

On January 16, 2008, Lakas spokesman and legal counsel Raul Lambino stated that Lakas-CMD officially released the list of senatorial bets for 2010—spokesman in 2010. Except for Parañaque Representative Eduardo Zialcita, they were not yet identified. But Lambino named incumbent Senators Ramon Revilla, Jr. and Lito Lapid, former senator Ralph Recto and former Congressman Prospero Pichay as among those considered.[4]

Former Speaker of the House Jose de Venecia, Jr. (Pangasinan -4th District) resigned his post as president of Lakas-CMD on March 10, 2008; he rejected the proposition of former president Fidel Ramos to give him the title Chairman-emeritus. The current Speaker of the House Prospero Nograles (Davao -1st District) was sworn it as the new president of Lakas-CMD party and former Speaker of the house Feliciano Belmonte, Jr. as vice president for Metro Manila affairs on the same day.

President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on June 18, 2008, confirmed the historical merger of the Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats (Lakas–CMD) and the Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino (KAMPI) parties. Both parties adopted the "equity of the incumbent" principle, as the merger would account for almost 200 national and 8,000 local officials, amid Mrs. Arroyo's prediction of 2010 elections victory. Prospero Nograles, Lakas President and Kampi Chair Ronaldo Puno signed the covenant at the Davao City regional caucus.[5][6] Former President and Lakas–CMD Chairman Emeritus Fidel V. Ramos announced on February 6, 2008 that Lakas–CMD would be the surviving entity after its merger with KAMPI.[7]

On August 9, 2009, Former House Speaker Jose de Venecia, Jr. and Former President Fidel V. Ramos led fifty members from the Lakas Kampi CMD in objecting to its merger with Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino (KAMPI) on May 28, 2009. The faction made de Venecia its President with Ramos as the Chairman Emeritus of the new party, Ramos refused the offer of Chairman Emeritus of Lakas-Kampi after being named in interim party organization. De Venecia has filed a resolution at the Commission on Elections to declare null and void the merger.[8] However, the Supreme Court ultimately upheld the legality of the merger,[9] citing the failure of de Venecia "to sufficiently show that any grave abuse of discretion was committed by the Commission on Elections in rendering the challenged resolution."[10]

Aquino III administration

Since Benigno Aquino III was sworn in as President of the Philippines on June 30, 2010, the majority of the former legislative member of Lakas-Kampi were sworn as a members of the reborn Liberal Party traditionally part of the Padrino System. In 2011, the legislators led by Pablo P. Garcia established the neutral National Unity Party, which has many similarities with the Nationalist People's Coalition. In 2013, the party suffered its largest decline, due to the arrest of the party's matriarch, Rep. Glora Arroyo; however the remaining party largely supports the United Nationalist Alliance, with candidates from among its former members such as Migz Zubiri, Richard Gordon and Mitos Magsaysay.

For the 2016 Presisential Elections, Lakas will possibly supports either Vice President Jejomar Binay or Sen. Grace Poe-Llamanzares.

Party officials

List of Party Chairmen

Candidates for the Philippine general election, 2010

Senatorial Slate (6)

Candidates for the Philippine general election, 2016

Senatorial Slate

Electoral performance


Election Candidate Number of votes Share of votes Outcome of election
2010 Gilberto Teodoro 4,095,839 11.33% Lost
2016 N/A N/A N/A supports Grace Poe and Rodrigo Duterte

Vice president

Election Candidate Number of votes Share of votes Outcome of election
2010 Edu Manzano 807,728 2.30% Lost
2016 N/A N/A N/A supporting Chiz Escudero, Bongbong Marcos and Antonio Trillanes


This chart shows the electoral performance of the Lakas Kampi CMD in Senate elections since 2010.

Election Number of votes Share of votes Seats won Seats after Outcome of election
2010 38,123,091 13.84%
2 / 12
4 / 24
Split; PMP-led coalition, lost
2013 Did not participate N/A
0 / 12
2 / 24
Liberal Party-led coalition
2016 13,056,845 4.08%
0 / 12
0 / 24

House of Representatives

This chart shows the electoral performance of the Lakas Kampi CMD in House of Representatives elections since 2010.

Election Number of votes Share of votes Seats Outcome of election
2010 13,242,191 38.62%
107 / 287
Split; Liberal Party-led coalition, lost
2013 1,472,464 5.34%
14 / 292
Split; Liberal Party-led coalition, lost
2016 573,843 1.54%
4 / 297
PDP-Laban-led coalition


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