In 1882, the Hokkaido region was separated into three prefectures — Hakodate Prefecture (函館県), Sapporo Prefecture (札幌県), and Nemuro Prefecture (根室県). In 1886, the three prefectures were abolished, and Hokkaido was put under the Hokkaido Agency (北海道庁). At the same time, Kushiro Province continued to exist for some purposes. For example, Kushiro is explicitly recognized in treaties in 1894 (a) between Japan and the United States and (b) between Japan and the United Kingdom.
- 1869—use of the name Hokkaido started
- August 15, 1869 Kushiro Province established with 7 districts
- 1872 Census finds a population of 1,734
- July 1881 Abashiri District (網尻郡) incorporated for Abashiri District (網走郡), Kitami Province
- 1882—prefectures established
- 1886—Hokkaido Agency established
- 1947—Hokkaido Prefecture established
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Hokkaido," Japan Encyclopedia, p. 343.
- Satow, Ernest. (1882). "The Geography of Japan" in Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, Vols. 1-2, p. 88., p. 33, at Google Books
- Hokkaido Regional Development Bureau, "History of Development in Hokkaido,"; retrieved 2013-3-22.
- US Department of State. (1906). A digest of international law as embodied in diplomatic discussions, treaties and other international agreements (John Bassett Moore, ed.), Vol. 5, p. 759.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
- Papinot, Edmond. (1910). Historical and Geographic Dictionary of Japan. Tokyo: Librarie Sansaisha. OCLC 77691250