Not to be confused with Gremlin (disambiguation).
This article is about Russian fortresses. For the kremlin in Moscow, see Moscow Kremlin. For other uses, see Kremlin (disambiguation).
The Moscow Kremlin, which is the most well-known one.
A wall of Smolensk Kremlin in 1912.
Remains of the Kolomna Kremlin.
The bishop residence in Rostov, sometimes called a Kremlin

A kremlin (Russian: кремль, tr. kreml; IPA: [ˈkrʲemlʲ], castle; same root as in kremen (Russian: кремень, tr. kremen; IPA: [krʲɪˈmʲenʲ], flint)) is a major fortified central complex found in historic Russian cities. This word is often used to refer to the most famous, the Moscow Kremlin, or metonymically to the government that is based there.

The short list of Russian cities with kremlins

Kremlins outside borders of modern Russia

After the disintegrations of the Kievan Rus, the Russian Empire and the USSR, some fortresses considered Kremlin-type, remained beyond the borders of modern Russia. Some are listed below:

The same structure in Ukraine is called dytynets (Ukrainian: дитинець, from dytyna - child). The term has been in use since the 11th century. The term Kremlin first appeared in 14th century in Russian territories, where it replaced dytynets.

Many Russian monasteries have been built in a fortress-like style similar to that of a kremlin. For a partial list, see Monasteries in Russia.

Further reading

See also

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